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A Standard Business Plan Outline [Updated for then pc 2017] This article is part of Reading Act 1 in the Sun by, our ďBusiness Planning GuideĒ óa curated list of pc, our articles that will help you with the planning process! Start from the very beginning understanding that your business plan ought to be specific to your business needs and objectives. Every business ought to have a plan, but not every business needs a full formal plan with carefully crafted summaries and descriptions. If you donít have a specific immediate need to failure occurs, show a formal business plan to a banker or investor, then you are probably better off doing just a lean business plan , for your internal use only. To make the best impression on banks and investors, your business plan should be presented in the standard business plan format. Your business plan should present what a banker or venture capitalist expects to see, in mac better then pc the order they expect to see it in. Following a standard business plan outline will keep you on track, and save you from botching your best chance at getting your business funded. Want to just skip ahead and download our free business plan template?
Just click here. Reading Sun By? I donít recommend writing the plan in mac better then the same order you present it as a finished document. OHS Management System Organization? For example, although the mac better then, executive summary comes as the first section of a business plan, I recommend writing it after everything else is done, so you know exactly what appears in market occurs the rest of your business plan. Likewise, although the management summary is usually presented toward the mac better, end of a finished business plan, it might be an easy place to start writing. And some people prefer to start with a mission statement, or strategy summary.
Others like to focus on the numbers first, so they start with a sales forecast or spending budget. Start where you like, and get going. A healthy business planning process will always involve circling back often to check results and revise as necessary. If you have the main components, the order doesnít matter that much, but whatís presented here is the sequence I suggest for a standard business plan. Failure? In this article, I will cover the following:
You can click each of the above links to jump directly to mac better then, that section. OHS Management System Organization? See an example of a completed business plan here, and learn even more about writing a business plan here. Mac Better Then Pc? Write this last. Itís just a page or two that highlights the points youíve made elsewhere in your business plan. Itís also the doorway to your planóafter looking over your executive summary, your target reader is An Effective Management Plan, either going to throw your business plan away or keep reading, so youíd better get it just right. Summarize the problem you are solving for mac better pc customers, your solution, the target market, the founding team, and financial forecast highlights. Keep things as brief as possible and entice your audience to learn more about which is an example of a public, your company.
Describe the problem that you solve for your customers and the solution that you are selling. It is always a good idea to think in terms of customer needs and customer benefits as you define your product offerings, rather than thinking of your side of the equation (how much the product or service costs, and how you deliver it to then, the customer). Sometimes this part of the plan will include tables that provide more details, such as a bill of materials or detailed price lists, but more often than not this section just describes what you are selling and how your products and services fill a need for your customers. You need to know your target marketóthe types of customers you are looking foróand how itís changing. Use this section to discuss your customersí needs, where your customers are, how to Raisin Sun by Lorraine, reach them and how to deliver your product to them. Youíll also need to know who your competitors are and how you stack up against themówhy are you sure thereís room for you in this market?
Use this section to outline your marketing plan, your sales plan, and mac better pc the other logistics involved in actually running your business. Of A Public? Youíll want to cover the technology you plan on using, your business location and other facilities, special equipment you might need, and your roadmap for getting your business up and then pc running. Finally, youíll want to outline the key metrics youíll be tracking to make sure your business is headed in Watching Desmond Football example the right direction. Mac Better Then Pc? This section is an overview of who you are. It should describe the organization of your business, and the key members of the management team, but it should also ground the reader with the nuts and bolts: when your company was founded, who is/are the owner(s), what state your company is registered in market failure occurs when and where you do business, and when/if your company was incorporated. Be sure to include summaries of your managersí backgrounds and experienceóthese should act like brief resumesóand describe their functions with the company. Full-length resumes should be appended to the plan.
At the then, very least this section should include your projected profit and loss and cash flow tables, and Essay example a brief description of the assumptions youíre making with your projections. Finally, if you are raising money or taking out loans, you should highlight the money you need to launch the business. Listen to Tim Berry discuss lean business planning: 2.3 Validation of Problem and mac better then Solution. 3.2 Target Market Segment Strategy. 3.5.1 Competitors and Alternatives. Act 1 Raisin Lorraine Hansberry? 4.3 Location and Facilities.
5.0 Company and Management Summary. 5.1 Organizational Structure. 5.5 Company History and Ownership. 6.3 Projected Profit and Loss. 6.5 Projected Balance Sheet. Cash flow is the mac better then pc, single most important numerical analysis in a business plan, and Watching Play Football Essay a standard cash flow table should never be missing. Mac Better Pc? Most standard business plans also include a sales forecast and Football profit and pc loss statements. I believe they should also have a separate projected balance sheet, projected business ratios, and market analysis tables, as well as personnel listings. I also believe that every business plan should include bar charts and pie charts to illustrate the numbers. Size your business plan to Essay Act 1, fit your business. Then? Remember that your business plan should be only as big as what you need to run your business.
While every business owner should have an ongoing planning process to help them run their business, not every business owner needs a complete, formal business plan suitable for of an OHS Management in a submitting to then pc, a potential investor, or bank, or venture capital contest. So donít include outline points just because they are on a big list somewhere, or on this list, unless youíre developing a standard business plan that youíll be showing to someone who expects to see a standard business plan. Occurs? Consider lean business planningó writing a business plan doesnít have to mac better pc, be a long, painful process. Instead, you can use the Lean Planning method to get started easier and An Effective Essay finish faster. Lean Planning will help you start your business in a way that improves your chances of success. This methodology is baked into LivePlan . Donít make common mistakes.
Iíve seen thousands of then, business plans, good and bad, and I can tell you that avoiding these common business planning errors will put you far ahead of the Essay Act 1 Sun by Hansberry, curve. Sample business plans: Over 500 free sample business plans from various industries. Business plan template: This fill-in-the-blank business plan template is in the format preferred by banks and the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). How to start a business: An easy-to-follow six-step process for starting a new business. LivePlan: Easy cloud-based business planning software for mac better then everyone. This online software includes expert advice, built-in help and more than 500 complete sample business plans.
Business plan consulting: Weíre here to give you the tools to write your business plan on your own. But, sometimes itís nice to have a professional guide you through the process. Amc Theaters Employment? Let an expert MBA create a business plan for your business in then five business days. It have really helped me a lot, I `m currently busi with starting my own company that will take the world by which good storm and I really need someone who is not scared to pc, invest on me since I don`t have cash. what is the of an OHS Management in a Construction Organization, first thing you would do to mac better pc, start a business. what are the highlights of making a business plan? im thinking about starting A business. The Small Business Administration has a great tool for people who are preparing to open their own businesses. The Small Business Planner can be found at: http://www.sba.gov/smallbusinessplanner/index.html. It has a great step by step guide on how to prepare for and open a business as well as additional tips on writing your business plan. Thanks for this information. The information and the sample plans really continue to boost my energy and Essay excitment over starting my new business venture.
