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banana split essay Hanna-Barbera , and of Family Values, and Media Essay ran for 31 episodes on romeo the film, NBC. NBC Saturday mornings , from September 7, 1968, to September 5, 1970. The costumes and Influence of Family Children Essay sets were designed by Sid and Marty Krofft. Sid and substructure Marty Krofft and the series' sponsor was Kellogg's Cereals . The show featured both live action and animated segments and was Hanna-Barbera’s first foray into mixing live action with animation. CONTENTS* 1 History and description * 1.1 TV movie * 1.2 2008 revival * 2 Cast * 3 Music * 3.1 Covers * 4 Comics * 5 Home Media releases * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORY AND DESCRIPTIONIn 1967, William Hanna. William Hanna and Joseph Barbera. Joseph Barbera approached Sid Krofft and Marty Krofft to and Media Upon Children, design costumes for a television show which would feature animated and live-action segments, with the whole show hosted by a science a bubblegum rock group of anthropomorphic characters. Superman (1978), starring Christopher Reeve . Donner later went on to direct such films as The Goonies (1985) and Scrooged (1988), while reinvigorating the of Family Values, and Media Children Essay buddy film genre with Lethal Weapon (1987) and its sequels . Substructure! He and Influence of Family Violence Upon his wife, producer Lauren Shuler Donner , own the production company The Donner's Company, which is most well known for producing the on motivation X-Men film series . In 2000, he received the President's Award from the Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy instead, the Salkinds replaced Donner as director of Superman II with Richard Lester. Richard Lester , who had worked with the Salkinds on The Three Musketeers and The Four Musketeers and as an uncredited producer on Superman. Following Donner's dismissal, Marlon Brando's scenes were removed from Influence Violence and Media, Superman. Superman II and much of the film was re-shot under Lester's direction.

Vampire Hunter D , Crying Freeman. Letter Essays! Crying Freeman and Lily C.A.T. Of Family Values, And Media! . Winkless died of a brain tumor on June 26, 2006, 24 days after his 65th birthday . He is survived by his three brothers and his wife Rayonelle Baldwin. Terence H. Sociology Is Not A Science! Winkless Winnetka, Illinois , before continuing to the USC School of Cinematic Arts , and an Internship at the AFI Conservatory on the film Soylent Green with director Richard Fleischer. Richard Fleischer under the aegis of of Family Violence Children Essay, AFI consultant Charlton Heston. Essays! Charlton Heston . CAREERWinkless directed the Influence of Family Children Essay short movie Foster's Release in 1971, featured at the Edinburgh Film Festival, L.A. Filmex, and the Chicago Film Festival, among others. Foster's Release dealt with often told story of the baby sitter receiving phone calls from what we presume is a pervert, based on the voice and lewd nature of the calls. only to discover that the caller is in the house. TOMS Shoes Essay! The Paul Winchell Show , which also used two other titles during its prime time run on NBC. NBC , The Speidel Show, and What's My Name? . From 1965–1968, Winchell hosted the children's television series, Winchell-Mahoney Time.

Winchell made guest appearances on Violence Upon Children Essay, Emmy Award-winning television series from the late 1950s to the mid 1970s, such as Perry Mason , The Dick Van Dyke Show , McMillan his grandparents were Jewish. Is Not A Science! Jewish immigrants from Russian Poland and Austria-Hungary . Winchell's initial ambition was to become a doctor, but the Depression wiped out any chance of his family's ability to afford medical school tuition. At age 13, he contracted polio ; while recovering, he happened upon a magazine advertisement offering a ventriloquism kit for ten cents. Back at school , he asked his art teacher, Jero Magon, if he could receive class credit for Influence of Family Violence Children Essay, creating a ventriloquist's dummy. Essays! Mr.

Magon was agreeable, and Winchell named his creation Jerry Mahoney, by way of thanks. Toledo, Ohio , the only child of Violence Upon Children, Charles Allen Butler and Ruth Butler. The family later moved from Ohio to substructure, Oak Park, Illinois, where Butler got interested in impersonating people. In 1935, the Influence of Family Values, Violence and Media Upon future voice master started as an impressionist , entering multiple amateur contests and winning most of TOMS Shoes Public Campaign Essay, them. Kansas City, Missouri , to Richard and Marie Melvin and Influence of Family Values, Violence Children Essay raised in New York City. New York City by his paternal grandparents, Frank and Helen (nee Campbell) Melvin. Romeo! He attended Columbia University . After graduation, he served in the United States Navy.

United States Navy during World War II and married his wife, Amalia Faustina Sestero, in March 1944 in New York City. While working at a job in the sound effects department of NBC Radio, he did a nightclub act and Influence of Family Values, and Media Upon Children Essay appeared and essays won on Influence Values, Upon Essay, the _Arthur Godfrey’s Talent Scouts _ radio show. While appearing on Broadway in _Stalag 17 _, he got his break into substructure construction, television by Influence Values, and Media Upon Children getting the essays role of Corporal Steve Henshaw on the popular _ The Phil Silvers Show _ program. TV fans of this era usually best remember his role as Henshaw, Sergeant Bilko ’s right-hand man on Violence, that show. Substructure! Tiny Toon Adventures _ and Dr. Benton Quest in _ Jonny Quest _. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Career * 2.1 Early work * 2.2 At Hanna Barbera from its beginning * 2.3 _Scooby-Doo_ and later roles * 3 Retirement and death * 4 Legacy * 5 Filmography * 5.1 Radio * 5.2 Films * 5.3 Television * 6 References * 7 External links EARLY LIFE _ THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (April 2017)_Messick was born in Buffalo , New York , the son of of Family Violence Essay, Binford Earl Messick, a house painter, and Lena Birch (nee Hughes) The Tra La La Song (One Banana, Two Banana) Mark Barkan and Ritchie Adams , who were the show's music directors. However, there are claims that the theme was written by jingle writer N. B. Pastor's Essays! Winkless, Jr. of the Leo Burnett Agency but was credited to Adams and Influence of Family Violence and Media Essay Barkan for contractual reasons. In 1995, Hollywood Library released the 1,000-copy limited-edition CD reissue We're the Banana Splits/Here Come the Beagles which, in addition to Pastor's Letter Essays, the original album version, includes an alternate version on the song.

COVER VERSIONSAmerican punk rock band The Dickies made the song a hit in the United Kingdom in Influence Children Essay 1979 with their cover version, marketed by A * ^ CD liner notes: Saturday Morning: Cartoons' Greatest Hits, 1995 MCA Records * ^ The Billboard Hot 100 Chart Listing for Week Ending February 8, 1969, Billboard.com * ^ The advertising man behind Snap, Crackle, Pop wrote The Tra La La Song, MeTV, June 6, 2016. Website design, code, and AI is Copyrighted (c) 2014 -2015 by Stephen Payne.

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Social Work Advocacy Essays and Research Papers. the topic of of Family Upon Children Essay advocacy in health and social care. Use these articles in conjunction with the module materials to discuss how . advocacy can increase the substructure construction, power of service users when engaging with health and social care services. Influence Of Family Values, And Media Upon. At some point in people’s lives, they will find themselves in a situation where they may need to Pastor's Letter, participate in decision-making about of Family Values, Violence Upon, their care and and juliet, this essay looks at how advocacy can increase the power of service users when engaging in health and social care services. Decision making , International Federation of Social Workers , Social justice 2367 Words | 7 Pages. ?History of social work influences current professional practice In this essay I will outline the Upon Children, historical origins of . social work in Ireland. I will examine how the TOMS Public Relations Campaign Essay, profession emerged from charity work in Influence of Family Values, and Media Upon the 19th century to evolve into the profession it is romeo and juliet the film today. To begin with it is important to define the term social work . The Oxford English Dictionary (1989) defines social work as ‘ work of benefit to those in need of help, especially professional or voluntary service of Values, and Media Children Essay a specialised nature.

International Federation of Social Workers , Social sciences , Social work 1689 Words | 5 Pages. There is a crisis in substructure social work which requires a radical analysis of the contradictions within contemporary social . work . Values, Violence And Media Upon Children. The confusion about the role of social work and the declining morale and TOMS Shoes Relations, self-confidence of social workers have resulted in of Family Upon Children Essay the loss of experienced staff and reluctance of young people to consider a career in social work . This analysis inevitably challenges the Public Campaign Essay, present culture of professional training. Influence Of Family Violence And Media Upon Children Essay. Proposals to increase the professionalism among social workers have created. International Federation of romeo the film Social Workers , Social justice , Social work 1817 Words | 4 Pages. A career in social work gets people involved the community and of Family Violence Children, the world. Social work is a profession . that helps to improve problems faced in society in order to make it better and more civilized. Going into this project I knew all of the common and substructure, most basic information about social work . But, as I began to research more on Influence of Family Violence and Media, the profession if social work , I learned more than I actually thought I knew. Social work is a great profession that involves people helping people and improving the lives of.

Education , Profession , Social sciences 844 Words | 3 Pages. essay is to explore and outline the role of the social worker. As Mark Dole highlighted, the role of a social worker is a . complex and misunderstood role within a contemporary society. The role of the social worker ranges from being a wise eyed idealist to a realist. Social work is misunderstood by essays the public and media. Influence Of Family Violence Children Essay. Mark Dole in his book on skills required for social worker (2011) quotes Margaret Thatcher who famously said: ‘anyone could be a social worker: all that was needed was time on their. International Federation of Social Workers , Social change , Social justice 2491 Words | 7 Pages.

Social Work Although a numerous amount of career choices pop up in my head, I really want to be a Social worker. Substructure Construction. . I want to be a Social worker mainly because it would allow me to make a fundamental difference in the life of someone else and that’s all I can ever ask for. Of Family Violence Upon Essay. Social workers work in all fields. A Social worker can work in Essays a school, a hospital, for the state, or any non-profit organization. If and when I do become a Social worker, I’ll always be on the move. I’ll work with a variety. Employment , International Federation of Social Workers , Social change 774 Words | 3 Pages. CODE OF ETHICS OF SOCIAL WORKERS WHAT IS A CODE OF CONDUCT / ETHICS? The Code of conduct for social workers is a list of . statements that describes the Influence, standards of professional conduct required of social workers when carrying out their daily activities. On Motivation. |The code of ethics applies to social workers, student social workers and social auxiliary workers | It guides all social workers when - • conducting research; • providing direct service; . Ethics , International Federation of Social Workers , Social work 858 Words | 5 Pages. Man is primarily a member of a social community. He should not only Influence Values, Upon Children be concerned about valley civilization, himself but also for Influence of Family Values, Violence Upon Children the welfare and development of . society as a whole. Shoes Campaign. It is Influence of Family Violence Children truly said that “Jana-Seva” is “Janardhana-Seva”.

The feeling of self-satisfaction that comes when one sees the unshed tears of substructure construction joy in of Family Values, Violence Upon Essay the eyes of TOMS Relations one whose hunger has been appeased, whose thirst has been allayed and whose needs are fulfilled is indeed heavenly. Influence Of Family And Media Upon Essay. Why we should do social service: Man lives in the society. He learns. Social work , Sociology 1403 Words | 5 Pages. What have I learned from Social Work ? A little knowledge that acts is worth infinitely more than much knowledge that is idle. Civilization. . Of Family Values, Violence And Media Essay. - Kahil Gibran Social work has offered me the tools to work with communities and individuals through the process of change. Public. By standing with (beside and behind) those with whom I work , I can offer insight, support and Influence and Media Children Essay, advocacy to communities who hope to build the frameworks for change. Social Work has taught me about the systems that inform and indus valley language, structure peoples. Critical social work , Knowledge , Learning 1509 Words | 5 Pages. discuss the role of a social worker as well as demonstrate the importance of set professional values within the profession of . Of Family Values, And Media Children. social work . The term social work can refer to many things; there is no one objective definition of social work . Politically speaking it could be described as a political entity, therefore making it a questioned matter. Romeo And Juliet The Film. However according to Influence of Family Values, Violence Upon Children Essay, the international association of schools of social work and the international federation of substructure construction social workers, social work has clearly been described. International Federation of Social Workers , Social change , Social justice 972 Words | 3 Pages.

Origins Social work with people with mental illness, known initially as psychiatric social work , . began in the 1950s at the six county psychiatric hospitals across Northern Ireland (Herron 1998). Influence Values, Violence And Media Essay. These hospitals were administered by the Regional Health Authorities, whilst the new psychiatric social workers were out-posted from the County Welfare Authorities. The introduction of generic social work under the Seebohm reforms into Northern Ireland in 1972 coincided with the a science, establishment of the integrated. Approved Social Worker , Medicine , Mental disorder 1522 Words | 5 Pages. Master's of Social Worker program Everyone is embedded with things that make them unique.

As individuals we each bring something new, . creative, and different to the table. Influence Of Family Children Essay. In identifying my personal strengths and Essays, challenges as an advanced generalist social worker I feel I have the most experience with the of Family Values, Upon Children Essay, attributes I've identified as my strengths. Shoes Public Campaign. Personal challenges to me are areas where we would like to excel, but still need improvement. To do this, I use my strengths to work with and ultimately. International Federation of Influence Values, Violence and Media Upon Children Social Workers , School social worker , Social justice 2525 Words | 7 Pages. “Values and ethical in social work practice” An ethical dilemma exists: When the social worker must choose . between two or more relevant, but contradictory, ethical directives, or when every alternative results in an undesirable outcome for one or more persons. Several value systems and ethical practices impact the social worker intervention and outcome. Values and ethics are closely related .Values are a society's system of beliefs ,principles and traditions that guide behaviors and practices.

Business ethics , Ethics , Morality 2286 Words | 7 Pages. Exploration of a Profession: Social Work Interview Julie Simmons University of North Carolina at Pembroke . Exploration of a Profession: Social Work Interview If you walk into on motivation, most Social Institutions where Social Workers are employed there always seem to be a few things that they have in common: adults, children and Influence Violence Children, a variety of facial expressions. Some faces hold despair, some hold smiles and some hold frustrated looks. What does this all mean and what in the world does it have to. Caseworker , International Federation of Social Workers , Mental disorder 2092 Words | 6 Pages. In this essay I am going to critic, evaluate and analyse direct payments and the implications they have had on social work . practice. The Direct Payments Act 1996 enabled local authorities to sociology a science, offer cash in lieu of of Family Values, and Media Upon social services.

They were introduced for adults of working age in April 2007 and extended to include older disabled people in essays 2000. Since April 2001 direct payments have also been available to parents of Violence and Media Children disabled children, 16 and 17 years and construction, carers. Direct Payments have also been extended. Social work , Sociology 1651 Words | 6 Pages. Methods of Social Work Social work as a profession is a product of this century.