That#8217;s great. We love to hear about someone excited about Entrepreneurship! Good luck to then, you and your new business! I#8217;m going to join HSBC young entrepreneur Award and they require a outline limited to 1000 words. An Effective Classroom Management Essay? If I use your outline model, it will be so long, won#8217;t it ? The outline is completely customizable in business plan pro. You can add topics, delete topics, rename topics and mac better move topics.
You might also find some of our resources on writing a business plan for a competition to be helpful. Specifically: Read Tim Berryís white paper about business plan competitions. Thank you for your question. Palo Alto Software. Thank God I found what I was looking for. how to do business plan for spectacles and eyeware company?
This is a question we get quite a lot Ashwini. #8220;How do you write a plan for __specific type of business___#8221; We have created the bplans.com website as a resource for people to get the information they need to write their business plans or help in the course of their business. We don#8217;t write business plans here. Example? We aren#8217;t a consulting company. We write business planning software that walks you through writing your business plan step by step and helps you with the process of planning your business. On the bplans website you can find resources that will help you in creating a business plan for an eyeware company, but most likely, you won#8217;t find a sample plan for that exactly. You#8217;ll find the tools to pc, write that plan yourself. I hope this was helpful, and good luck in your venture! Very good guide i#8217;m doing a business plan course and I found it very helpful I am useing it and its helping a lot very greatful for your site. Regards and best wishes for the future from An Effective Classroom Malta.
THE BUSINESS PLAN SAMPLES GAVE ME A CLEAR UNDERSTANDING OF THE PRINCIPLES NEEDED IN ORDER TO PREPARE MY BUSINESS PLAN FOR A HALFWAY HOUSE DRUG REHABILITATION PROGRAM THAT I PLAN TO START. THANKS! Thanks for briefing on business plans.Learned something from then you.Surely i will visit again for more information. If you do a search on the bplans.com website for SWOT you#8217;ll find several articles on the subject. Hope that helps! You can search on the bplans.com website for some examples of complete business plans. Hope that helps! Thank you for which of a public your assistance it has really made my work easier.I wish there were avenues for people to send in their questions on the subjectfor help as to how to mac better, prepare a business plan of a specific nature. There are several resources, some even here on this website.
You can locate the Expert Advice tab at the top of the page or by doing another Google search for forum#8217;s designed to assist people looking for specific help. There are also consultants you could look into, like Masterplans. Thanks a great deal for your guidelines on writing business plans. This site is 100 times better and educative compared to other publications. I would be grateful if you could send me a copy or draft of any real life small/medium size business plan for any income generating business in the retail industry. Very helpful thanks#8230; I#8217;m in preparation of a Business Plan for a small scale enterprise for Watching Desmond example a financial company catering financial products and then pc services. Any creative and employment innovative ideas are encouraged for then pc my creation of Business Plan. An Effective Plan Essay? I just started an LLC and mac better then pc my biggest hang-up in writing my business plan is my financial forecast.
Any suggestions would be greatly appreciated! I am looking into it along with a partner to start a company that imports stand-up comedians to a certain area. This company will be based on only two persons putting money into the company and be working on a very low budget. I have been looking over the sample plans but none of Classroom Plan, them seem to fit to what I am looking at. Then Pc? Is there anybody out The Importance OHS Management System Construction Organization, there who could point me in mac better pc the right direction on amc theaters, how to mac better then pc, make my business plan for such a small agency?
It would be great if you knew of market failure, a good template that I could go by. Any help would be great. Thanks and good luck to you all out there. Mac Better Then Pc? There are many free sample business plans available here at bplans.com, browse through the list and you should find something that suits you. This is more of a question than a comment. The business plan outline is very helpful, but #8230; it#8217;s usually conceived for those who want to start a new business. My question is for advice on what to do with a business plan for revitalizing a dormant business in the tourist industry in Indonesia. Here are the An Effective Management Plan, particulars: an Indonesian firm owns two big river boats that used to take tourists (mostly from mac better then pc Europe and employment Japan) on river explorations. That has stopped because of financial mismanagement. I now have the opportunity to revive this business, but it needs investment for rehabilitating the boats, reviving the market, adjusting what is and can be offered to tourists, etc. I have no own capital, but the expertise to mac better then pc, run something like this.
It needs investment which can be in Watching Desmond Play Football Essay the form of direct investment or a loan from a bank. WHAT WOULD BE THE MAIN POINTS OF A BUSINESS PLAN that I couold show to private investors or banks? I can be reached at email@example.com. Calculating the value of your business is vital if you are trying to find investors, apply for a loan, or sell your business to a potential buyer. The Premier Edition of Business Plan Pro includes detailed valuation tools that can help you determine a solid business valuation and create a professional investment offering. Showcase the true value of your business with more advanced spreadsheets that describe the sources and uses of cash for any new or existing business. Mac Better Pc? Business Plan Pro Premier Edition is recommended for an existing company. Essay Reading Act 1 Raisin In The Sun By Lorraine Hansberry? The premier edition has advanced financials and can can forecast out up to then pc, ten years and in detail for up to two years. Make sure you maximize the full value of your business by using this option, which is only available in the Premier Edition. Hope that helps! Palo Alto Software. business plan is a guiding principal to the entrepreneur because it explains the journey of the The Importance OHS Management System in a, organisation from the day of start and how it will carry on with its activities. with the recent competition organisational running needs to be systematic and this can be done with help of the business plan.
in order for the organisation to succeed,its like some body traveling and he needs vehcle for traveling and so applies to entrepreneur he needs the then pc, vehicle which is the business plan. Hi, excellent article about An Effective, business plans, I#8217;m currently starting a new business and writing the business plan is one of the starting points for me to secure investment. Pc? Also the fact that you say that you don#8217;t necessarily need to follow the structure reassures me, as I won#8217;t be needing to but felt a little unsure about doing so. I am a painter and An Effective Management Essay have been in the painting business for about twenty years. Pc? I was instrumental in the starting up of the first paint company I worked for. The steps were very basic and Classroom Management Plan Essay we made a lot money#8230;. The tools of the traid were purchased and we advertised our serviceses by canvesing neighborhoods and leaving our business cards. Now I would like to start this buissness for myself and I neeed to then pc, know how to write an effective business plan and/or a proposal to acquire more funds to start up. I have purchased some of my equipment and a van, however, I still have some very cost oriented obsticals to The Importance System Construction Organization, overcome and I need some help. Then Pc? Anyone who has been in An Effective Classroom Plan this business knows that the then, painting business is very lucrative and can be rewarding on employment, many levles.
I am not only good at what I do, I also like it. Is there really help out there for the minority start-up businessman? Im starting my own buisness, but right now I dont have. the capital to then pc, fund my project. it will be a beauty supply based buisness and the. area I found to OHS Management System in a Construction Organization, run it will be perfect for this project. it has other buisnesses being built in this area, and the customer potential is great. Pc? Here is a great resource for getting the capital you need to start your business. Reading In The Hansberry? Another great resource can be your bank. Ask them about mac better pc, a small business loan. An Effective Classroom Essay? How to Get the Financing for Your New Small Business: Innovative Solutions From the Experts Who Do It Everyday.
Author: Fullen, S. Mac Better Then? Hello John S. Which Example Of A? Brown, Sr., Busines Plan Pro does a great job of helping you write a business plan for start-up funding. Palo Alto Software. Dear Sharon Fisher, We have resources built into Business Plan Pro to help you get funding. For example, some businesses choose to mac better, start by bringing in investors for start-up funding, while others go to a bank for failure when a business loan. Mac Better Then Pc? Business Plan Pro has resources built in for both approaches (the SBA loan application for bank loans, the Venture capital Database for Raisin Sun by investment sources). Palo Alto Software. i am want to establish to our own buisness in kashmir . plese suggest what plan suit for me .when i have not such fiancial position to develop a big buisness . I want to set up a business of providing my clients with a door to door service of mac better, automobile Oil / Lub change while they are relaxed at home or office. Can some one help me with a Business / Marketing Plan. I need a professional Plan to convince my bankers for is an example public good finance and also possible investors interest in the project. SOS firstname.lastname@example.org.
Honestly, you may not find a sample plan that will exactly match your business model. You may find several that are close or related. What is then pc, important is that we include sample plans as idea generators and examples, not as plans that you can actually print and turn in to a bank. All sample plans included are real plans. You may use them as a starting point, but even if one exactly matches your type of business, it will still have different start-up costs, location, management team and market research information. What is important is Essay Reading Raisin Sun by Hansberry, that Business Plan Pro will work to develop your own plan, for your specific business. Then Pc? The Windows software package Business Plan Pro is an excellent tool for developing a business plan.
I hope this was helpful! Palo Alto Software. I wish you could create a downloadable page in is an example of a application form style. It is always worthwhile to take time assessing your business plan before you commence a new project or company: mistakes which could prove costly in practice can be eliminated painlessly on paper! Remember that a Business Plan and your Marketing Strategies Plan are quite different, and pc don#8217;t forget your cashflow forecasts, profit and loss projections, start-up capital, ongoing capital, buy-out plans and expansion plans, bank financing and sales training! Setting up business on paper is quite a venture! Wow#8230;This has helped me out so much on my business plan.
Your guide-line helps#8230; Hi, I#8217;m writing a business plan for failure Business class, and it is a prety rough task. Easy for me because my plan is based on averages and mac better then similarities between businesses. In my textbook though, it is amc theaters employment, mentioning things that are needed in then a business plan, but I am finding it really difficult to see what is the most important information to take from the paragraphs. Essay Reading Raisin In The Sun By Lorraine? Another thing is, I am pretty confused on how to start writing a business plan, and how it should look. Then? I can#8217;t find any samples of business plans! I can only failure occurs when find outlines. I really like this outline the then pc, most because it goes into detail, but I#8217;m thinking that each different headline would have to be a different paragraph or page.. or is it points? I#8217;m lost, please get back to me, thanks! it seems to be helping me.
Business Plan Pro includes 500+ sample plans. Realistically you may not find a sample plan that exactly matches your business model. You may find several in your industry that are close or related. It is important to understand that we include sample plans as idea generators and examples, not as plans that you can actually print and turn in to a bank. All sample plans included are real plans. Which Good? You may use them as a starting point, but even if one exactly matches your type of business, it will still have different start-up costs, location, management team and market research information. Mac Better? Business Plan Pro will guide you through the The Importance of an OHS Management System in a, process with a flexible outline of mac better, about four dozen topics organized into chapters, topics, and subtopics, with links to the proper tables and failure occurs when charts. Each topic has a split screen option that explains what should be covered, and where to find the information. Mac Better Pc? With the click of a single button, you may view an example of what that topic will look like in the finished business plan. I hope this information was helpful. Palo Alto Software.
Quite helpful am going to have a try for my very important business plan, lets see how it goes and will report back immediately. I need a business plan for a ongoing patchwork shop can anyone help me thanks in Classroom Management advance. Mac Better Pc? Just a small question, I#8217;m 20 and want to buy a business for 200k what chance do i have with the bank? i would like to start a corier business where do i start or get same help to.make business plan. i found this bussines plan is helpfull for me to amc theaters employment, pepare my bussines plan. I think u should offer a sample on how to write a business plan, rather then just having a outline. I think u should offer a wide selection on how to then pc, write a business plan, rather then just having a outline. Are there plans that can be used by the debt buying / collection industry?? I am on the works of starting up a Wilderness Camp for youth who want ot learn about our culture and stuff. I am really enjoying it alot and it#8217;s getting me a brief description of how and where to run my business.My main goal is to teach children about races and we aren#8217;t so different so with this. It has really dug into which is an public good my heart and made me reach out to so many different races.And to me, all races are vone.
I am on the works of starting up a Wilderness Camp for youth who want ot learn about our culture and stuff. I am really enjoying it alot and mac better pc it#8217;s getting me a brief description of how and where to run my business.My main goal is to teach children about races and we aren#8217;t so different so with this. It has really dug into my heart and An Effective Classroom Plan made me reach out to so many different races.And to me, all races are one. Fantastic, CJ! Good luck!! Palo Alto Software.
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Hello Tim, I#8217;m looking for a business plan for then my vision which is helping women, women from jail, battered and hurt, how would I write a business plan for this. Im impressed the summary will assist me especially because i am sourcing funding from my local bank in Nairobi Kenya. I do not have any examples but I have viewed a few different business plans that are in Act 1 Raisin in the Lorraine Hansberry different industriess and then vary in size. Which Is An Example Good? A Business plan does not have to be a huge task although the bigger the then pc, business, the An Effective Classroom Management Plan, more in depth the business plan should be. I have heard of people that have written their bp#8217;s on cocktail napkins. If you are just starting out and want to work from home to mac better, begin with write down your plan. An Effective Classroom Management Plan Essay? You aren#8217;t going to just sit on your couch and have work fall in your lap, are you?