Although its roots . are well established in history from the time when people 1st began to take responsibility for their neighbors through activities which were called charity, poor relief, philanthropy and social reform . Social work is to Influence of Family Violence and Media Upon Children, fight against indus language Five Evils as: 1. Of Family And Media Children. Physical want 2. Disease 3. Ignorance 4. Squalor 5. Idleness Objective: • To remove social injustice • To relieve social injustice • To. Management , Policy analysis , Social change 521 Words | 3 Pages. Medical Social Work Through reading the text book and and juliet the film, listening to the information given by of Family Values, and Media the speaker in class, it has become . very clear that social workers play a significant role in the medical field. Essays. Specifically, social work is of particular importance when working with families where a serious illness has occurred. While the speaker, Jamie, spoke mostly about intervening with families in which the Influence of Family and Media Upon Children Essay, serious illness directly affected a child, the text book gave other examples that also help. Family , Hospital , Illness 1470 Words | 4 Pages.

Social workers in all branches of the is not, military are helping families and military personnel prepare for, and cope with, the hardships of Values, Violence and Media Upon Children war. . They do so through a range of preventive and clinical services provided by the Veteran Administration with many different types of programs, including family-support and mental-health counseling. The mission statement of the VA Social Workers is to eliminate significant barriers to indus valley language, clients in need and offer interventions for veterans and families. It is accomplished. Health care , International Federation of Social Workers , Military of the United States 1996 Words | 5 Pages. head: BOUNDARY ISSUES IN SOCIAL WORK Boundary Issues in Social . Work : Its implication for Social Workers Florida Atlantic University Boundary issues in social Work : It implication for Values, Violence Essay social workers Reamer’s article entitled. “Boundary issues in social work : Managing dual relationships.” provides an overview of boundary issues in sociology is not a science social work , and also stresses the fact that social work literature clearly demonstrates.

Ethics , Human sexual behavior , Human sexuality 2066 Words | 6 Pages. The development of Influence of Family Essay Social Work in the United Kingdom, United States and Australia has developed and evolved, influencing people . and Essays, professionals across the world. Social Work has advanced through welfare policies and programs with significant historical changes occurring and a shift in Influence Values, Essay religious and political views allowing these changes to benefit members of society and address social issues. Key events such as the Elizabethan Poor Law, the industrial revolution, the first charity organised society. International Federation of Social Workers , Poverty , Reform movement 1723 Words | 5 Pages. drawn to social work . Social workers are highly trained professionals who care about people, who want to make . things better, and sociology is not, who want to relieve suffering. There are over a half million professional social workers in the United States who have all committed their lives to making a difference. • Who Are Social Workers? • Examples of Social Work Jobs • Social Work Standards • Education, Licensing, and Credentials • Social Work Salaries • Additional Resources Who are Social Workers. International Federation of of Family Essay Social Workers , School social worker , Social work 1923 Words | 6 Pages. that are implicity granted to groups of TOMS Public Relations Campaign people who reflect a site of dominance (p22 unit 2) Formal and informal power structures (p.29) How . social social influences what I know Resilance Bell Hooks discusses the of Family Values, and Media Upon Children, importance of how students and educators need to create a “learning space that can be both life sustaining and mind-expanding: where we all work together to support one another.

Arney Mindell also talks that “the well-being of our communities depends upon representation from all community. Aboriginal peoples in Canada , Community , First Nations 465 Words | 3 Pages. Social Work as a Developing Profession. 1. Social Work as a Developing Profession Social Work as a Profession * What is a profession . * No clear definition of the term profession * Describing its attributes * By most criteria and the film, definitions, social work meets the requirements * Greenwood’s trait-attributes (1957) 1. Influence Of Family Violence. Systematic theory * Worked hard to develop this attribute * Continuing – complexity of humanity and other factors * Process of knowledge development (process model) 2. Authority . International Federation of indus language Social Workers , Social sciences , Social work 1771 Words | 7 Pages. Advocacy in relation to Influence of Family and Media Upon Children Essay, social work Advocacy can be defined as ‘pleading the case of another’ or as . a means of indus valley transferring power back to the client to enable them to control their own affairs. Social workers interview their clients and sometimes liaise with other professionals in order to assess their needs and draw up a plan of action. When a social worker takes on Violence and Media, a case, the first thing they have to TOMS Public Relations Campaign, do is make an assessment, that is, decide on Values, Violence Upon Essay, the appropriate course of action. It may be a question. International Federation of Social Workers , Social work , Sociology 516 Words | 2 Pages.

BS Social Work -1 Agree or Disagree Social work is a profession that’s centred . Indus Civilization. around people. This profession works to protect vulnerable people. But being a social worker is a dangerous job. To be a social worker you need to Children, be able to manage a heavy workload and manage time effectively. Social work can be emotionally demanding. Dealing with other people pain and suffering is demanding. Being a social worker is language very stressful. You need to enhance many skills in social work which.

International Federation of Social Workers , Social justice , Social work 833 Words | 3 Pages. ?The social work profession emerged in the early nineteenth century as charitable organizations began employing trained workers . rather than relying on volunteers. This was a century when disease, laziness, poverty and others were exposed as social evils that needed to be addressed. The movement to stamp out these social evils began with philanthropist women, joined later by Influence of Family Children Essay charitable organizations and subsequently by the film the state or government itself (Gorsky, 1999). The philanthropic women who began.

International Federation of Social Workers , Social work , Sociology 1681 Words | 6 Pages. ?Challenging Oppression – A Critical Approach to of Family Violence and Media Upon Children Essay, Social Work (Bob Mullaly) Oppression is a state of being kept down by and juliet force . or authority. Personally Constructed Theory Social Work is practiced based and Influence Violence Upon Essay, pursues the following to lead to well-articulated practice (functions of theory) - description, explanation, prediction, control and and juliet the film, management of of Family Values, Violence Children events and changes. There is much discussion regarding the indus valley, nature of, dynamics, forms, functions and causes of oppression however there is. Intersectionality , Oppression , Psychological abuse 593 Words | 3 Pages.

types of clients with whom I want to work with, in the field of social work , is one of the most important decisions . ever, regarding my career. Influence Of Family And Media Children Essay. From as early as childhood, I have always known that I want to work with children in whatever career I chose. Starting my career as a social worker and working with children and families is where I feel as though I belong. I would be the least comfortable working as a criminal justice social worker. Geriatric social work is sociology is not a science another population that I would feel. Family , International Federation of Social Workers , Social justice 918 Words | 3 Pages.

? A social worker is someone that is employed to provide social services to people, especially the disadvantaged. There are many . Influence Of Family Violence Upon. different types of indus civilization language social workers. Values, Violence And Media. There are social workers in administration policy and Pastor's Letter, research. They do research for Influence of Family Violence Upon Children Essay stuff like questioning diagnostics of substructure construction anxiety in guardianship. There are also child, family, and school social workers. They often work with families that have had problems with abuse or lose of a home; they also work with families that have serious mental. Death of Baby P , Herbert Laming, Baron Laming , International Federation of Social Workers 2913 Words | 7 Pages. of Ethics In the Violence and Media, “Code of Ethics” for the Social Work Profession there are six Ethical principles that apply to everyone in Shoes Relations Campaign the . profession. And Media Upon Children Essay. It is important for all social workers to know the values that are listed in the Ethical Principles of the Code of sociology is not Ethics for the Social work Profession.

Values are a societies system of beliefs, principles, and traditions that define and influence behaviors and practices among people. It is of Family Values, Upon Children important for all social workers to know the indus civilization, values that are listed. Ethics , International Federation of Social Workers , Morality 1741 Words | 4 Pages. Social Work, Othering and Disability. to have a disability.

Disability can often be seen as a form of social deviance, and so, because of this, the disability community can be . othered and excluded within mainstream society. This essay will give examples of how othering occurs and how othering could be avoided, when working as a social worker with people with disabilities. Of Family Violence Upon Children Essay. Social workers have an extremely important role in the lives of people with a disability. Social workers are often a person with a disability’s voice and advocate. Developmental disability , Disability , Down syndrome 1846 Words | 6 Pages. Social Work in a Digital Age: Ethical and Risk Management Challenges Sung Sun MGMT 4330 July 28, 13 Article Summary Long . time ago, social workers began their work always used typewriters; hard copy and services were provided to consumer in offices or homes. On Motivation. Now social workers have the option to communicate with consumer on social networking, they provide online services to people.

They don’t meet in person. The electronic records in the virtual “cloud”, E-mail, and text messages with consumer. Business ethics , Electronic commerce , Ethics 1021 Words | 4 Pages. Can social work profession replaced by non social work profession? ? Social work has been a profession early in the twentieth century after the Influence Values, and Media Children Essay, soar of social work . education and well-organized charities (Richard, 2008). It was contributed by the charities workers, Abraham Flexner (an expert of professional education) and Essay, Ernest Greenwood who evaluated social work as a profession (DuBois Miley, 1992). The following discussion will explain more about the reason why non- social work professionals are not suitable or incapable of playing the roles and function of social. International Federation of Social Workers , Master of Social Work , Policy analysis 1182 Words | 3 Pages. well-being. At this stage of my life Social Work is what I am most interested in practicing because it provides opportunities . for and Media Children Essay me to essays on motivation, work in many different settings with people whose problems, issues and of Family Values, Violence and Media Upon Essay, needs are diverse.

My second choice would then be guidance counseling which is the process of helping individuals discover and develop their educational, vocational, and psychological potentialities and thereby achieve an optimal level of personal happiness and essays on motivation, social usefulness. Of Family Violence Upon. I am interested in. International Federation of Social Workers , Psychology , Psychotherapy 877 Words | 3 Pages. On Social Theory In Social Work We know where we have been, where we are now and where we need to go - but how do . we get there? A map. Shoes Public Relations. Theory is a map. It notes any number of Influence Values, and Media Children Essay known landmarks (previously achieved or applied solutions) and obstacles (issues or problems) and gives us direction so that we are able to navigate intelligently and arrive safely (minimal discomfort to valley language, all) at our destination (desired outcome/s).

Theory is an attempt to explain the unexplained, to give title to the untitled. Critical social work , Explanation , Science 1151 Words | 4 Pages. Defining Social Work Social Work is a professional service, committed to helping vulnerable . Of Family Values, And Media Children. service users to promote positive changes in their lives. TOMS Shoes Public Relations Campaign. A Social Worker will help them to address their problem/s and Influence of Family Values, Children, aims to assist a service user to overcome serious difficulties in their lives, providing care, protection or counselling through social support. Social Work practice consists of the professional application of valley Social Work values, skills and Influence of Family Values, Upon Children, techniques.

The main five core values of a Social. Abraham Maslow , Fundamental human needs , Maslow's hierarchy of needs 1564 Words | 5 Pages. Brandy Casey is a social worker currently working at romeo the film The Department of Human Services in Influence Values, and Media Upon Portland Oregon. She received her Bachelor’s and . Master’s degree in social work at the film Western Oregon University. She has worked in numerous counseling jobs around Portland.

Brandy states, however she always find herself winding back up with Child Protective Services or DHS State Of Oregon. Violence And Media Children. Question One: What kind of Pastor's Essays training is required to become a Social Work ? Brandy replied To become a social worker you are. International Federation of Social Workers , Oregon , Portland State University 981 Words | 3 Pages. ? The History of Social Work Code of Ethics Abstract Every professional . organization is governed by professional ethics or a code of conduct. The organization I chose to of Family Violence and Media Upon Children, discuss in regards to ethics is the National Association of Social Workers or commonly known as NASW.

A code of conduct is intended to romeo and juliet, be a central guide and Influence Violence Upon Children Essay, reference for users in support of romeo and juliet day-to-day decision making. It is meant to clarify an organization's mission, values and principles. Business ethics , Ethics , International Federation of Social Workers 758 Words | 3 Pages. Social work values and ethical dilemmas What are values, ethics, ethical dilemmas and of Family Values, Violence Upon Children Essay, a code of ethics? Values relate to . Construction. principles and attitudes that provide direction to everyday living. Of Family Values,. Values also refer to beliefs or standards considered desirable by a culture, group or individual (AASW).

Similar to and juliet, values, but slightly different, ethics means a system of beliefs held about what constitutes moral judgement and of Family Values, Upon Children, right conduct, they are moral principles (rules, guides) (AASW). So an ethical. Decision making , Ethics , Morality 1366 Words | 5 Pages. In psychology and social work , dual relationships and clinical boundaries are often common. They are often unclear and most times . the professional has a difficult time noticing them developing.

Ethical dilemmas are found in all professions, but are often different in type and solutions. They are hard to romeo the film, identify and even harder to Violence Upon, make a clear decision. Sociology A Science. Dual relationships and clinical boundaries are one of the Values, Essay, biggest ethical dilemmas social workers face because of the difficulties of valley civilization finding the. Business ethics , Ethics , Interpersonal relationship 2089 Words | 6 Pages. Social Worker/Agency Interview Kathy Whitten SCWK 530 October 3, 2012 Dr. Influence Of Family And Media Upon Essay. Anna Martin-Jearld Social Worker/Agency . Interview The Journey I chose to interview Mark Duney from Harbor Counseling Services for my assignment. Because I had never taken public transportation before it took some research to figure out where the Gatra runs and how do I get there because, of civilization language course, it doesn’t run right out in Influence of Family Violence and Media Children Essay front of my house. I walked downtown, about a half a mile, to where the Gatra stop was near. International Federation of Social Workers , Psychotherapy , Social work 2180 Words | 6 Pages.

Two Perspectives of Engagement with Clients One thing that makes social work stand out from TOMS Campaign, other professions is the . Influence Of Family And Media Upon Children. relationship that a social worker builds with their client. It is an important factor but can also be very challenging at on motivation times. Influence Of Family And Media Essay. There are several stages to the social work treatment process. Those stages include; engagement, assessment, intervention, and termination (USC VAC, 2013). It is Shoes Public Relations Campaign Essay vital that a social worker begin to develop a relationship with their client during their first. Culture , Emotion , Empathy 1955 Words | 5 Pages. Theories, models and Influence Values, Upon, perspectives - Cheat sheet for field instructors Major Theories – Used in Social Work Practice ? Systems . Theory ? Psychodynamic ? Social Learning ? Conflict Developmental Theories ? Theories of construction moral reasoning (Kohlberg, Gilligan) ? Theories of cognition (Piaget) ? Transpersonal theories of human development (Transpersonal – means beyond or through the persona or mask. Going beyond identity rooted in the individual body or ego to Influence of Family Values, and Media Upon Essay, include spiritual experience or higher levels. Behavior , Developmental psychology , Developmental stage theories 1311 Words | 5 Pages.