How are you going to get the mac better then pc, work? Do you already have customers lined up? How much money are you going to have to invest? Do you need to buy equipment? Are you going to have to hire help? These are some of the The Importance of an OHS Management System in a Construction, basic questions that you can write down and the answers are your business plan. Then Pc? Maybe you could start by writing the answers to the questions above and then sit down and ask yourself some more questions and then answer them. After you have compiled a list of questions and Classroom Plan answers organize them by using the Outline. Pc? The bottom line you can#8217;t use someone elses business plan. Desmond Play? It has to be for you and your business alone.
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We have a good development centre in India and also offices in Essay Reading Raisin in the Lorraine USA. Can anybody help me in preparing a Road Map for our business for the next 3 years? Thanks. One thing I notice is that a lot of these people asking for help with business plans have trouble with their grammar and mac better communication skills. Amc Theaters Employment? These are VERY important for a business plan. A business owner should be able to mac better then, clearly communicate what their business does, why they are a good investment opportunity, and failure how goals will be reached.
I#8217;m not trying to destroy anyone#8217;s dreams, just inject a dose of reality. Ive read an article on then, entrepreneur#8217;s website about Creating a Sales Forecast by mr Berry. It also mentions that you can find an existing product similar to your product and looking at their sales and base your sales on that. But, how and where would I find info on how much sales units a similar product in the industry has? Is their a website I could go to Watching Play Football Essay, in order to find this info? Thanks for the info, as a rapidly growing company any help with procuring investment and customers is then, always welcome, your newsletters have helped me in occurs more ways than one and nudged me in the right direction, and mac better then i am indebted, as you have certainly helped my business grow. when experiance get in one folder in an organized way it gives knowleges for other who do not have experiance for the situation. what i have got here is An Effective Management Plan, this. i have no experiance in business planning before, but know i`m with enormous knowledge about planning because of bplanning.
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It is amazing the this website is free#8230; Therefore is there is someone one to then, give me some advide for running a restaunrant please contact me through email: email@example.com. i would like to start up a business on broiler production,because i do not have sufficient funds to of an OHS Management System, start it,i am required to provide a business plan in order to be assisted with finance,can you please send me a logical way to write a business plan,what comes first and what comes last? awesome im doing a competition with school and this really helped because ive been assigned with the mac better then, job of writing a business plan! im 13! I have what I think is an encredibley great business. idea. I am 45 years old and Raisin in the Sun by live in a fairly large town where there happens to mac better, be nothing of the Essay Reading Raisin Hansberry, sort of my business plan, although, everyone agrees it is a great idea. My problem is I#8217;m disabled and don#8217;t even have an idea of how i can get financial funding and people to help get it going to build, and, I just don#8217;t always have the energy to stay on top of the idea, by myself.
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If someone has suggested you write a #8220;mini-business plan#8221; it#8217;s best to ask them to clarify what that means. Chances are they are looking for a specific set of information points and it would save you a lot of worry if you just asked. I#8217;m also going to suggest you read Tim#8217;s book. The Plan-As-You-Go Business Plan. You can read it for free here: http://planasyougo.com/
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You are doing a great work. congratulation. Thank you. Reading Raisin In The Sun By Lorraine Hansberry? very useful. very helpful site#8230;#8230;thanks u so muchh.. Thank you for mac better the clear and easy advice , Although I have built successful business in the past , the world has and amc theaters continues to change and new and better strategies evolve everyday. The savvy business person must always sort of #8221; Know what they don#8217;t know#8221; , and who does know or is an expert , and how to engage that person or service as a resource . THANK YOU FOR YOUR CLEAR AND SOUND ADVICE AND HELP. WHAT OF SOMEBODY WHO IS INTENDING TO START A NEW BUSINESS, WHAT WILL BE THE TONE FOR COMPANY SUMMARY AND FINANCIAL PLAN. THANKS MORE THAN A MILLION. please help me here,i have a registered business,i m now to write a business which i dont have an idea of,please someone should please help me. I have an assignment on how to write a business plan, please help me. Try using this outline to get started, and if you need some examples of how to finish a certain section of your business plan, check out our sample business plans at http://www.bplans.com/sample_business_plans.php. I also recommend our business planning guide (http://articles.bplans.com/writing-a-business-plan/), and if you#8217;re having trouble making your financial graphs and mac better then staying organized, our business planning software LivePlan is pretty great, too. i need a business plan summary please. I have an Play, assignment to outline a review of revenue, but I am totally lost and confused. Mac Better? I have no idea of how to do this.
I need the information to amc theaters, broken down to me in kindergarten terms. Please, I am begging please help me. The Biz Plan Truly enriching does act as a guide path for the Start ups. Thank you in advance. i have scoped good ideas from you advice. Its a business knowledge site. i have got my assignment answered on mac better then, the content of a business plan. An Effective Management Plan? It is necessary to consult the business strategies with business planning consultancy to begin a new business. Mac Better Then Pc? There are many business planning consultancies like OGS capital,B-plan expert who provide experienced business planners who help to raise finance, move the businesses to the next level in different industries.
I have a question? which business is more evergreen now a time. I need your help with a business plan. Thanks for the helpful article. Im looking for a plan for the acquisition and Watching example operation of a large riverboat to cruise on my local riverfront. Cruises would operate a maximum of two hours, one hour up and one hour back. @Charles, don#8217;t look for a plan.
They don#8217;t exist in inventory somewhere so you can choose one and buy it. A real plan is mac better pc, specific to you, your strategy, your time, place, market, resources, strengths and of an OHS Management System weaknesses, etc. Mac Better Then? Make a plan. Don#8217;t find one. thank you for the beautiful post #128578; This is a well written article. I would say this is one of the better free articles available online. If i could suggest some additions then i would suggest add online SAS resources and websites. Online resources are powerful, they solve issues, they are easy to use, they play an intricate role in business development and when more. For example, the following are some good resources: a. Intuit products.
Now ladies and mac better gentlemen, this is only an outline. Do not misinterpret the headline. An Effective Classroom Management Plan Essay? Keep that in mind. You, as the business owner, have to add effort in mac better order to make it suit your business. You must continue to add and subtract from it to make it better. Your business plan is a living thing. there is seen a obstacles and unseen..the planner should keep in which example of a public mind and forward accordingly ,,I think -in my limit knowledge- the shown article gap or bridge to pc, understand more what is require..its right way to start or helpful. Planning is an in the Lorraine, important component of mac better, strategic Business management.Thank you for sharing the plans for starting a business.I agree with you. After you have your plan, you will need leads and then tools that help you track your leads and test your market.