SOCIAL WORK SKILLS Beginning During the beginning phase, you introduce and identify yourself and seek introductions from . And Juliet. prospective clients and involved others. Following the exchange of introductions, you describe a tentative initial purpose for the meeting, possibly identify one of more professional roles that you might undertake, orient participants to Influence of Family Values, Upon Children, the process, and identify relevant policy and ethical factors that might apply. Throughout this beginning process, you regularly seek feedback. English musical groups , Evaluation , Goal 1827 Words | 6 Pages. Social Work Rape and Letter Essays, Sexual Assualt. because only Influence and Media Upon around 6% of rapists ever spend a day in jail. The statistics surrounding crimes related to rape are remarkably disappointing and reveal the . drastic need for intervention and improvement. Programs need more funding, awareness, and advocacy . Services need to focus more on Letter, individualized help that pertains to Values, Children Essay, the rehabilitation of each victim. For instance, The Rape Abuse amp; Incest National Network, RAINN, has a broad spectrum of services they attempt to cover within their program. Crime , Rape , Sexual assault 1359 Words | 4 Pages.

This essay will discuss social divisions; social exclusion and social inclusion, of which there are many . On Motivation. definitions and interpretations. Social divisions and of Family Essay, Social exclusion has been around for many years. Social exclusion was first noticed in indus France in 1970s in relation to people who fell outside the range of the social insurance system, such as disabled people, lone parents and Influence of Family Violence Upon Essay, the young unemployed (Townsend and Kennedy, 2004). Before 1997 Social exclusion was referred to as ‘poverty’, which. Homelessness , Poverty , Social class 1633 Words | 5 Pages. 2010 The field of social work is constantly being influenced by new theories and ideology that affects how . Pastor's Letter. social worker’s engage and Influence Values, Violence and Media Upon, interact with their clients. Indus Valley Civilization Language. The new ideology of the of Family Values, Upon, theories can impact the values of social worker’s. The purpose of this paper is to explore and inform how the substructure, concepts of Violence and Media Upon Children relationship or alliance with clients from the work of the RCT theorist, Judith Herman, and Paulo Freire has influenced my values and developing sense of social work practice.

As a student. Cognitive behavioral therapy , Complex post-traumatic stress disorder , Paulo Freire 1618 Words | 5 Pages. As an undergrad social work student at romeo and juliet University of Values, Violence Upon Essay Texas-Arlington we are taught how to become a generalist . social worker. Becoming a generalist social worker will provide us with a broad range of skills to work with micro, mezzo and macro groups from all different ethnicities, ages, and is not a science, religions. Professors here at UTA teach us many different models and theories that we can use as tools to work with our clients or groups successfully. A newer social work perspective that I would like to discuss. Empowerment , International Federation of Influence Values, and Media Social Workers , Social theory 1428 Words | 5 Pages.

values play in social work practice, one of the Pastor's Essays, first things to understand is what our values are, Thompson (2000) states that . One of the significant features of values is that we tend to become so accustomed to our own values and beliefs that we do not recognise that they are there or how they are influencing us. An important step, then, is to be clear about Influence Values, and Media Upon Children, what our values are. Thompson (2000,pp33) I will discuss both the Relations, personal and professional values that influence social work practice and Influence Children, discuss. International Federation of Social Workers , Social justice , Social work 1598 Words | 5 Pages. Mississippi Valley State University College of Education Pre-Field Seminar Educational Social Worker Submitted to Dr. Baxter Wright . by sociology is not Britany Roland March 1, 2013 Abstract Educational Social Workers typically pick up outside the classroom where the teacher leaves off. The help those students transition from Middle School/Junior High to High School, help them deal with various psychosocial issues, find solutions to Values, Upon, problems with academics, coping skills, and helping identify those. Education , Education and training occupations , High school 1460 Words | 5 Pages. from abuse but thanks to social workers and other judicial people, there were laws passed (Pfohl). This paper is sociology is not a science going to explain why it is so . important for social workers to protect kids by talking about this history of abuse and why social workers need to be around. It will also discuss what social workers do today to prevent kids from being hurt.

Social workers are useful in just about every aspect of life but in my opinion this is one of the more important jobs of Values, and Media Upon Children a social worker because your protecting. Adoption , Child abuse , Domestic violence 1024 Words | 3 Pages. Introduction As part of substructure our preparation for placement, we were required to make a role play on Influence Children Essay, a given scenario in pairs. Each of us had to play the substructure construction, role of . the social work student and the service user. We chose to Violence Upon, use Miss Allen’s scenario, because we both had experience of working the adults. In preparation for this task, we met twice to clarify our roles and discussed the scenario as we understood it. We also discussed how we were going to assess Miss Allen, and indus, what help we would offer her. International Federation of Social Workers , Question , Social work 1258 Words | 4 Pages. ?The career that I want to and Media Children, pursue is social work . I enjoy talking to people, helping them with their problems, and try to make . their bad days better; I already have some trained skills, which I have learned in places that I did some volunteer work in the past. I also worked babysitting children of civilization different ages and tutored others in some basic subjects.

My experience of having my own small business plus all the volunteer work in Influence of Family Violence and Media the places I mentioned above, gave me a head start by assisting individuals. International Federation of Social Workers , Social work , Sociology 1216 Words | 3 Pages. Women studies, social work, mental health. Roles, Functions Skills of a Social Worker in romeo and juliet Maternal Health presented by MCCSWD 2013. Terminologies ? ‘Maternal health . Influence Of Family Violence And Media Upon Children. refers to the health of and juliet the film women during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period. While motherhood is often a positive and Influence of Family and Media Children Essay, fulfilling experience, for too many women it is on motivation associated with suffering, ill-health and even death’ - World Health Organization ? Skills ,‘The ability to do something well; expertise’ ? Functions, ‘An activity or purpose. Abortion , Childbirth , Daniel Inouye 560 Words | 6 Pages. As an undergrad social work student at University of Influence Upon Essay Texas-Arlington we are taught how to become a generalist . social worker. Becoming a generalist social worker will provide us with a broad range of skills to work with micro, mezzo and macro groups from and juliet the film, all different ethnicities, ages, and religions. Influence Values, Violence And Media Upon Essay. Professors here at UTA teach us many different models and theories that we can use as tools to work with our clients or groups successfully.

A newer social work perspective that I would like to discuss. International Federation of Social Workers , Social theory , Social work 1327 Words | 4 Pages. Experience in School Social Work As a member of the student services team, school social workers are a link . between the home, school, and the community. School social workers work within multi-cultural contexts with the Pastor's Letter Essays, social functioning and social conditions/environments of Values, Upon Children students to promote and on motivation, support the student's academic and social success. They advocate for Violence and assist students to accomplish tasks associated with their learning, growth, and essays on motivation, development toward a fuller realization of their.

Family , International Federation of Social Workers , Psychotherapy 2384 Words | 7 Pages. Social Work Law This assignment involves a case study where Ralph, a fourteen year old boy, is Influence Values, Upon currently in foster care . because his mother; Kerry, felt she was unable to control him due to his behaviour. However, Kerry has now expressed that she is unhappy with this foster placement and has requested that her son be returned to live with her and his two younger brothers. The scenario becomes more complex owing to the fact that Ralph has disclosed that his mother had regularly hit him with a walking. Children Act 1989 , Children's rights in the United Kingdom , Contact 2151 Words | 7 Pages. welfare in a healthy and safe environment. This action plan is designed to work in a more holistic nature and Pastor's Letter Essays, be more ‘child centred’ . Influence Of Family Values, And Media Upon. promoting a happy safe environment for the child, supporting the child in areas of social and emotional wellbeing, healthy eating e.g. Healthy eating vouchers, no tolerance to construction, bullying. 1.3 Analyse how national and local guidelines, policies and of Family Values, and Media Upon, procedures for safeguarding affect ‘day to on motivation, day work with children and young people. As it is the responsibility that anyone.

Abuse , Childhood , Health sciences 700 Words | 3 Pages. Individual Uniqueness and of Family Children, Social Work. time. Within this paper, I define what I believe to be my own master status, alone with its stigmas and privileges. This paper also examines how ones . individual experiences and definitions of TOMS Public Essay differences affect how you as a social worker. Individual Uniqueness and Social Work Society has influenced the Influence and Media Children Essay, masses, whether those influences were positive or not are up for interpretation. It attempts to categorize the world into simple black or white. According to society if it were not one extreme it. Asian American , Ethnic group , Social sciences 1493 Words | 4 Pages.

Basic ICT Concept and is not, the Applicability to Social Work Practice Computer is becoming increasingly relevantly to our everyday . life, computer is responsible to and Media Upon Children, store large amount of information, retrieve selected information easily and perform complex calculation quickly. (Holden and Munnelly 1998, p.50) In our modern economy many of the Relations Essay, goods we consume and services we use would not have been available if not because of computer. Of Family Violence Upon Children Essay. This essay aims to on motivation, discuss my understanding of some basic concepts. Computer , Computer network , Computer program 1209 Words | 3 Pages.

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Write a Cover Letter to Introduce a Resume. In response to your employment listing in the (Name of Newspaper), I am writing today to submit my resume in of Family application for Pastor's Letter Essays the position of (Name of Position). As my resume demonstrates, my previous work experiences have enabled me to of Family and Media, gain a deep and diverse understanding of the mindset and skills needed to succeed as a (Name of Position). These experiences, combined with my ability to Shoes Essay, adapt to a wide variety of Influence of Family Essay, circumstances and to manage many responsibilities while nurturing necessary lines of communication with others, make me a very suitable candidate for your open position. If this possibility interests you, I would welcome the opportunity to discuss the matter further. Please feel free to contact me at any time; I am available for a phone conversation or office visit most days during the week. Essays? Thank you very much for your time and consideration. Thank you for Influence Violence Children Essay faxing me the job description for sociology is not the Springfield City auditor position. I am enclosing a brief resume outlining my experience in both business and city planning. I have had significant experience with budgets at the state level and understand both state and federal regulations.

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23 March 1940 Pakistan Resolution Day Speech in English. Pakistan Day 23rd March , is a very historical day in Pakistan#8217;s building story. Pakistanis immortalize the Values, Upon Children Essay day every year as a actual day of the #8220;making of Pakistan#8221;. It was 23rd March when a historical Resolution wide known as #8216;Lahore Resolution#8217; was authorized. The Resolution cast off the conception of a science United India and encouraged the of Family Values, and Media creation of an autonomous Muslim state consisting of Punjab, NWFP, Sindh and Baluchistan in the northwest, and indus valley civilization language Bengal and Assam in the northeast. Influence And Media Upon Children Essay? 23 March Pakistan Resolution Day Speech in English. The Resolution was seconded by Maulana Zafar Ali Khan from Punjab, Sardar Aurangzeb from the NWFP, Sir Abdullah Haroon from Sindh, and Qazi Esa from Baluchistan, along with many others.

It laid down only the precepts, with the details left to be worked out at a future date. Sociology Is Not A Science? It was made a part of All India Muslim League#8217;s establishment in 1941. More significantly, it was on the basis of this resolution that in 1946 the Muslim League decided to go for one #8220;maverick#8221; state for the Muslims, instead of two. Having passed the Pakistan Resolution, the Muslims of India altered their ultimate goal. They set out on a path whose goal was a separate country of origin for the Muslims of India, in lieu of seeking union with the Hindu community. Different participating leaders of the session of All-India Muslim League held on March 23, 1940, letting in of Family and Media Children Essay, the Quaid-i-Azam, agreed that India was never united; rather it was split between Muslim India and Hindu India and it would remain so in the future. The 23 march pakistan resolution day quotes are fended for the speech that will be read among thousands of students.

The entire outlooks, customs and construction customs of Influence Violence Upon Children cultures of these two different nations were different anyway. They were different not only in their religious beliefs, but their entire mode of life bore a different imprint. The words of the Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah in his presidential address to the session carried a far deeper impression on the crushed and demoralized Muslims at the hands of ruthless and despotic Coition rule. Mr Jinnah said: #8220;The Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs and literature. They neither intermarry nor inter-dine together, and indeed they belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on Shoes Essay, conflicting ideas and conceptions.#8221; Such a far-reaching speech by Mr Jinnah paved the way for the demand of a separate independent homeland for the exploited Muslims of India, who believed their rights and privileges could not be guarded under a parliamentary form of Influence of Family Values, and Media Children government. They also realized that the essays bloody brutes of the majority without any democratic traditions turned the Hindu rulers tyrannical in of Family and Media Upon Essay, their behavior and due to missing of any administrative experience they acted in a way that could be unacceptable in a democratic society.

One of the key demands made in the Pakistan resolution moved by chief minister of Bengal Maulvi Fazl-ul-Haq on March 23, 1940, was that no constitutional plan would be workable in this country or acceptable to the Muslims unless it was framed on sociology is not a science, the followed basic principles. We will update pakistan resolution day 23 march 1940 essay and speech on Influence of Family Upon Children, 23 march in english for children on this page. 23rd March Resolution Pakistan Essay English. Those geographically contiguous units are demarcated into regions, which should be constituted with such territorial readjustments as, may be necessary. Public Relations? That the areas wherein the Influence Violence and Media Upon Muslims form majority as in the North-Western and Eastern zones of essays on motivation India be grouped together to constituted #8216;independent States#8217; in which the constituted units shall be autonomous and Influence Values, Violence Upon Children Essay sovereign. That adequate, effective and mandatory safeguards be specially provided in the constitution for minorities in these units and in the regions for TOMS Shoes Relations Essay, the protection of their religious, cultural, economic, political administrative and other rights of interests in consultation with them and in other parts of India where the Muslims form minority. Having analyzed the crux of the resolution, one comes to a conclusion as to it (the resolution) laid emphasis on a necessity of Influence Violence and Media Upon Children Essay separate Muslim-state for substructure, the Muslims of India by grouping the North-Western and Eastern zones of Influence of Family Violence Upon Essay India where they were in majority, constitutional protection to minorities and their rights-cum-interests.

Passing of the Lahore Resolution, which was dubbed by the Hindu and the British press as #8216; The Pakistan Resolution #8216;, ended in a great hue and cry in the Hindu, Sikh and British circles. The Indian press found a new target to incessantly make evil designs and unfurl campaigns against the Muslims and leaders of the Muslim League. Letter Essays? Mr. Gandhi declared that partition would mean suicide and the Two-Nation Theory was an unreality. The vast majority of Muslims of India area concerts to Islam or are the descendants of the Influence of Family Values, Violence and Media Upon Children Essay converts. In consequence, they did not make a separate nation as soon as they become converts, he maintained. Others who flatly opposed the Lahore Resolution were Raj Gopal Achari, B R Ambedkar, Master Tara Singh, Nationalist Muslim group. On the other hand, the resolution was massively bolstered by sociology is not, many other noted leaders representing different provinces of India, who unanimously adopted it. Sindh too lead, which passed a resolution for Pakistan. Till now, the resolution is Violence Upon Children Essay, deemed to and juliet, be the quintessence of goal-orientation of untiring and unfailing struggle of Indian Muslims, dating back to of Family Violence Upon Essay, 1857. One of the major impacts of the resolution was that under the leadership of towering personality in Mr.

Jinnah not only it did stimulate the Muslim middle classes to unprecedented political action, but also it caught the TOMS Relations Essay imagery of the people of all classes of Muslim community It was the Influence and Media Children Essay resolution, which made the Muslims of romeo the film India discern their own destiny and spelled out destination and route of action for them to Influence of Family and Media, a separate Muslim-state. After the downfall of Muslim conglomerate, it was first time that the resolution proved a #8216;line of direction#8217; for Pastor's Letter, drifting Muslims. The resolution not only injected new blood into the veins of the Indian Muslims to speed up their struggle to their destiny, but also regenerated their slow-down political activity for self-determination in the areas where they made a numeral bulk.

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economics aqa essays 1010 N HANCOCK ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19123, USA. Copyright 2017 ghostwritingessays.com. Economics Aqa - Ghost Writing Essays. This Answers book provides answers for the questions asked in the workbook. They are intended as a guide to give teachers and of Family Violence and Media Essay students feedback. The candidate responses supplied here for the longer essay-style questions are intended to give some idea about how the exam questions might be answered.

The examiner commentaries (underlined text) have been added to give you some sense of what is rewarded in the exam and which areas can be developed. Again, these are not the only ways to answer such questions but they can be treated as one way of approaching questions of civilization language, these types. Influence Of Family Upon? Topic 1 The firm: objectives, costs and revenues 1Both private and public companies are privately owned capitalist business enterprises. The difference stems from their ownership. Private companies are owned by private shareholders who can choose the buyer of their shares. Public company shares are listed on the stock market, which means that they have to comply with the rules of the stock market and any member of the public can buy shares in construction, the company. An excess of sales receipts over the spending of a business during a period of time, which can be calculated using the formula: profit = revenue – costs. 3At any level of output, revenue is calculated by Influence of Family Values, Violence Children Essay multiplying output by Pastor's Essays the price at which each unit of output is sold. In perfect competition, because it is always possible to increase sales revenue by selling more units of output, the revenue-maximising level of output does not exist. In other market structures, including monopoly and oligopoly, marginal revenue falls as more units of the good are sold.

Revenue maximisation occurs at the level f output at Violence Upon, which marginal revenue is zero (MR = 0). By contrast, in all market structures, including perfect competition, profit maximisation occurs at the level of output at which marginal revenue equals marginal cost (MR = MC). 4An entrepreneur decides on questions such as how, what, where, how much and when to substructure produce. Entrepreneurs decide how to employ the Influence of Family Values, Children factors of and juliet, production, and of Family Children they bear the Public Relations business’s financial risks. In small businesses, the Values, and Media Upon Essay entrepreneur is often the founder of the TOMS Essay firm, building the business by of Family Values, Children Essay investing his/her own time and money. The entrepreneur directly manages the business and takes the important decisions about its direction and strategy.

5The management could control information and take decisions without the shareholders being able to influence the decision or even being aware of an issue. 6The key difference between the short run and the long run relates to whether factors of production are fixed or variable. In the short run, at least one factor of romeo and juliet the film, production (usually assumed to be capital) is fixed. Labour is assumed to be variable. In the long run, all factors of production are variable and none is fixed. This question is the obverse of question 6. A fixed factor of Values, Violence Children Essay, production is one that cannot be increased in the short run, normally land and capital. A variable factor of production, normally labour, can be increased in the short run. 8The law of diminishing returns sets in when units of a variable factor of production, such as labour, are added to fixed factors of production. Eventually the extra output (marginal returns) produced by the marginal worker falls to be less than the marginal product of the previous worker added to the labour force. (i)The firm increases the scale of production and experiences a more than proportionate increase in output. (ii)The firm increases the TOMS Shoes Relations Campaign scale of production and experiences a proportionate increase in output. And Media Upon? (iii)The firm increases the and juliet the film scale of production and experiences a less than proportionate increase in output. 10 [pic] 11Average variable costs are total variable costs divided by the size of output. Average total costs are total costs divided by the size of output.

A firm’s average total costs can also be calculated by adding its average fixed costs to its average variable costs. 2Technical economies of scale occur when a firm’s production methods benefit significantly from increasing to a larger scale. The productivity increases experienced by a firm in traditional economic theory stem from the of Family and Media Children Essay larger scale of production allowing for a greater division of labour and improved specialisation. Hence the firm experiences a technical improvement in production and more than proportionate output gains. An example is provided by Henry Ford’s adoption of substructure construction, assembly-line production in his car factories in the early years of the Influence of Family Violence Upon Essay 20th century. A bulk-buying economy of and juliet, scale occurs when a firm gets a discount as a result of buying raw materials or capital goods in bulk. For example, a school may be able to buy 100 computers at ? 300 each, whereas a single computer would be priced at ? 600. 13(i) If a firm in a perfectly competitive market sets its price above P1, the Influence of Family Violence and Media Upon Children Essay ruling market price, it will not sell any of its products. This is because its products are identical to those of its competitors, and buyers who possess perfect market information and will buy from the TOMS Campaign cheaper rival firms selling at the ruling market price. ii) If the firm sets its price below P1 it will sell all of its output, but it will not be maximising profit.

There is no sense in doing this, given that an infinite number of customers are willing to buy the good at the higher price of P1. 14You can understand this question by referring back to Influence of Family Values, Violence and Media Upon Children Essay the answer to question 3. As long as marginal revenue is positive (at all levels of output below Q1), the monopoly can increase sales revenue by producing and selling more. But when marginal revenue is negative (at all levels of romeo, output above Q1), the monopoly can increase sales revenue by producing and Influence Values, Violence and Media Children Essay selling less. Exam-style answers (essay) 01The laws of diminishing returns and returns to scale are both parts of and juliet the film, production theory. (The law of diminishing returns is also known as the law of Values, Violence Essay, diminishing marginal productivity. ) Production theory explains the sociology is not relationship between inputs into the production process and the output of goods or services that results. The inputs are the services of the factors of production that the firm employs. Children Essay? The basic nature of production is shown in the diagram below. [pic] Production theory divides into short-run production theory and long-run production theory. The law of diminishing returns is a short-run economic law, whereas returns to scale occur in the long run. Romeo And Juliet The Film? The law of diminishing returns has the Influence Upon Essay status of an economic ‘law’, because in on motivation, the short run at least one of the of Family Values, Violence Upon Essay factors of the film, production (usually assumed to be capital) is held fixed. Influence Violence Essay? This means that the valley civilization only way a firm can increase output in Influence Violence Upon, the short run is by adding more variable factors, e. g. labour, to fixed capital. Eventually, as labour is added to fixed capital, an Pastor's Essays extra worker (the marginal worker) gets in the way of the already existing labour force and the additional output attributable to the marginal worker begins to fall.

This is of Family Values, Upon Children when the law of diminishing returns has set in. Indus Valley Civilization? Returns to scale by Influence Violence contrast occur in the long run when all the factors of on motivation, production increase. Influence Of Family Violence And Media Upon Children? The firm increases its scale or size of operation. If a doubling of all the is not a science inputs (factors of Influence of Family and Media Upon Essay, production) leads to indus language a less than doubling of Violence and Media Upon Children, output, decreasing returns to scale have set in. (Other possibilities are increasing returns to scale and constant returns to scale. ) To understand the relationship between the law of diminishing returns and short-run cost curves, consider the diagram on the next page. The upper panel of the diagram shows the marginal and average returns (or productivity) of labour. TOMS Campaign Essay? Diminishing marginal returns begin at point A. Influence Of Family Violence Children? Increasing marginal productivity of labour (or increasing marginal returns) is shown by the positive (or rising) slope of the Public Relations Campaign marginal product curve, while diminishing marginal returns are represented, beyond point A, by the curve’s negative (or falling) slope. But once the law of diminishing returns has set in, short-run marginal costs begin to rise. This is shown by the upward-sloping section of the MC curve in the lower panel of the diagram.

And as soon as MC rises through the average variable cost (AVC) curve (and later the average total cost (ATC) curve), the two average cost curves begin to Values, rise. This means that the AVC and the ATC curves are U-shaped. [pic] Just as short-run cost curves are derived from the short-run law of diminishing returns, so long-run cost curves result from the nature of returns to scale. When a firm changes the scale of all the factors of production in construction, the economic long run, it is Influence of Family Violence Upon Children Essay usual to assume that to romeo and juliet start with it benefits from increasing returns to scale but that eventually decreasing returns to scale set in. Given this assumption, the firm’s long-run average cost (LRAC) curve is U-shaped, as shown in the diagram below. However, other assumptions about the impact of returns to scale on long-run production would lead to different possible shapes of the LRAC curve. [pic] The mark scheme for Influence of Family Violence Upon Children Essay the first part of an essay question is ‘issue based’. Indus Valley Civilization Language? The mark scheme sets out Influence Values, Children Essay, all the issues deemed to be relevant to the question and indicates the maximum marks that can be awarded for each issue. When added up, the total available mark is usually higher than 15 (the maximum mark for the first part of an essay question). When an answer scores more than 15 marks, the actual mark awarded is constrained to the maximum of essays on motivation, 15. This is the case with this answer. All four parts of the question are addressed accurately, earning well over 15 marks. Values, Essay? The maximum mark of 15 is sociology awarded.

02Large firms are sometimes and perhaps often better than small firms, but they are not always better. The main reason why large firms can be better than small firms stems from the fact that in many industries, e. . Of Family Violence Upon Children? mass car production, firms benefit from increasing returns to scale as the size or scale of the firm increases. As the final diagram in the answer to construction question 01 indicates, increasing returns to scale translate into economies of scale when measured in terms of long-run average costs of production. Economies of scale are defined as falling long-run average costs of production, whereas diseconomies of scale are rising long-run average costs of production. Increasing returns to Influence Values, and Media Upon Children scale mean that as plant size increases, a firm can combine its inputs in a technically more efficient way. As a result average costs of production fall.

This means that large firms, particularly in manufacturing, can benefit from technical economies of scale. Many types of plant or machinery are indivisible, in the sense that there is a certain minimum size below which they cannot operate efficiently. A firm requiring only a small level of output must therefore choose between installing plant or machinery that it will be unable to use continuously, or using a different but less efficient method to produce the smaller level of output required. Large firms can also benefit from volume economies of scale. With many types of capital equipment (for example, metal smelters, transport containers, storage tanks and warehouses), costs increase less rapidly than capacity. When a storage tank or boiler is doubled in romeo the film, dimension, its storage capacity actually increases eightfold.

Since heat loss depends on Influence and Media Essay the area of the container’s walls (which will only have increased fourfold) and not upon volume, a large smelter or boiler is technically more efficient than a small one. Volume economies are thus important in industries such as transport, storage and valley civilization language warehousing, as well as in metal and chemical industries, where an increase in the scale of plant provides scope for of Family Values, Violence Upon Essay the conservation of heat and energy. When there are substantial economies of scale available to a firm, its LRAC curve will look like the Pastor's one in diagram (a) of the following: [pic] When firms can benefit from substantial economies of scale (and economies of Values, Violence Children, large-scale production), this will benefit firms. The gain in TOMS Shoes Essay, productive efficiency achieved from a large scale of operation means that profits will be larger for large firms than for small firms. However, the opposite will be true if diseconomies of of Family Values, Violence and Media, scale set in early on as a firm increases its size. Essays? Economies of small-scale production (as depicted in diagram (b)) show that small firms producing at Q1 are more productively efficient than large firms. This is likely to be the situation in personal service industries such as building customised furniture for clients. A range of other issues are also relevant to this question. Firms may grow large in order to exploit the monopoly power that large size often gives to firms. The firms may benefit from monopoly profit, but their consumers suffer from unnecessarily high prices, restricted choice and general consumer exploitation.

The large profit and market power that large firms often enjoy may be used to finance innovation and the benefits of dynamic efficiency which, if passed on to consumers, means that they also benefit. On the other hand, this might not happen; large firms may simply enjoy an easy life, content with a degree of X-inefficiency (unnecessary costs of production). In conclusion, the answer to the question depends on the assumptions made about whether economies of scale are possible, the Influence Values, and Media Upon Children Essay motives of firms, and the extent to which they can exploit monopoly power to the detriment of consumers. It is useful to divide large firms with monopoly power into those that are fully unified and technically integrated firms and those that are not. A fully unified or technically integrated firm is one that grows because it organises production in the film, a productively efficient way in order to reduce average costs and increase profits. If monopoly power results, it is almost by accident. Providing it ‘behaves itself’ when large size gives it monopoly power, the firm, consumers and the public interest all benefit.

By contrast, if a firm grows (usually by takeover rather than through organic growth), its main motive may be to exploit consumers. Clearly such firms are not ‘best’. The mark scheme for the second part of an and Media Children essay question is ‘level of skill based’. Having read the whole answer, the examiner places the answer in one of five levels. These are: • Level 1 — very weak Level 2 — weak with some understanding • Level 3 — reasonable including some correct analysis but very limited evaluation • Level 4 — good analysis but limited evaluation or reasonable analysis and reasonable evaluation • Level 5 — good analysis and sociology good evaluation This answer has been awarded a mark at Influence of Family Violence and Media Upon Children, the top of level 4 in the AQA mark scheme. The levels descriptors in the mark scheme are used for the second parts of Pastor's Letter Essays, all essay questions (and also all part 03 and 06 context data response questions at A2).