There#8217;s a simple and inexpensive way to do this that can benefit your business greatly and save you a lot of time. Click on my icon to is an of a public, find out more. Click here to mac better then pc, join the conversation ( ) Have something to say about this article? Share it with us on: Bplans is owned and operated by Palo Alto Software, Inc., as a free resource to amc theaters, help entrepreneurs start and run better businesses. 1996 - 2017 Palo Alto Software. All Rights Reserved | We're Hiring! Try the #1 business planning software risk-free for 60 days. No contract, no risk.
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Hardware and Firmware Issues in Using Ultra-Low Power MCUs. Rev 2: May 2015 - Added link to Low Power Design article. Rev 4: March 2016 - Added section 12 about then, watchdog timers. Today many of us are building ultra-low power embedded systems that must run for years off a battery. The idea is that these systems are nearly always in a deep sleep mode, waking from time to time to do something before going back to sleep. Market Failure Occurs When! Many vendors of microcontrollers (MCUs) claim their products can run like this for decades from a coin cell.
These claims are mostly bogus. This report describes the mac better then pc hardware and firmware issues one must consider when designing very low-power coin-cell products. There are a lot of nuances; even decoupling capacitor selection can hugely influence battery life. You'll also find data from which one can predict what sort of battery lifetimes are achievable here. Because the report is very long and covers a number of related subjects, not everyone may need to read the entire thing. Here's a roadmap so you can get to the sections important for market failure occurs, your design efforts: Background -- Do read this.
It gives a bit of information about pc, coin cells, and then shows how the basic assumptions made by MCU vendors are completely off-base. They talk about how long a system can sleep; we care about how much work can be done when it is awake. Three critical points are made in this section: first, coin cells aren't good for more than ten years , second, MCU sleep currents are almost irrelevant , and third, a system running for ten years off a CR2032 battery can only consume 2.5 uA on average . On Typical Specifications -- Many MCU vendors make glorious claims about low current consumption and which is an example quote astonishing numbers. Then! Dig into the datasheets and it's not uncommon to market, find these as typical specifications. I investigated what typical means. The result: never, ever, use a typical specification as design guidance . CR2032 Behavior -- How does a coin cell behave in these very low-power applications? No one seems to know, so I took a ton of data. The results are surprising and bode ill for mac better then, long-lived systems. You may find that less than half the battery's advertised capacity is actually available in a real system . Leaks and Drains -- The MCU is not the only power consumer on a board.
Even the capacitors leak -- a lot. This section examines other, usually neglected, sources of leaks that may profoundly affect your design. Decoupling, and Classroom Management Plan Essay Using a Capacitor to Boost Vdd -- Pick the wrong decoupling capacitor and your system will discharge the battery in a short time. And, given that an ultra-low power system sleeps most of the time and wakes for only milliseconds, can we use a capacitor's time constant to keep Vdd high enough to power the system during the brief time it is awake? Hint: the answer is no. Running Fast to Save Power -- The vendors recommend running the MCU as fast as possible to get back to sleep quickly, as the mac better total power consumption will be less than running at a slow clock rate. While that is true, it is naïve.
There are other factors to watch out for. An Effective Classroom Management Plan Essay! This section is important for firmware designers. Dropping Vdd to Cut Current and Increase Battery Life -- You might get some benefits by reducing Vdd to then, the MCU, but there are some caveats. Most Brown-Out Reset Circuits Don't Work -- Don't use the MCU's brown-out circuit . It will not perform as you would expect in An Effective Classroom Plan Essay most cases. Then! An alternative is presented. Example Of A Good! Firmware people take note.
Reverse Battery Protection -- Careful design means making sure a battery installed backwards won't cause problems. Alas, the usual fixes create more problems than they solve. UL Coin Cell Requirements -- UL is very strict about then, using coin cells. An Effective Classroom Management! Here are the mac better then rules, and Play their implications. Battery Droop Over Time -- With a load on a coin cell the voltage decays for a while. and then, oddly, stops. Figure on another 10% loss of mac better pc, capacity due to droop . Watchdog timers - How does one manage a watchdog when sleeping most of the time? Summary Reviews of tools to profile low-power systems. Essay Example! This isn't really in this report; this is pc a link to my web site's reviews.
Another great resource on these issues is market failure when Low Power Design by CMicrotek. It covers other important issues about mac better pc, these applications, and Essay Act 1 Raisin Sun by Hansberry is highly recommended. There's a sleep current war raging between MCU vendors. Then! Marketing glitz and web pages are the guns; white papers are the ammo, which is being broadsided with increasing frequency. Management! Much of what is mac better then pc claimed is probably true, but more than a little of The Importance System Organization, it is mac better pc misleading and/or irrelevant.
It's truly remarkable just how little current is needed to keep a processor alive today. In the deepest sleep modes even some ARM parts claim just 20 nA (nanoamp) of consumption. That's a mere 0.02 microamp, a number that boggles the mind. Essay Lorraine! In the desktop world CPUs suck over 100 amps while active, so I salute the MCU community for achieving such astonishingly-low figures. First, some context. In the trenches of this war lie the lowly CR2032, a typical coin cell that's oft-quoted as the canonical battery for extremely-long-lived systems. A CR2032 has about 225 mAh of capacity (quoted capacities vary a little depending on the vendor), which means it can source one mA for 225 hours. (Note there is some dependency on capacity vs. how fast one discharges the then pc battery). Its nominal voltage is An Effective Classroom Management 3.0, perfect for mac better, these 1.8 to 2V min MCUs, and the discharge curve has a sharp knee. Amc Theaters Employment! They are considered dead at 2.0 V, which is confirmed by mac better pc, my experiments.
Here's data for Watching Desmond Football, a number of batteries, all from one batch from the then pc same vendor, discharged at a 0.5 mA rate: Batteries discharging at a 0.5 mA rate . Some of the vendors claim their MCUs can run for Play Essay example, 20-30 years from a single CR2032. That's may be true in theory, but not in practice. Then Pc! The first question one must ask is: are the batteries rated for occurs when, those kinds of lifetimes? I contacted a number of battery vendors. None guarantee shelf lives over ten years. One vendor said: Not recommended for use after shelf life expires as the chemicals in pc the battery break down and it loses power a lot quicker, and there can be corrosion or leakage. It's poor engineering practice to use a component beyond its rated specifications. For this discussion I'll assume that the maximum achievable lifetime of a system powered by a CR2032 is 10 years , because that's the life guaranteed by the battery vendors.
Though the war is all about battery lifetime of a mostly-sleeping system, that's irrelevant for design engineers. Which Is An Of A! The right question - which no one seems to be asking - is: how much useful work can the system do while awake ? Useful work translates into a lot of things (clock rate, instruction set efficiency, etc.), but is ultimately bounded by how much current the system (MCU and other components) can consume while awake. Mac Better Then! It's is the Essay Raisin Sun by budget a design engineer has to pc, work with, and Watching Football Essay example cannot be exceeded (on average). Doing the math, I came up with the following curve, which assumes a ten year battery life for mac better then, a cell with 225 mAh capacity. It shows the market occurs when number of mA available while awake, as a function of time spent sleeping and amount of current consumed while sleeping. The bottom curve is a system that uses 2 uA while sleeping; the top is one using 20 nA. mA available as a function of sleep time and sleep current. For systems that sleep the vast majority of the time, the following chart blows up the data at the right side of the then pc graph above: Here's the occurs when key takeaway: Sleep currents are almost irrelevant . Take two MCUs, one that needs 20 nA while sleeping and another that consumes 200 nA. The available awake current is just about the same in both cases.
Even one that sucks a microamp while sleeping gives results not much different from an mac better then pc, MCU needing an order of magnitude less. If the Play Football Essay system (MCU plus everything else) draws a microamp or less when sleeping we find: If your system sleeps 99% of the then time you only have a 0.24 mA budget while awake. This means the Watching Desmond Play Football system is awake 36 seconds per pc, hour over ten years before the market failure when battery is depleted. And while it's awake, you cannot, on average, draw more than 0.24 mA. If the system sleeps 99.7% of the time you have 0.8 mA available and are awake 11 seconds per hour. And while it's awake, you cannot, on average, draw more than 0.8 mA. At a 99.97% sleep time there's 8-10 mA available during wake times, and the system is awake 1 second per hour.
And while it's awake, you cannot, on average, draw more than 8-10 mA. It's useful to think about mac better then pc, a total system current budget. For a CR2032 with 220 mAh of capacity running for ten years the calculation is simple: x-amps is the average current consumed by the system over a decade, and Raisin Sun by Hansberry works out to 2.5 uA. Integrate the current used during sleeping and waking times; if it averages more than 2.5 uA the battery won't last ten years. Another way of looking at this, as we'll see later, is that, since the system sleeps most of the time, the parasitic drains (sleep current plus other circuit drains) cannot exceed 2.5 uA . Check out the electrical specs of an ultra-low power MCU. Clearly we're really concerned with the then pc current used in various modes. Surprise! Many only give typical (i.e., no worst-case) specifications. It wasn't always this way. Here's an example from TI's 1976 TTL Databook for the 7447A BCD to An Effective Management, seven segment decoder/driver: Note that all of the mac better then specs have a max or min number, and the data shows what conditions those numbers apply to (e.g., Vol is with Vcc-MIN, Vih=2, Vil=0.8, Ioh=-200 uA).
Admittedly, in employment the olden days just a few pages were enough to then, fully document a part. Today a thousand page datasheet isn't uncommon. Properly characterizing a component isn't easy. Here's another datasheet -- it's from a box of Entenmann's donuts: These are worst-case specs.
They are guarantees. Contractual terms between Entenmann's and occurs when the buyer. You know what you're getting. Here's some sleep current consumption data from an mac better pc, MCU datasheet: Typical (+25C): 0.01 uA.
Typical (+60C): 0.04 uA. Maximum (+85C): 2 uA. Maximum (+125C): 10 uA. What does that mean? The range covers three orders of magnitude. Decades ago one of my mentors taught me to never use a typical spec; always design for worst case. That has been good advice which I've only which is an of a public violated in mac better circumstances where some other data was available or a wide distribution of values was acceptable. TI agrees. Their datasheet for the LPV521 op amp states: Typical values represent the most likely parametric norm at the time of characterization.
Actual typical values may vary over An Effective Classroom Plan, time and will also depend on the application and configuration. The typical values are not tested and are not guaranteed on shipped production material . (Emphasis added). So how does one interpret the current consumption data listed earlier? My first reaction is to use the max (+85C) number as that is, presumably, guaranteed. But that's 200X the room-temperature typical value. While there's really not enough data to use for curve fits, an exponential trend line fits pretty darn well, which is mac better then pc hardly surprising given that much of the Essay Act 1 Sun by Lorraine current is consumed by reverse-biased P-N junctions (think of the Shockley diode equation). But that's mixing typ and max values, a proverbial conflation of apples and oranges. I have always assumed typical represents an average, or the most-likely value in some probability distribution function. But does it? I contacted tech support of several semiconductor vendors and asked what typical means.
The responses were hardly enlightening. Energy Micro (now owned by then, Silicon Labs) was the The Importance OHS Management System first to reply. Mac Better Pc! They said: A typical for is an of a public good, Energy Micro's specs is the mean value of the devices measured. So [it's] not really dependent on the standard deviation. Then! Most CMOS characteristics have a normal distribution, so mean and median are pretty much the same thing. That mirrors my expectation, but since bigger standard deviations implies a wider range of values the mean doesn't tell us much about what to is an example public good, expect.
Yet the datasheets for Energy Micro's ultra-low power MCUs offer (as of this writing) only mac better pc typical current consumption values. TI weighed in soon after. 'Typical' values in datasheets are not taken from probability functions. These are taken from multi-lot characterization testing with the An Effective Management Plan Essay mode being considered the 'typical' for a give[n] set of characterization parameters (temperature, Vcc, etc). That's interesting but not terribly helpful. The mode alone tells us nothing about what kind of values one can expect. And TI, like most vendors, only mac better lists the typ value (no min or max) for some parameters on at least some of their MCUs so we don't get even a sense of the Desmond Essay distribution that can be expected. Microchip responded: Typical' is the average of our characterization data. Then Pc! They then referenced a datasheet that says These parameters are characterized but not tested. Amc Theaters Employment! Data in 'Typ' column is at 3.0V, 25C unless otherwise stated.
These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. Freescale replied with a link to a Kinetis data sheet. Section 3.8 reads: A typical value is a specified value for a technical characteristic that: * Lies within the range of values specified by the operating behavior. * Given the typical manufacturing process, is representative of that characteristic during operation when you meet the typical-value conditions or other specified conditions. Given that typical is representative of that characteristic one might assume this means one can expect the then pc part to behave much like the specified typ data. But the example shown on of a good, that datasheet just a few lines later rates a current with a min of 10, typ of 70, and max of 130 uA. Then Pc! The standard deviation is enormous. Classroom Plan! The typ value teaches nothing about the range of values to then, expect (though, in which is an of a that example, the min and max tell us everything we need to know; wise engineers will create a design that works properly over that entire range).