The level 4 descriptor is: A2 |AO1 Knowledge and Influence of Family and Media Upon Essay |AO2 Application of theories,|AO3 Analysis of economic |AO4 Evaluation of economic | |Levels mark scheme |understanding of theories, |concepts and terminology |problems and issues |arguments and evidence, | | |concepts and terminology | | |making informed judgements | |Level 4 |Good throughout the answer |Good application to issues |Relevant and precise with a |Limited but showing some | |17–21 marks |with few errors and essays |Where appropriate, good use |clear and logical chain of |appreciation of alternative | |(mid-point 19) |weaknesses |of data to support answer |reasoning |points of view | | | | |There is Influence Values, Children good awareness of | | |Good analysis but limited | | |the interrelatedness of | | |evaluation | |Some good application to |economic issues | | | | |issues |Largely relevant and well |Reasonable, showing an | |or |Good throughout much of the indus civilization language |Where appropriate, some good|organised with reasonable |appreciation of alternative | |Reasonable analysis and |answer with few errors and |use of data to support |logic and Values, Violence and Media Upon Children Essay coherence |points of view | |reasonable evaluation |weaknesses |answer |There is some awareness of | | | | | |the interrelatedness of | | | | | |economic issues | | The answer displays both good analysis and good evaluation, but does not quite reach level 5. Although analysis of romeo and juliet, economies and diseconomies of scale is excellent, the of Family Values, Violence and Media Children analysis on sociology monopoly is too thin, based on assertion rather than rigorous development and and Media Essay application of economic theory. Hence the answer is construction placed at the top of level 4 rather than level 5. Topic 2 Competitive markets 1It is impossible for human beings to possess perfect information about what is happening in a market. With the possible exceptions of currency and share markets, it is unrealistic to assume that all goods and services are identical, uniform or homogeneous. 2Motorists can research similar car models in trade magazines and on the internet to get a picture of the price of cars depending on age, mileage, condition and Influence Values, Violence Essay availability. 3Whenever marginal revenue exceeds marginal cost (MR gt; MC), selling an extra unit of output always increases total profit. The extra unit adds more to essays on motivation revenue than it does to Values, Violence Children Essay costs. Substructure Construction? But whenever marginal revenue is Values, Violence Upon Essay less than marginal cost (MR lt; MC), selling an extra unit of output always reduces total profit. The extra unit adds more to costs than it does to revenue. It follows that only when marginal revenue equals marginal costs (MR = MC) are profits maximised.

Normal profit is the level of Public, profit made by a firm that provides just sufficient incentive to stay in the market. As a profit level, it is of Family Values, and Media Upon Children not high enough to and juliet the film attract new firms into the industry to compete with existing firms, or low enough to force firms out of the of Family Violence Children market. Substructure Construction? Supernormal profit is Influence of Family Values, Upon excess profit over and above normal profit. If there are no significant barriers to market entry, supernormal profit will attract new firms to is not a science enter the market and compete for customers. This should drive prices down until surviving firms make normal profit only. 5When the price of Values, and Media Essay, a good is greater than the marginal cost of production, the result is allocative inefficiency because the price charged by Public Essay firms will be greater than the cost of making the last unit. This indicates that the firm is over-charging consumers. Hence not enough of the of Family Values, Violence and Media Essay good is demanded and society’s scarce resources are not properly allocated between competing uses. Allocative inefficiency occurs when P gt; MC or P lt; MC.

For any given employment of resources and sociology is not any initial distribution of income and wealth among the population, total consumer welfare can increase if resources are re-allocated from markets where P lt; MC into those where P gt; MC, until allocative efficiency is achieved when P = MC in all markets. 6Price competition occurs when firms seek to reduce costs and gain customers by offering products at the lowest possible price. By offering the good at a low price they hope to create an of Family Violence and Media incentive for indus valley language the consumer to buy the product. Quality competition is when a firm seeks to sell a product to consumers on the grounds that it is superior quality when compared to rival products. In this case the firm’s product may be more expensive than rival goods but the firm’s business strategy aims to attract consumers by offering better quality, whether this be in Values, and Media Upon Children, design, materials, service and/or build quality. 7The internet breaks down geographical frontiers, which enables buyers and sellers to engage in Pastor's Letter, national and international markets. This has made some markets bigger and helped fulfil the Influence of Family Violence and Media Upon assumption that there are a large number of TOMS Public Relations, buyers and sellers.

Internet search engines and comparisons have allowed both business and consumers to move closer to Violence and Media Children Essay the perfect information assumption. Consumers can more easily compare prices and this has helped to increase competition, although human decision making is still bounded by limited time and constraints on the level of detail that comparison websites provide. Exam-style answers (essay) 01Perfect competition is construction a market that meets all the six conditions that define the market structure. These are: (i) a very large number of buyers and sellers; (ii) each with perfect market information; (iii) each able to buy or sell as much as it wishes at the ruling market price determined in he market as a whole; (iv) individual buyers and sellers unable to influence the ruling market price through their own actions; (v) a uniform or identical product; and (vi) an absence of Influence of Family Violence Children, barriers to entry into and exit from the market in the long run, i. e. complete freedom of entry and exit. A barrier to entry prevents new firms from indus valley, entering a market. Taken together, these conditions tell us that a perfectly competitive firm, whose AR and MR curves are depicted in panel (a) of the diagram below, faces a perfectly elastic demand curve for its product. The demand curve facing the firm is located at the ruling market price, P1, which itself is determined through the interaction of market demand and market supply in the market as a whole, which is illustrated in panel (b) of the Influence of Family Values, Children diagram. [pic] The assumption that a perfectly competitive firm can sell whatever quantity it wishes at indus valley language, the ruling market price P1, but that it cannot influence the ruling market price by its own action, means that the firm is a passive price-taker.

Condition (iii) of the conditions of perfect competition tells us that a perfectly competitive firm can sell as much as it wishes at the market’s ruling price. But, given that it can sell as much as it desires at Values, Violence and Media Upon Essay, the market’s ruling price, how much will it actually wish to produce and sell? Providing we assume that each firm’s business objective is solely to maximise profit, the answer is shown in panel (a) of the next diagram: [pic] Panel (a) in the diagram above adds the perfectly competitive firm’s average total cost (ATC) curve and its marginal cost (MC) curve to the revenue curves shown in the earlier diagram. On Motivation? Point A in panel (a) (at which MR = MC) locates the profit-maximising level of output Q1. At this level of output, total sales revenue is Influence of Family Values, Violence Upon Essay shown by the area OQ1AP1. Total cost is shown by the area OQ1BC1. Supernormal profits (measured by subtracting the total cost rectangle from the total revenue rectangle) are shown by the shaded area C1BAP1. Referring back again to the list of the conditions of perfect competition, we can see that although firms cannot enter or leave the market in the short run, they can do so in the long run (condition (vi)). Suppose that in valley civilization, the short run, firms make supernormal profit.

In this situation, the ruling market price signals to firms outside the market that an incentive exists for new firms to enter the of Family Values, Violence Children Essay market. Sociology Is Not? The next diagram shows what might then happen: [pic] Initially, too many new firms enter the market, causing the supply curve to shift to the right to S2 in panel (b) of the Values, and Media Upon Essay diagram. This causes the Relations Campaign Essay price line to fall to P2, which lies below each firm’s ATC curve. When this happens, firms make a loss (or subnormal profit). Influence And Media Upon Children Essay? But just as supernormal profit creates the incentive for new firms to indus enter the market, subnormal profit provides the incentive for marginal firms to leave the market. In panel (b) the market supply curve shifts to the left and Influence and Media the market price rises. Eventually, long-run equilibrium occurs when firms make normal profit only. Relations Campaign? For the market as a whole, this is shown at output Q/// and Values, Violence price P3.

This answer is similar to the answer written for the Topic 1 exam-style essay question in that it includes more than enough coverage of romeo and juliet the film, issues to earn all the Influence Violence Children Essay available 15 marks. The candidate starts the answer with a list of the conditions of perfect competition. Weak answers frequently go no further than this. However this answer uses the conditions as prompts for developing the analysis required of a good answer to this question. Further good points are devoting more or less equal space to both the whole market and to one firm within the market, and to the use of relevant and accurate diagrams to illustrate the analysis. The maximum 15 marks are awarded. Shoes Public Relations Campaign Essay? 02In economics the word ‘efficiency’ has several meanings. For example: Technical efficiency.

A production process is technically efficient if it maximises the output produced from the available inputs or factors of production. Productive efficiency or cost efficiency. To achieve productive efficiency, a firm must use the techniques and factors of production that are available, at lowest possible cost per unit of output. In the short run, the lowest point on the relevant short-run average total cost curve locates the most productively efficient level of output for the particular scale of operation. X-efficiency. This occurs when a firm has eliminated all unnecessary costs of production, which means that it must be producing on and not above its average cost curve. Allocative efficiency.

This occurs when it is impossible to improve overall economic welfare by reallocating resources between industries or markets (assuming an initial ‘fairness’ in the distribution of income and wealth among the Violence Children Essay population). For resource allocation in the whole economy to be allocatively efficient, price must equal marginal cost (P = MC) in each and every market in the economy. Pastor's? Dynamic efficiency. All the forms of efficiency mentioned above are examples of Influence Violence Children, static efficiency, i. e. efficiency measured at a particular point in time. By contrast, dynamic efficiency measures improvements in technical and productive efficiency that occur over a science time. Improvements in dynamic efficiency result from the introduction of better methods of producing existing products (including firms’ ability to benefit to a greater extent from economies of scale), and also from developing and marketing completely new products.

The diagram below shows that a perfectly competitive firm achieves both productive and Values, allocative efficiency in the long run, but only under the assumption that there are no economies of scale. The firm is productively efficient because it produces the optimum output at on motivation, the lowest point on the ATC curve, and it is allocatively efficient because P = MC. Values, Violence Upon Essay? In long run or true equilibrium, a perfectly competitive firm must also be X-efficient. The reason is simple. If the firm is X-inefficient, producing at a level of unit costs above its ATC curve, in the long run the firm could not make normal profits. In a perfectly competitive market, to survive and make normal profits, a firm has to eliminate organisational slack or X-inefficiency. Romeo? [pic] The first sentence in the previous paragraph asserted that perfect competition is efficient provided there are no economies of scale.

Consider now a situation, shown in the final diagram below, in which the market is too small to allow a large number of firms each to achieve all the economies of scale that are possible. [pic] For a firm to benefit from Influence Values, and Media Upon Children Essay, economies of scale to the full, and is not hence to be productively efficient in the long run as well as in the short run, its short-run cost curve would have to be positioned at SRATCN, or indeed further to the right than this. The problem is that the market is too small to allow both full economies of scale and the large number of firms required for perfect competition to be achieved. Long-run productive efficiency requires a monopoly market structure (natural monopoly). By contrast, perfect competition requires each of Influence Values, Upon Children Essay, a very large number of firms to be producing on a short-run average cost curve such as SRATC1. On such a curve, the perfectly competitive firm is indeed productively efficient in indus civilization language, the sense that it achieves short-run productive efficiency, but it is producing way below the and Media Children level of output that is productively efficient in the long run when scale economies are benefited from to Pastor's Letter Essays the full. In conclusion, a perfectly competitive firm can be efficient when judged against the criteria of productive, X, and Influence of Family Values, Violence and Media Essay allocative efficiency, but only in the short run. Unlike a monopoly, a perfectly competitive firm cannot achieve long-run productive efficiency through the pursuit of economies of scale. Finally there is another argument, so far not considered, which may mean that perfectly competitive firms fail to produce the allocatively efficient level of output. True allocative efficiency requires that the price charged for a good by a firm should equal the marginal social cost of production and not the marginal private cost incurred by the firm, i. e. P = MSC and not P = MPC.

This means that when externalities, negative or positive, are generated in the course of production, a perfectly competitive firm will not produce an is not allocatively efficient level of output. Nor will the whole market. This is clearly a level 5 answer which earns full marks. The level descriptors for Influence Essay level 5 are: A2 |AO1 Knowledge and |AO2 Application of theories,|AO3 Analysis of economic |AO4 Evaluation of economic | |Levels mark scheme |understanding of theories, |concepts and terminology |problems and substructure construction issues |arguments and evidence, | | |concepts and of Family Essay terminology | | |making informed judgements | |Level 5 |Good throughout the answer |Good application to issues |Relevant and precise with a |Good with a clear final | |22–25 marks |with few errors and |Where appropriate, good use |clear and logical chain of |judgement | |(mid-point 24) |weaknesses |of data to support answer |reasoning | | | | | |There is valley civilization language good awareness of Influence Values, Violence and Media Children Essay, | | |Good analysis and good | | |the interrelatedness of | | |evaluation | | |economic issues | | The question focuses solely on efficiency criteria and sociology not on welfare criteria, namely the consumer surplus members of households enjoy in perfectly competitive markets. Influence Violence Children Essay? Pleasingly, the answer starts with relevant definitions but while a couple of marks are available for definitions, this list is really too long. Romeo And Juliet The Film? Note that the concept of X-efficiency is not in the Unit 3 specification, though good answers frequently make use of the concept. Topic 3 Concentrated markets Water companies such as Thames Water are pure monopolies in the supply of tap water since their customers have no other companies from Violence Upon Children, which they can buy tap water. The supermarket industry is oligopolistic because over 90% of market share is Pastor's Letter Essays controlled by four large firms. 2The John Lewis Partnership is a firm that has grown primarily through organic growth.

Halifax Bank of Scotland (HBOS), which is now owned by the Lloyds Banking Group, is a firm that primarily grew through takeover and merger. Influence Of Family Values, Children Essay? 3British Gas and Thames Water. Natural monopoly occurs when there is only room in the market for essays on motivation one firm benefiting to the full from economies of scale. In the Influence of Family Violence and Media Children Essay past, utility industries such as water, gas, electricity and the telephone industries were regarded as natural monopolies. Essays On Motivation? Because of the nature of Influence Values, and Media Upon Children Essay, their product, utility industries experience a particular marketing problem. Pastor's? The industries produce a service that is delivered through a distribution network or grid of pipes and cables into millions of separate businesses and homes. Competition in the provision of distribution grids is extremely wasteful, since it requires the duplication of fixed capacity, therefore causing each supplier to incur unnecessarily high fixed costs.

Until quite recently, utility industries were generally monopolies. Influence Violence And Media Essay? High barriers to entry prevent new firms from entering the market and competing for profits with the monopoly. Barriers to entry will often take the Pastor's Essays form of high sunk costs, i. e. billions of Influence and Media Upon Children Essay, pounds of capital investment which enable the firm to operate at substructure construction, the bottom of the long-run average cost (LRAC) curve. Monopoly firms can also be protected by legal restrictions imposed by the government. Influence Values, Children? For many decades, but no longer today, the construction Royal Mail enjoyed a privileged position in the delivery of mail.

Patent and copyright law protects intellectual property rights. 5A cartel or price ring is an informal agreement between firms in a market to keep prices artificially high. This allows firms to exert monopoly power through collusion and of Family Violence and Media Children make supernormal profits by overcharging consumers. This allows poorly managed and inefficient firms to continue to make profits and sociology deprives consumers of the lower prices that could be offered by of Family Values, Violence Upon Children more efficient firms that have more innovative production methods and are less wasteful. Under UK, EU and US law, cartels are often illegal and can be punished with large fines and, in the USA, by imprisonment of company directors. Cartels can, however, provide benefits to the public.

If a cartel can protect firms from the pressures of competition and allow firms to invest in Essays, research and development to invent new products, it can be extremely beneficial to of Family Values, and Media the public. Large pharmaceutical companies, for romeo example, have argued that pricing agreements have allowed them to raise finance to invest in Influence of Family and Media Children, expensive scientific research and drug development which they could not do if they were constantly fighting aggressive price wars with rivals. 6Cartels are usually illegal because their behaviour results in substructure construction, higher prices for consumers and they allow members of the cartel to of Family Violence Children operate inefficiently. In the case of the cement industry cartel broken up by the European Union competition authorities, firms were able to charge customers artificially high prices for cement, which pushed up the costs of production for the construction and building industry. This meant that government contractors had to spend more of their taxpayers’ money to purchase cement for investment projects such as school buildings, hospitals and roads. Relations Campaign Essay? Private sector companies also had to pass on higher prices to businesses and households, which depleted levels of household disposable income and reduced households’ ability to spend on other goods and services. Influence Of Family Values, Children? Most cartel members benefited significantly from the supernormal profits they made. Managers and the owners of the businesses would have benefited, but not the general public. Furthermore, the supernormal profit did not encourage managers to look for efficiency savings, invent new products or innovate new production methods. As a result, prices remained high as consumers paid too much for products. These market distortions resulted in consumers facing wrong prices signals, which in turn led to a misallocation of scarce resources.

7In the original ‘prisoner’s dilemma’, two prisoners are jointly charged with a serious crime such as armed robbery and are held in isolation from indus valley civilization, each other. The prosecutor, hoping to of Family Values, and Media Upon have his task simplified, knows that a confession from on motivation, one will convict the other, but he also knows that the Upon available evidence is TOMS Relations insufficient to ensure a conviction. If both prisoners plead not guilty, they are likely to go free. Hoping to ensure two guilty pleas, the Influence and Media Upon Essay prosecutor visits each prisoner in his cell and offers a deal. The prosecutor informs each prisoner that he will receive one of two possible outcomes, depending on how he pleads: (i) if both prisoners plead guilty, each will go to prison for one year; and (ii) if one prisoner pleads guilty and the other not guilty, the prisoner pleading guilty will be freed and receive a reward — if he gives evidence to convict the civilization other prisoner — whilst the other prisoner gets a five-year jail sentence.

Each prisoner faces the dilemma that if he pleads not guilty but the other prisoner pleads guilty and shops him, he will get the worse possible outcome, namely being banged up for five years. Shuddering at this possibility, both prisoners plead guilty and get the Values, Violence and Media Essay second best outcome: one year in jail. However, the TOMS Relations Campaign Essay best outcome for each prisoner, namely going free and Influence Values, Violence Upon Children Essay possibly earning a reward, is not achieved. The prisoner’s dilemma scenario can be used to model the behaviour of competitive duopolists, for example those in the arms industry. A British and romeo a French company are competing to secure an arms deal to sell a billion pounds’ worth of weapons to Iraq. By paying bribes of $100 million to government ministers in Iraq, the of Family Upon Children Essay British company believes it will get the whole deal. However, earning ? 1 billion depends on the actions of the Relations French company, the only other likely supplier of the arms. If both companies bribe Iraqi ministers, the deal is likely to be shared between the two suppliers. The British company’s profits will then be much less than if it alone pays bribes and gets all the business. The chief executive officer of the Values, and Media Children British company thinks it a pity to pay out $100 million, but if they did not and the French company did, the French would get all the business and the UK company would make zero profit. In the absence of TOMS Public Relations Essay, collusion, there are two strategies available to each firm: (a)Pay the bribe, while the other firm does not bribe.

Outcome: (i)for the firm paying the bribe: a net income of of Family Upon, $900 million (ii)for the firm refusing to bribe: nothing (b)Both pay the TOMS Public Relations Campaign bribe. Outcome: The sale is shared: each firm nets $400 million. To avoid losing all the business and making zero profit, both rivals decide to and Media Upon Children Essay pay the bribe. In this scenario, paying the Shoes Relations Campaign Essay bribe is each firm’s dominant strategy, i. e. the strategy to be pursued whatever rival firms do. Paying the bribe makes the British company better off, whatever the French do, and vice versa. 8When natural barriers to market entry are low or non-existent, incumbent firms (i. e. firms already in the market) may set low prices, known as limit prices, to deter new firms from entering the market. Incumbent firms do this because they fear increased competition and loss of market power. With limit pricing, firms already in the market sacrifice short-run profit maximisation in order to maximise long-run profits, achieved through deterring the entry of new firms. By contrast, predatory pricing occurs when a firm cuts the price of its product to a loss-making level in order to force a rival firm out of business. This strategy is normally used by large firms that can subsidise losses using profits from another part of their business empire to force smaller rivals out of the market. 9Firms undertake price discrimination in order to Influence of Family and Media Upon Essay maximise profits.

This arises when different customers have different elasticities of demand at different prices. If one customer has a highly inelastic demand and another an elastic demand, the firm will be able to sell them the same product but at different prices. Train companies will typically price discriminate by charging different fares to different customers and sociology is not a science also varying the price of Influence of Family Values, Violence and Media Upon Children Essay, a ticket at different times of the day to Pastor's send price signals and Influence of Family and Media Children create incentives and disincentives to travel. Price discrimination occurs when firms charge different prices to different customers based on differences in the customers’ ability and willingness to pay. Those customers who are prepared to pay more are charged a higher price than those who are only willing to pay a lower price. Price discrimination allows firms to increase profit by taking consumer surplus away from Pastor's, consumers and converting it into Influence Values, Violence Upon Children Essay, extra monopoly profit or supernormal profit. Providing the essays on motivation increase in sales revenue resulting from Influence Violence Children Essay, price discrimination is greater than the construction extra costs incurred when charging different prices to different customers, it is in firms’ interest to indulge in this form of Children Essay, pricing.

10The gamer’s consumer surplus is ? 0, being the essays difference between the Influence of Family Values, and Media Upon Essay maximum price he was prepared to Pastor's Letter pay and the actual price he paid. The store owner’s producer surplus is ? 2, being the difference between the lowest price he was prepared to accept and the actual price paid. 11Expensive capital equipment and sunk costs, and patent and copyright laws. 12A patent is the legal protection given to an inventor or producer which grants exclusive rights to a product for up to 20 years. Influence Values, And Media Upon? This legal protection allows firms to make supernormal profits because they are effectively monopoly producers. Letter? Patent protection creates a strong incentive for firms to invent new products and create new technologies or pharmaceutical products which significantly improve social welfare.

Thus patent protection drives dynamic efficiency. Invention and new product design frequently require high levels of research and Influence Values, Children development which burden firms with significant sunk costs and risk bankruptcy if the new product fails. Hence the incentive of making supernormal profits over a 20-year period encourages firms to invent, seek dynamic efficiencies and take risks. Exam-style answers (data response) Competition and monopoly in the EU airline industry 01Air France enjoys a domestic market share of 80%, whereas the domestic market share of Flybe is just under 30%. There is thus a difference of just over 50% between the domestic market shares of the two airlines. A significant feature of the substructure construction data is that only one airline, SAS, leads the domestic market in more than one country. Influence Values, Violence And Media Upon Children? SAS’s market share in on motivation, Norway is about 43% while its market share in Sweden is about 37%. The first part of the Influence of Family Values, Violence and Media Children context data response question in ECON 3 and in ECON4 will usually be in two parts. Is Not? The first part requires a calculation (often a percentage calculation). Influence Values, Upon Children Essay? The second part asks for identification of one other significant point of comparison, or in this question where there is only one data series in Extract A, one other significant feature of the data.

Some future exam papers may revert to asking for two significant points of comparison (or features), without a preliminary calculation. For this question, the answer picks up 3 marks for the calculation and 3 marks for identifying a significant feature in substructure construction, the data, constrained to of Family Violence Essay the maximum mark of 5 available for the question. 02The term ‘monopoly power’ does not mean quite the same thing as monopoly. Whereas pure monopoly occurs when there is only one firm in the market, monopoly power exists even when pure monopoly does not. The term applies to a situation in Public Campaign, which firms within the market possess the power to reduce output, raise the price, and make supernormal profit. By using strategies such as product design, brand imaging, persuasive advertising and protecting themselves through patents, firms can exercise a degree of monopoly power even when there are many firms in the market. Although Air France is not a pure monopoly in the French market, it may be a monopoly for flights between particular airports. In any case, even when not a pure monopoly, Air France possesses a large amount of Violence Children, monopoly power which it may choose to exercise.

As the diagram below shows, on TOMS Shoes Public routes where its monopoly power is complete, it may hike up the price it charges to P2, compared to a competitive market price of P1. Of Family Violence And Media Children Essay? It does this by restricting the number of substructure, flights to F2, compared to F1, which would be the number of flights if the market were perfectly competitive. [pic] In the latter case, market equilibrium would be determined at point A on the diagram. But when Air France acts as a pure monopoly, point B (where MR = MC) determines the of Family and Media Upon Children Essay level of Essays, output, with Air France then able to Values, Violence and Media Upon Children Essay charge a price of P2. Pastor's Essays? Air France could also use its monopoly power in other ways. The airline could indulge in price discrimination, charging higher prices to customers who are prepared to of Family Values, pay more for a flight. Alternatively, and presumably requiring the is not a science support of the French government, Air France might charge limit prices or even predatory prices. A limit price is a price set deliberately low to discourage competitor airlines from entering the market.

A predatory price is set even lower, below average costs, with the intention of driving rival airlines that have dared to enter the market, out of the market. However, perhaps the main way Air France might exercise its monopoly power is by gaining control of landing and take-off slots at French airports, to make it uneconomic or impossible for rivals to use the airports. Of Family Values, Violence And Media? As with the first part of sociology, context data response question, in ECON 3 and in Violence and Media, ECON4 the essays second part of the question divides into two parts. The first part (worth 4 marks) asks candidates to Influence Values, Violence and Media Upon explain the meaning of an economic term (in this case ‘monopoly power’). Essays? The follow-on part (worth 6 marks) tests the Influence of Family Violence Children Essay more demanding skill of economic analysis. An answer is is not constrained to a maximum of 6 marks if only the explanation or analysis is attempted. Values, Violence And Media Upon Children? This answer is more than sufficient to earn all 10 marks. In fact, the candidate is in danger of spending too much time on an 02 question, which would leave too little time to develop an answer to the last part of the question. 03A cartel is a collusive agreement by firms, usually to fix prices. Sometimes output may also be fixed.

In the diagram below, five firms jointly agree to charge a price to keep firm E, which is the on motivation least efficient firm, in and Media Upon Essay, the market. In a competitive market, firm E would have to reduce costs or go out of business. Pastor's Letter Essays? Cartel agreements therefore enable inefficient firms to stay in business, while other more efficient members of the price ring enjoy supernormal or monopoly profit. By protecting the and Media Essay inefficient and enabling firms to enjoy an easy life protected from competition, cartels display the disadvantages of monopoly (high prices and restriction of choice) without the benefits that monopoly can sometimes bring, namely economies of scale and improvements in dynamic efficiency. Although cartels can achieve a better outcome for all firms concerned, they are not likely to be good for the consumer.

For this reason, cartel agreements are usually illegal and judged by governments as being anti-competitive and against the public interest. Nevertheless, some forms of cooperation or collusion between oligopolistic firms may be justifiable and in the public interest. These include joint product development and valley cooperation to improve health and safety within the Influence Violence and Media Children Essay industry, or to ensure that product and labour standards are maintained. Such examples of essays, industry collaboration are normally deemed to be good, in contrast to price collusion, which is regarded as bad. [pic] Currently, within the European Union, cartels are usually deemed to be illegal, both by national competition authorities such as the Competition Commission in Violence Upon Essay, the UK, and by EU competition policy. In both national and EU competition policy, a cartel agreement is sociology treated as an anti-competitive trading restrictive practice, collectively undertaken by the member firms of the cartel. Within the UK, the Values, Office of Fair Trading (OFT) can refer collective restrictive agreements and practices to a court of valley civilization language, law, the Restrictive Practice Court (RPC). Arguably, policy towards collective restrictive practices is more effective than other aspects of competition policy because a court enforces the policy. A firm that ignores an RPC ruling may be found guilty of contempt and fined. And Media Essay? Nevertheless, the punishments that the RPC can hand out are quite weak — usually a fine of just a few thousand pounds.

Restrictive trading practice policy would be much more effective if fines of millions rather than thousands of pounds were imposed, and if the authorities were given more power to detect secretive collusive agreements. European Union competition policy, including policy aimed at indus civilization language, cartels, is based on the principle of subsidiarity. This principle means that EU policy is activated only Values, Upon Essay, when firms operating within the EU adversely affect or distort trade between EU member states. Thus a cartel agreement between a number of (probably small) UK companies, operating solely within the UK and not competing with firms from other EU countries, would not attract the attention of the EU Competition Commissioner, who is in substructure construction, charge of EU competition policy. In practice, EU and national competition authorities complement each other and should not be regarded as alternatives. It is also the case that the EU Competition Commissioner imposes heavier fines and more draconian punishments on firms found to be operating anti-competitive cartel agreements, than do strictly national competition authorities. This is Influence of Family Values, Violence and Media Upon Children evidenced by the case study in Extract C in the question. The case study reported that the EU fined 11 national airlines about ˆ800 million for fixing the price of romeo and juliet the film, air cargo between 1999 and 2006. British Airways was fined ˆ104 million, Air France-KLM ˆ340 million and Cargolux Airlines ˆ79.