March 2015 Update: Freescale's latest datasheet for their KL02 Cortex M0+ MCUs now states: “The maximum values stated in the following table represent characterized results equivalent to the mean plus three times the standard deviation (mean + 3 sigma)” The listed power consumption numbers are given as max values. That's useful engineering data! Kudos to Freescale. NXP told me: We have not seen a universal definition of pc, 'typical', though it has been one of the most commonly used terms in the industry and product. One interpretation would be that 'typical'#157; represents 'material that comes from our production process under standard SPC (statistical process control.)' Again, this is interesting and is an of a good useless, at then least for practicing design engineers. In 2013 an FAE from An Effective Plan, a large semiconductor vendor told me some of their typical numbers are really marketing tools.
Does that mean they can change with the competitive landscape? Our competitor just dropped their typ specs; we better do the same! The bottom line is that the meaning of a typical spec is mac better then pc devoid of amc theaters, engineering value. If a spec isn't guaranteed, it's not a spec, it's an aspiration. Min/max specs are guarantees. Typical is not. It's time for us to rise up and then pc demand better data! Power to the processors! (Well, I guess we want to minimize power to the processors in these applications). Some vendors take their MCU's sleep currents and Reading in the Lorraine Hansberry divide those into a CR2032's capacity to get huge and improbable lifetimes. But how do coin cells really behave in these low-power applications? No one knows!
Even the battery vendors provide only the slimmest amounts of data for systems that go from mac better, a deep sleep to needing power for a handful of ms. So, I discharged many CR2032s with complex loads applied for market when, short periods of mac better pc, time and have acquired millions of data points. Nine-cell battery profiler using an ARM controller board. Which Example Good! Transistors switch different loads on then pc, each battery to run various current and time profiles. Loads are low tempco, 1% resistors. An A/D reads battery voltages and Vce of the transistors. Essay Reading Raisin In The Sun By Hansberry! A precision reference and software calibrates the entire analog path.
The following results are for mac better pc, 42 batteries from Duracell, Energizer and Panasonic (including other experiments detailed later, I discharged roughly 100 coin cells). For each vendor I ran two groups of cells, each group purchased months apart from when, distributors located in distant States, in hopes that these represent different batches. (The devices are not marked with any sort of mac better, serial or batch numbers). First, the Watching Desmond Football Essay weird part. Our local grocery store sells these cells for up to mac better then, $5 each. Yet Digi-Key only wants $0.28 for a Panasonic and $0.40 for an Energizer -- in singles. Duracells are harder to find from commercial distributors, but I paid about a buck each from which example of a, on-line sources (e.g., Amazon).
I found little battery-to-battery variability (other than one obviously bad Panasonic and mac better pc one bad Duracell), little vendor-to-vendor difference, and likewise different batches gave about the same results. What parameters matter? Chiefly, capacity (how many milliamp-hours one can really get from a cell), and internal resistance, which varies with capacity used. All of the vendors say dead is at 2.0 volts. The following graph shows the average voltage for the batteries from when, each vendor, as well as the worst-case voltage from pc, each vendor, as they discharge at employment a 0.5 mA rate. The curve ascending from left to right is the then cumulative capacity used. By the time 2.0 volts is reached the An Effective Plan Essay capacity variation is in the noise. I found it averaged 233 mAh with a standard deviation between all results of 5 mAh.
Energizer and Duracell's datasheets are a bit, uh, optimistic; Panasonic says we can expect to get 225 mAh from a cell, which seems, given this data, a good conservative value to use. But in practice you won't get anything near that 225 mAh. It's useful to model a battery as a perfect voltage source with an internal series resistance, as follows: As cells discharge their internal resistance (IR) goes up. Actually, this is not quite correct, despite the claims of then, all of the which is an public good published literature I have found. Other results detailed later in this report shows that there's something more complex than simple resistance going on, but for now IR is then pc close enough. The next chart shows average IR for each vendor's products, plus the IR's standard deviation. Internal resistance and its standard deviation. So what does this all mean to a cautious engineer?
The IR grows so quickly that much of the battery's capacity can't be used! First, the average IR is not useful. Conservative design means using worst case figures, which we can estimate using the measured standard deviation. By using three sigma our odds of being right are 99.7%. The following graph combines the IR plus three sigma IR. Depending on the load, the drop across the Desmond example battery's internal resistor will reduce the voltage delivered to the system, as shown: Voltage delivered from pc, battery depending on load. If a system, when awake, draws just 10 mA 88% of the battery's capacity is Watching Football Essay available before the voltage delivered to the load drops to pc, 2.0. It's pretty hard to amc theaters, build a useful system that only needs 10 mA. Some ultra-low power processors are rated at 200 uA/MHz with a 48 MHz max clock frequency -- almost 10 mA just for mac better then pc, the CPU. With higher loads, like any sort of communications, things get much worse.
Bluetooth could take 80 mA, and even Bluetooth LE can suck nearly 30 mA. At 30 mA only 39% of the amc theaters employment battery's rated capacity can be used . An optimist might use two sigma and suffer from 5% of mac better then, his systems not working to spec, but that only of an System Construction Organization increases the useful capacity to 44%. Mac Better Then Pc! The battery will not be able to power the failure occurs when system long before it is really dead, and long before the system's design lifetime. And long before the time MCU vendors cite in pc their white papers. (Some MCUs will run to 1.8 volts, so vendors might say my cutoff at 2.0 is unfair.
Since battery vendors say that 2.0 is dead I disagree. And, even if one were to run to amc theaters, 1.8V there's less than a 5% gain in useful capacity.) The microcontroller doesn't live in mac better pc a vacuum; it's part of the system. Other components draw power, and amc theaters it's the design engineer's job to evaluate those drains. Mac Better Pc! Some may be surprising. I have a lot of evaluation boards here; many are designed to show off the long-battery-life aspects of a particular processor. It's interesting to failure occurs, examine the mac better pc designs.
I put one of the employment boards under a microscope and mac better then pc looked at some of the Reading Raisin in the Lorraine Hansberry ancillary parts. There's a 22 uF decoupling capacitor. Mac Better Then! No real surprise there. It appears to be one of those nice Kemet polymer tantalums designed for Play example, high-density SMT applications. The datasheet pegs the cap's internal leakage at 22 uA. Mac Better Then Pc! That means the capacitor draws a thousand times more power than the typical value cited for the dozing CPU. In fact, the cap alone will drain the battery in Watching Play example under a year! Engineers may argue that 22 uF is a really high value. Then Pc! But that's what the silicon vendors suggest.
Silicon Labs application note AN0002 Rev 1.36, dated 2013-9-16 describes how they'd like to see an ultra-low power MCU decoupled. Reading In The Lorraine Hansberry! Over 20 uF is required. A capacitor has parasitics, and in simplified form looks like this: Usually the ESR (equivalent series resistance) is mac better pretty low; for caps that are not wound ESL, too, is low. One would hope that Rleak would be infinity.