9 million. Values, Violence Upon Children Essay? The case study also draws attention to the fact that because cartel agreements are usually hidden, they are often exposed by a dissatisfied member of the cartel ‘blowing the whistle’ on other cartel members. Whistle blowers usually get off scot-free (to incentivise whistle blowing in other, as yet unexposed, cartels). Meanwhile, the other cartel members are heavily punished. In conclusion, therefore, I take issue with the word ‘solely’ in the question. National and EU policy should reinforce each other and be treated as complements, rather than as substitute policy options. Perhaps a little harshly, this answer is placed at the top of level 4 (17–21 marks) rather than in level 5. The evaluation is certainly good enough for level 5. However, the analysis is on TOMS Public Relations the thin side. Of Family Values, And Media Upon Children? To ensure a level 5 mark, the candidate could have included theory (for example the theory of joint profit maximisation) to analyse how price rings can allow all the colluding firms to enjoy monopoly profit. Often the final part of substructure, a data-response question or an essay question contains a word such as must, always, inevitably, or in this case solely. Good candidates (such as this one) pick up on these words, arguing (in this case) that EU and UK competition authorities should complement each other and Values, Upon Essay not be seen as alternatives to essays each other. This is Influence Violence Essay good evaluation.

Topic 4 The labour market 1When households increase demand for goods and services, firms respond by employing more labour to increase production. Workers are demanded, not for the utility or pleasure their employment gives to employers, but because their labour is necessary for profits to be made when the essays on motivation goods or services that workers help to produce are sold. Perfect competition in the labour market is both similar to, and Violence Children Essay different from, perfect competition in the goods market. In both markets, the civilization language ruling market price is set in the market as a whole through the interaction of all the economic agents operating in the market. However, in of Family and Media Children Essay, a labour market, the ruling market price is in fact the ruling market wage, paid by essays on motivation firms and received by workers. This difference illustrates role reversal in the two sets of markets. Households, which are the source of demand in of Family Values, Violence and Media Upon Essay, the goods market, are the source of romeo and juliet, supply of labour in the labour market. Values, And Media Upon Essay? Similarly, firms, which are the source of supply in the goods market, are the source of demand (a derived demand) in is not a science, the labour market.

As a result of role reversal, the ruling market price facing each firm in the goods market is its perfectly elastic demand curve for Influence Violence and Media Children Essay labour, and also the romeo and juliet AR and MR curve facing each firm. By contrast, the of Family Values, Violence Upon Children ruling market wage facing each employer in the labour market is Pastor's Letter Essays a perfectly elastic supply curve of labour, and also the average cost of labour (ACL) curve and the marginal cost of labour (MCL) curve facing each employer. 3Transport for London (TFL) bargains collectively with ASLEF, the train drivers’ union, and with RMT, the National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers. The energy company EDF also bargains collectively with its workers’ unions. In 1999, the national minimum wage (NMW) came into force in the UK at a rate of ? 3. 60 an hour for and Media Children Essay workers aged 22 and over. The current rates (from 1 October 2012) are: ? 6. 19, the main rate for workers aged 21 and over; ? 4. 98, the 18–20 rate; ? 3. 68, the 16–17 rate for substructure workers above school leaving age but under 18; ? 2. 65, the apprentice rate, for apprentices under 19 or 19 or over and in the first year of their apprenticeship. 5(i)Income is an Values, and Media Upon Children economic flow; it is the Relations Essay payments received by of Family and Media Upon Children an individual or household in a given time period. Wealth is an economic stock; it is the accumulated assets, property and savings owned by Essays an individual or household over time. ii)Welfare benefits are payments transferred to an individual or household by the government via the taxation and social security system, without labour or a factor service being supplied. Earned income is payments received by an individual or household in exchange for labour or interest on saving or the Violence Upon rent of an asset. Exam-style answers (essay) 01Income is romeo the film a flow while wealth is a stock.

Personal wealth is the stock, or historical accumulation, of everything people own, which has value. By contrast, income is the flow of of Family Values, Violence Essay, money received hourly, weekly, monthly or annually, some of on motivation, which (the part saved) can add to or enlarge personal wealth. This is one of the links between income and wealth. A second link operates in the opposite direction: the wealthier people are, the more investment income they are likely to earn, which adds to their total income. Indeed, the rich benefit from a virtuous circle: wealth increases income, which allows the wealthy to save, and saving adds to wealth, and Values, and Media Children Essay so on. By contrast, many of the Pastor's Letter Essays poor suffer a vicious circle: low income means the poor have to borrow, borrowing adds to personal debt, income is then spent on debt repayment, consumption falls, and any wealth the poor possess disappears. As in other countries, income and wealth have always been unequally distributed in the UK. Even when economic growth creates full employment, the incomes of the rich tend to increase faster than those of the poor. Three of the main causes of inequalities in the distribution of income and wealth in the UK are old age, unemployment, and the low wages of many of those in work.

Old age causes income inequality (and also poverty) largely because many old people rely on the state pension and lack a private pension. Influence Of Family Violence And Media Upon Essay? Before the early 1980s, the state pension rose each year in line with average earnings. This meant that pensioners, albeit from a lower base, shared in the increase in national prosperity delivered by economic growth and higher real earnings. However, since the early 1980s, the state pension rose first in line with the retail prices index (RPI) (and latterly in line with the consumer prices index (CPI)), rather than with average earnings. This has kept the real value or purchasing power of the state pension at or near its early-1980s level, while the Pastor's real earnings of those in work have continued to rise. Pensioners reliant solely on of Family Values, and Media Upon Children Essay the state for a source of income have especially suffered.

The state pension is now regarded very much as a ‘poverty income’. Even though the state pension is index-linked to the CPI, its real value has fallen because the cost of is not, living of the elderly rises by more than any increase in the CPI. Unemployment benefits are also now linked to the CPI and, for Influence of Family and Media Upon Children similar reasons as apply to the state pension, have fallen behind average earnings. Until quite recently, even if unemployment remained the same, increases in the incomes of the unemployed generally fell below increases in the incomes of those in work. However, since 2008, unemployment has risen rapidly and stands above two and a half million. Construction? This means that more people suffer from low incomes (just as people living longer adds to the number of pensioners on Influence of Family Violence Upon Children Essay low incomes). Valley? (Before moving on to explain how low wages increase income inequalities, it should be stated that recent events have partially offset the conclusions drawn in the previous paragraphs. Since 2009, the wages and salaries of much of the UK population in of Family Violence Upon, work have hardly changed at all, but the state pension and Essays unemployment benefits have risen by rather more, albeit from a lower starting point. At the same time, because of a series of crises in private pension provision, many people approaching retirement age who had been looking forward to Influence Values, receiving substantial private pensions are now expecting much lower private pensions. ) Moving on to low pay as a cause of widening income differentials, an important factor has been the Letter Essays disappearance of middle-ranking jobs in Values, Violence, the private sector. An example is in engineering, where skilled jobs have simply disappeared. Many of substructure, these jobs have moved overseas, leaving a vacuum in the British labour market.

There is Violence Upon Children Essay now a worrying gap between low-skilled, low-paid jobs (so called McJobs) at TOMS Shoes Public Relations Campaign, the bottom of the pile, and highly-paid jobs in industries such as investment banking where the rate of pay has risen astronomically in recent years, in both real and nominal terms. This answer scores 14 out Influence Children, of the 15 marks available. It earns the two marks available for Pastor's Essays definitions. (Because definitions pick up marks, it is always a good idea to provide two relevant definitions in the answer to the first part of an essay question, or to the second part of a context data-response question). The candidate lists and then explains three causes of income inequality. Of Family Values, And Media Children Essay? The effects of old age and unemployment are explained well. The final explanation of the effect of low wages is sound but a little thin.

It would have benefited from graphical analysis, showing for example that the romeo and juliet widening difference between high and low wages is of Family Values, Violence Upon Children Essay partially caused by different demand and supply conditions in construction, different labour markets: [pic] 2A tax is of Family Values, progressive if, as income rises, a greater proportion of income is paid in tax. A transfer is the Campaign payment of Influence of Family Values,, income by the state to on motivation a benefit recipient, without the person involved providing any labour in exchange for the income received. It is of course possible for the government to Violence Children use progressive taxation to narrow the romeo the film gap between pre-tax and post-tax income, without redistributing income. The tax revenue could for example be spent on tanks and guns. It is also possible for the tax revenue raised from progressive taxation to be given back to the better-off, for example through subsidies given to already-rich farmers or by giving gentrification grants to people on high incomes to spend on improving their houses. However, usually when we think of progressive taxation and Values, and Media Upon transfers, the implicit assumption is that the rich are taxed more than the valley language poor and that much of the tax revenue is transferred and given as welfare benefits to the poor. There is no doubt that progressive taxation and transfers provide an obvious way to reduce inequalities in the distribution of income and Influence Values, Violence and Media Upon Essay wealth. TOMS Shoes Essay? Before 1979, UK governments of all political complexions used progressive taxation and a policy of transfers of income to the less well-off, in a deliberate attempt — with some success — to Values, Children reduce inequalities in the distribution of income. However, there is a major problem involved if only progressive taxation and transfers are used with this aim in is not, mind.

The reason for this relates to the conflict between two of the principles or canons of taxation: equity and of Family Violence Essay efficiency. Equity means that a tax system should be fair, although, of course, there may be different and possibly conflicting interpretations of what is fair or equitable. Specifically, a particular tax should be based on the taxpayer’s ability to pay. This principle is one of the justifications of progressive taxation, since the rich have a greater ability to pay than the poor. Efficiency means that a tax should achieve its intended aim or aims with minimum undesired distortion or side-effects. Arguably, the high income-tax rates that are necessary to make the tax system progressive have an adverse effect on personal incentives. In particular, they may reduce the incentives to work harder, to on motivation be entrepreneurial and to take financial risks.

Free-market and supply-side economists believe these disincentive effects lead to Values, Upon a significant slowing down of the economy’s rate of TOMS Relations, growth. The economy ends up being more equal, but poorer overall when compared with competitor countries. Supply-side economists believe that greater incentives for work and enterprise are necessary in order to increase the UK’s growth rate. For free-market economists and Influence of Family Values, Violence Children politicians, progressive taxation and transfers to Public Essay the poor mean that people have less incentive to work harder and to engage in entrepreneurial risk. Influence Of Family Violence Upon? Moreover, the ease with which the poor can claim welfare benefits and the level at which they are available creates a situation in which the poor rationally choose unemployment and state benefits in substructure, preference to low wages and work. In this so-called dependency culture, the unwaged are effectively ‘married to Influence of Family Values, and Media Upon the state’, but some of the poor, obviously not enjoying this marriage, drift into antisocial behaviour, attacking bus shelters and other public property, as well as privately owned property.

Meanwhile, at the top of the income pyramid, the high marginal rates of taxation, which form a large part of substructure construction, progressive taxation, are a disincentive to the better-off. They stop working, or work abroad, and Influence and Media Children Essay many hours are wasted in designing and applying complicated systems of tax avoidance — a paradise for substructure construction accountants. Tax evasion (the failure to pay legally due taxes) also proliferates, both at the top and bottom of the income pyramid. Illegal tax evasion leads to the growth of the of Family Values, and Media Children Essay so-called black economy and to activities such as smuggling. Supply-side economists believe that tax and sociology is not a science benefit cuts, which are the opposite of progressive taxation and transfers, alter the labour/leisure choice in favour of supplying labour, particularly for of Family Violence Upon Essay benefit claimants who lack the essays on motivation skills necessary for high-paid jobs. They also believe that to Influence of Family Values, Upon make everyone eventually better-off, the poor must first be made worse off. Indus Civilization Language? Increased inequality is necessary to facilitate economic growth from which all would eventually benefit. Through a ‘trickle down’ effect, the poor would end up better off in and Media Children, absolute terms, but because inequalities had widened, they would still be relatively worse off compared with the rich.

Needless to say, by no means all economists agree with this extremely pro-free market analysis. However, virtually all agree that progressive taxation and transfers should not solely be used to narrow income differentials. Apart from the pro-free market view just summarised, some economists believe that other forms of Letter Essays, intervention in the free market are necessary. One of of Family Values, Essay, these is the national minimum wage, which in recent years has marginally raised low pay rates. They also argue that governments should extend the provision of merit goods such as free state education and healthcare, in order to improve the social wage of lower-income groups. The social wage is that part of a worker’s standard of living received as goods and services provided at TOMS Shoes Public Campaign Essay, zero price or as ‘income in kind’ by the state, being financed collectively out of taxation. However, such interventionist policies incur a significant opportunity cost. They lead to high taxation, with the disincentive effect this brings about, and they may also lead to adverse unintended consequences and to Influence of Family Violence and Media Upon Essay other aspects of language, government failure. Influence Of Family Violence And Media Children? It is important to read the question carefully.

This question does not ask for a discussion of whether the distribution of income should be made more equal. Unfortunately, the answer deflects a little too much in this direction. Nevertheless, it is still valid to argue that progressive taxation and transfers should not solely be used to reduce inequalities, because of the disadvantages and unintended consequences of these two fiscal policy instruments. The answer scores 19 out of a possible 25 and has been placed at mid-level 4. To achieve level 5, there should have been more focus on the actual set question and more discussion and analysis of Essays, policies such as a national minimum wage, for example discussing whether such policies should be better viewed as alternatives or complementary to progressive taxation and transfers. No marks are awarded for definitions in answers to the final parts of essay and Violence and Media Children Essay context data-response questions. Nevertheless, it is still a good idea to define key concepts at the beginning of the answer as this acts as a good launching pad for developing the construction subsequent analysis and evaluation. Topic 5 Government intervention in the market A public good has three characteristics: it is non-excludable, non-diminishable (non-rival) and Violence and Media Children non-rejectable. These characteristics mean that (if it is a pure public good — see answer to question 2) it cannot be provided by is not the market mechanism. A merit good is Influence of Family Violence and Media Upon Children Essay provided by the market mechanism and it has the characteristics of a private good. It is excludable, diminishable (rival) and rejectable. A merit good, however, is often undervalued by households and thus under-consumed when provided at a market price by the free market.

There are two reasons for this. First, consumers do not value the positive externalities that result from consumption which benefit other people. Second, consumers typically suffer from an information problem which causes them to ignore or undervalue the benefits of consumption which will be enjoyed in the future. 2Public goods can be divided into pure public goods and and juliet non-pure public goods. National defence and police are examples of pure public goods — defined as public goods for which it is impossible to exclude ‘free-riders’. However, most public goods (street lighting, roads, television and radio programmes and Influence of Family Values, Violence Children also lighthouses) are really non-pure public goods (also known as quasi-public goods). Methods can be devised for converting the goods into substructure, private goods by excluding ‘free-riders’ (for example, electronic pricing of of Family Upon Children, road use). Non-pure public goods can be provided by markets, but the Letter Essays second property of non-rivalry or non-diminishability means there is a case for providing all public goods free in order to encourage as much consumption as possible.

For public goods, the Violence and Media Children optimal level of consumption occurs when they are available free of charge. 3For a merit good, the long-term private benefit of indus valley civilization, consumption exceeds the short-term private benefit of consumption. However, when deciding how much to Influence of Family Violence Upon Essay consume, individuals take account of short-term costs and benefits, but ignore or undervalue the long-term private cost and benefit. Preventative dentistry provides a good example. Many people ignore the long-term benefit of sociology is not, dental check-ups, and Influence Upon Essay decide, because of the short-term unpleasantness of the experience, not to consume the service. Unfortunately, these people can nd up later in life with rotten teeth or gum disease, saying: ‘If only I had visited the dentist more often when I was younger’. Likewise, school children who undervalue the long-term private benefit of education say later in life: ‘If only I had worked harder at school, I would now have a better, more enjoyable job with more pay. ’ 4Property rights in a market-based economy stem from the notion that an individual owns land or a good and can exclude other members of society from entering the land or using the good, unless they are willing to pay for indus valley civilization the privilege. 5Regulatory capture is the notion that a firm can exert undue influence over a government agency charged with regulating the market in which it operates. This can take the form of excessive hospitality, persistent lobbying, aggressive pressure backed up with litigation and, in the extreme, bribery.

This results in the regulator becoming either too friendly or too scared of the firm to fairly regulate its conduct in the marketplace; hence the term ‘regulatory capture’. 6A cartel is generally illegal because it is an anti-competitive trading restrictive practice which protects inefficient firms, raises costs and discourages improvements in Values, and Media Upon Children Essay, dynamic efficiency. As a result of the principle of subsidiarity, UK and EU competition authorities work together. EU policy over-arches UK policy when an EU-wide dimension is civilization involved in relation to of Family Upon monopolies, mergers and trading restrictive practices. If the Essays issue is strictly national, relating only to the UK, the EU leaves policy implementation to the UK competition authorities. See also the Influence of Family Violence answer to Topic 3 essay question 03 on pages 15–16 of these answers. 7In 2008 and 2009 many banks in many countries, including the UK, were close to collapse. Pastor's Letter? Some banks did collapse, such as Lehman Brothers in the USA. Banks faced the danger of of Family Values, Violence Children Essay, possible collapse as a result of an unexpected fall in the value of their assets, stemming from the credit crunch and the sub-prime mortgage problem, which particularly affected US banks. The assets owned by the banks were now much less than their liabilities.

Banks make money by lending out much greater sums than they receive as deposits from customers. Providing customers with deposits in a bank believe that their deposits are safe and can be paid back on demand, the bank is almost completely safe, with a minimal chance of it collapsing. However, in 2008 and 2009, customers began to withdraw their deposits from banks, leading to a fear of a run on the banks, followed by possible bank collapse. With many industries, government ministers nowadays take the view that failing businesses should be allowed to collapse. However, this is not generally their view with regard to banks. Romeo And Juliet? Politicians fear a domino effect in which the collapse of one bank leads to Influence of Family Violence Upon a string of collapses in other banks. This fear, let alone actual collapse, can have a devastating effect on confidence in Relations Essay, the economy, which may in turn lead to a collapse in aggregate demand and the creation of recessionary conditions.

Government ministers also realise the crucial role of banks in providing liquidity to both households and firms. And Media Children? When the banking system froze in Public Relations Essay, 2007–08, firms found they were unable to borrow from banks. As a result, the cash supply to of Family Values, Essay perfectly well-run firms dried up and some of them went out of business. All this helps to explain why the British government bought up a majority shareholding in the Northern Rock bank, RBS and HBOS, to enable these banks to continue trading. It was hoped that state ownership would secure the supply of loans both to business customers and to mortgagees, though this hope was only partially met. At the time of effective nationalisation, the UK government stated that the nationalised banks would be returned to the private sector as soon as possible. Part of the essays Northern Rock bank — the so-called ‘good bank’ but not the Influence Violence and Media Upon Children ‘bad bank’ element which is essays on motivation still state-owned — has been returned to the private sector, rebranded as a part of Virgin Money. 8As the answer to question 7 mentions, part of the Northern Rock bank (which had been nationalised in 2008) was privatised in 2011. Many years earlier, British Telecommunications (BT), previously a nationalised firm since it was hived off from the Royal Mail, was privatised when the business was converted into a public limited company (PLC) whose shares were sold to Influence of Family Values, and Media Children the general public in three tranches, in 1984, 1991 and 1993.

An example of the film, deregulation was a change in the law to allow building societies to compete with banks when granting loans to customers. 9In terms of income, equality means that everyone receives exactly the same income. Equity relates to whether the distribution of income between different people is fair or just. Equality is thus a positive concept, since people’s incomes can be measured to see if they are exactly equal. Equity, by contrast, is normative since it depends on people’s value judgements as to what is fair or just. 0In the poverty trap, also known as the Influence Violence and Media earnings trap, low-waged people who pay income tax and national insurance contributions (NICs) to the government and who lose welfare benefits, become trapped in indus valley civilization, relative poverty when their wages rise. Influence Values, Violence And Media Upon Essay? The unemployment trap is closely related to the poverty trap, since both affect the poor and result from the nature of the tax and benefit systems. But people caught in the unemployment trap are out of work — at least in terms of substructure construction, officially declared employment.

The unemployment trap contains un-waged social security claimants who ‘choose’ unemployment because they are better off out of work, living on benefits, than in Influence of Family Values, Violence Upon Children Essay, low-paid jobs paying income tax and NICs and losing some or all of their right to claim means-tested benefits. 1Fuel poverty is defined as existing among households who spend more than 10% of Pastor's Letter, their income on fuel. In July 2011, the UK government reported that more than a fifth of all households in the UK were affected by fuel poverty in 2009. Higher fuel bills meant the number of homes affected rose by Influence Violence Children one million, or 22%, to 5. TOMS Public? 5 million, according to Violence and Media Children Essay the Department of Energy and Climate Change. Exam-style answers (data response) The impact of is not, climate change on the UK economy 01Asian countries emitted 0. 9 billion tonnes of carbon pollutants in 1990. This is Influence of Family Essay forecast to Public Relations Essay rise to 5. 1 billion tonnes in 2050, an increase of 4. Influence Values, Upon Children Essay? 2 billion tonnes. This is a forecast increase of 467%. One significant feature of the data is Shoes Relations Essay that, after 2010, the carbon emissions of emerging market countries is expected to Influence of Family Violence Children continue to rise, whereas the rate of increase of the emissions of richer advanced countries (OECD countries) is expected to slow down (flatten), though not to fall. After 2010, the carbon emissions of non-Asian emerging market countries are expected to rise from about 1 billion tonnes to about 2. 7 billion tonnes.

OECD emissions are expected to rise from about 3. 5 billion tonnes to about 3. 7 billion tonnes over the same period. Although this is an excellent answer, earning all 5 of the available marks, it is worth reminding you of circumstances in which candidates drop marks unnecessarily when answering this type of indus civilization, question. First, candidates often fail to read the data carefully and Influence Violence Children Essay end up quoting numbers that are too far different from Shoes Essay, those in the Extract. Second, even when the numbers quoted are accurate, candidates fail to include units of measurement (billion tonnes for both parts of this question, and a % sign for Influence of Family Values, and Media Essay the % change in sociology is not a science, the first part of the answer). Third, in the answer to the second part of the question, it is Influence Values, and Media Children vital to select a significant feature of the on motivation data rather than an insignificant feature. 02A public good, such as national defence, possesses the twin characteristics of non-excludability and non-rivalry. Non-excludability means that if the good is provided to of Family Upon Essay one person it is provided to all.

It is impossible to exclude free-riders, i. e. eople who get the benefits without paying for the public good. On Motivation? Non-rivalry means that when one person benefits from the Influence of Family Values, and Media Children good, it does not reduce the quantity of the good available for other people. The gases and valley language pollutants that are emitted into the atmosphere and lead to global warming are both externalities and a form of Influence of Family Values, Upon, public ‘bad’. (A public ‘bad’ is the opposite substructure of a public good. People are generally prepared to pay for the removal of a ‘bad’, to avoid the unpleasantness otherwise experienced. But in the case of public ‘bads’, such as rubbish or garbage, payment can be avoided by dumping the ‘bad’ in a public place, or on Influence Values, and Media Upon Essay someone else’s property. Because of this, polluting gases are also externalities discharged in the course of Public Relations Campaign, production and Influence of Family and Media Children consumption, for on motivation example by power stations and motorists. The unwilling victims of global warming cannot opt out of being adversely affected by the pollutants and they cannot charge a price which the polluter must pay for Influence of Family Values, and Media Children Essay the emissions discharged into the atmosphere. Taxation and regulation can in principle reduce that rate at which global warming is taking place. However, as Extract B explains, the emission of global-warming gases is on motivation different from the emission of Influence Values, Upon Children, many other negative externalities, for example traffic congestion. In the first place, the emission is international.

No one country acting on its own can prevent other countries from continuing to emit gases. In the second place, the a science problem is historical. Of Family Values, Violence Upon Essay? The atmosphere is continuing to TOMS Essay warm up as a result of emissions which have occurred in the past, indeed since the beginning of the industrial revolution about two centuries ago. It may be impossible to stop continuing global warming simply by ending any further gas emissions, because pollutants already in the atmosphere will continue to contribute to global warming. And with the rapid growth of the world’s population, it is probably impossible to keep emissions at Influence of Family Upon, their current level, let alone to reduce or to stop them.

This is essays a well-balanced answer, easily earning maximum marks — 4 marks for the snappy explanation of the meaning of Violence and Media Children, a public good and 6 marks for the subsequent analysis of the issue posed by the question. It is important to remember that only the final parts of construction, context data-response questions and essay questions test the skill of Influence of Family and Media Upon Children Essay, evaluation. Evaluation is not required in the answers to earlier sections of the questions, including this part. Do not be misled by Pastor's the word whether, which you may think implies that answers should include some evaluation. This is not the case. 03Extract C lists a number of benefits and costs that the UK economy may experience in future years as a result of continuing climate change. The first of these is flash flooding. This will exclusively have adverse effects, for of Family Values, Children Essay example the destruction of property, agricultural land, crops and animals, and the loss of human life.

The second is a decrease in heating bills. If this occurs it will benefit every UK household, though as Extract C states, the benefits are likely to Pastor's Letter be offset by the increased use of energy to provide the power for air-conditioning systems which will grow in use if the climate becomes stiflingly hot in summer. The extract goes on to mention that ‘with fossil fuels becoming scarcer, the need to find more environmentally friendly methods of producing energy, such as solar, wind and water power, or geothermal energy, will become ever more pressing’. And Media Essay? It is possible to take issue with this prediction, on the ground that it is now out of date. In one important way, fossil fuels are not becoming scarcer. Vast quantities of shale gas lie beneath the earth’s crust and the technology now exists to essays extract and use this quite recently discovered source of fossil fuel. Methane extracted from shale gas may soon be used in place of the diminishing conventional supplies of natural gas. Shale gas can be extracted at an economic cost, and it will be used for home-heating, to replace petrol and diesel fuel, and for the provision of electricity. But is this a benefit or a cost?

It is certainly a benefit in that it will enable economic growth to continue and standards of living to rise throughout the world. But it must always be remembered that shale gas is a fossil fuel. Its use will allow global warming to continue, perhaps at an even faster rate than currently or in Influence of Family Violence and Media Children Essay, the past, with all the possible adverse effects on economies and on human life that have been predicted. Its growing use may also help to bankrupt renewable energy industries, particularly wind energy. Construction? If this is Values, Upon so, shale gas will bring to a stop, or at least slow down, attempts to reduce dependency on Essays fossil fuels. Air temperature rising by 5°C may spell disaster for human-kind and life as we know it on planet earth. Extract C mentions a number of other ways in which climate change may have an impact on the UK economy. These include the decline of ski resorts in Scotland, the growth of hotel resorts in the south of the UK, and the effects on clothing sales, everyday food purchases, the construction industry, the types of crops grown in the UK, agricultural methods of production, and on how water is used and Influence of Family Values, and Media Children Essay stored. However, in my view, all of sociology a science, these are relatively innocuous and are changes to which efficient markets, backed up by sensible government policy, can adapt. In conclusion, at the risk of being extremely pessimistic, I wish to return to the argument made in the previous paragraph.

Again in my view, the costs which the UK economy (and indeed most other world economies) may experience in future years as a result of continuing climate change are likely to be far greater, at least in the long run, than any likely benefits. Global warming will almost certainly increase air temperatures to a level at which human life as we have known it cannot continue. It may shift ocean currents in the North Atlantic so as to make the UK climate significantly colder, despite warming elsewhere in Influence of Family Violence Children Essay, the world. Water shortages, if not occurring in the UK, may lead to attempted mass migration of people from poor to rich countries and to wars which destroy economic activity as countries fight over water and other resources and fight against inward migration of people trying to escape growing poverty and seeking a better life for themselves. The UK is likely to suffer directly or indirectly from all these results of climate change. This answer scores 16 out of 25 marks and is placed at indus language, the top of level 3 (10–16 marks). Although the candidate evaluates throughout the Influence of Family Violence and Media Essay answer, and indus valley civilization also in a concluding paragraph, the force of the evaluation is Influence Violence and Media Essay weakened because evaluation is not preceded by substructure construction strong enough analysis.

The analysis should have focused on diagrams showing the negative and Influence of Family Violence and Media Upon Essay positive externalities produced by global warming. The candidate draws on the prompts in the Extracts, but fails to analyse the implications of the prompts sufficiently. The answer veers on on motivation the side of being too superficial. Nevertheless, it is sufficiently sound to merit the top of of Family Values, and Media Children, level 3 and TOMS Relations could possibly creep into the bottom of level 4. Values, Violence Essay? The grade descriptor for level 3 is: A2 |AO1 Knowledge and |AO2 Application of theories,|AO3 Analysis of economic |AO4 Evaluation of is not, economic | |Levels mark scheme |understanding of theories, |concepts and terminology |problems and Influence Violence and Media Upon issues |arguments and evidence, | | |concepts and terminology | | |making informed judgements | |Level 3 |Satisfactory but some |Reasonable application to construction |Reasonably clear but may not|Superficial, perhaps with | |10–16 marks |weaknesses shown |issues |be fully developed and is |some attempt to consider | |(mid-point 13) | |Where appropriate, |perhaps confused in places |both sides of the issue(s) | | | |reasonable use of Influence Values, Violence and Media Upon Children Essay, data to TOMS Relations Campaign Essay |with a few errors present | | |Reasonable including some | |support answer |The answer is quite well | | |correct analysis but very | | |organised with some logical | | |limited evaluation | | |development | |