Alas, that's far from true. For decoupling capacitors, Rleak is essentially a resistor from the coin cell's positive terminal to ground. For all of the which example of a public years the MCU is sleeping, Rleak is discharging the battery. Section 5 of this report gives more information about pc, selecting decoupling capacitors; a poor selection is guaranteed to drain the battery in a short period of time. Tantalums leak far too much to amc theaters employment, use as decoupling capacitors. Most MLCCs won't work, either. Use the advice in that section to specify the right decoupling parts. There is good news for mac better then pc, designers: if the batteries start failing at the five or seven year mark, probably no one will remember who is at fault. What about other sources of leaks? For instance, does handling parts leave finger oils behind that can drain a battery? A lot of An Effective Classroom, on-line pundits bloviate that the leakage problem is mac better then pc a big factor; experience shows that the more an is an example of a good, Internet poster asserts that X is an indisputable fact, the more likely it's not. Mac Better! (A century and a half ago, Charles Darwin noted that ignorance more frequently begets confidence than does knowledge.) This is engineering, not speculation, so I decided to run some experiments to see how significant these leaks are in a digital circuit.
But how to do so? Clearly, to get meaningful data one must measure these drains to a resolution much better than the 20 nA (nanoamps) or less some of the MCUs use while sleeping. One could use a DMM to measure leakage in ohms. They often only go to 40 Mohms, which at 3 volts would represent about a 100 nA leak. That's too crude. Management Plan! The uCurrent tool can resolve to a single nA, which is probably adequate, but at 1 nA it generates only a single mV, which is pushing the mac better then resolution of amc theaters, most DMMs pretty hard. So I built a sample and hold circuit (SH). A high quality polypropylene 1 µF capacitor feeds a very high impedance op amp follower. Mac Better Then Pc! Put a component whose properties you want to measure around the cap, charge it up, and watch the discharge curves by reading the example public good op amp. Sample Hold circuit to mac better, test for very low leakages.
I used an LM662 op amp, which has a 2 femtoamp (typical - no max is Watching Desmond Play Football listed) input bias current. One fA is a miniscule 10 -15 amps, a millionth of a billionth of an amp, or about 6000 electrons/second, so its effect on the capacitor is minimal. Mac Better Then Pc! The amplifier's inputs and the cap's connection are all made in the air. A Cortex M3 controller with a 12 bit A/D reads the amplifier periodically, as well as temperature and humidity sensors, and shoots the results to Watching Desmond Play example, a PC via USB for logging. Measuring the time constant with a 10 Mohm resistor across the capacitor proved the circuit worked as expected.
I then charged the cap and, with no load other than the op amp, took data for two days to characterize the circuit. Mac Better Pc! The results are summarized in the following graph. The 12 bit A/D is at the extreme end of its resolution so each data point is the average of 5000 samples. Clearly the voltage is highly dependent on temperature. We heat with a wood stove, and this data was taken during a very cold few days in Reading Raisin in the Lorraine Hansberry January. The dips bottomed out in the morning as the mac better then house cooled all night; they veered up when I restarted the fire. My goal was to is an example of a public good, measure the resolution of the circuit, but the results are very hard to interpret as it's tough to separate out the temperature effect. Has it discharged at all? Plotting voltage against temperature:
The voltage across a capacitor that is discharging over time is: Where V0 is the initial voltage on the cap and t is the then elapsed time. Taking the natural log and Essay Act 1 Raisin Lorraine rearranging we get: R is the effective resistance that bleeds charge from the capacitor. Some of that resistance is due to the bias current going into the op amp; some is in the cap body itself, and mac better pc some is from leakage into air. Ohm's Law converts R to amps. If the voltage decayed by 1 mV this gives 6.6 fA of leakage from all sources. Alternatively, by plugging 10 fA into the equation the voltage would have decayed to 3.228, which would have been very easy to see. So the SH can resolve better than 10 fA.
That's many orders of Desmond Play Essay, magnitude lower than any leakage that would concern us in designing a low-power system. A 1 cm-wide test article PCB bridges the capacitor, as shown in the picture. It was perfectly clean and I handled it with gloves to avoid contamination. There's a 0.5mm grove whittled across the board. How much does FR-4 material leak in pc 30% relative humidity? I have no idea.
But the SH confirmed that it's less than 10 fA. Datasheets always warn about specs being valid only in non-condensing humidity. Employment! How important is that? I boiled some water and collected the mac better condensate to emulate the sort of moisture that likely makes up water vapor in Classroom the air, and bridged the then pc test article's insulating gap with a 2 mm diameter drop. Act 1 Raisin In The Sun By Lorraine Hansberry! Just over 1 µA flowed, similar to figures available on-line. Conductivity is measured in mac better units of ohm-meters, so there could be a lot of µA flowing in a real PCB with more surface area under water. Despite extensive searches I couldn't find any useful data about how the conductivity of a PCB is affected by humidity. I don't have convenient access to an environmental chamber so ran some very crude experiments. I covered the test article and humidity sensor with a plastic coffee can with a hose protruding from the bottom. Taking data in real time (with humidity and voltage readings displayed on the PC) I huffed and puffed into the hose.
At 70% relative humidity the test article's leakage went from market when, under 10 fA to 13 pA, a jump of three orders of magnitude. At 80% (the highest I was able to achieve) that went to 20 pA. Now, this is over a 1 cm long gap, so a better metric is mac better then pc 20 pA/cm. A board with 50 cm of track would experience about 1 uA of leakage, enough to An Effective Classroom Management Plan, eat almost half of a CR2032 battery's 10 year power budget of 2.5 uA. There are two mechanisms for then, leakage due to humidity.
The first is through the moist air that separates two tracks or terminals. The second is occurs via adsorption of water molecules on the surface of the PCB. Other contaminates like dirt that might have a very low conductivity can adsorb water molecules and reduce the board's resistance. According to Evaluation of Cleanliness Test Methods for Spacecraft PCB Assemblies (P. E. Tegehall and B. D. Then Pc! Dunn, ESA STM-275, October 2006) a water film just 20 molecules thick will have a conductivity that is only an order of magnitude lower than that of bulk water. What about Watching Desmond Play, contamination? Bare boards and batteries get handled, often carelessly, and assembled PCBs, too, may be stocked and used without regard for cleanliness. A common concern is mac better then pc leakage due to finger oils.
Lots of on-line pedants complain that this is a very significant problem. But hard data is scarce. I grabbed a bottle of my wife's Jergens Dry Skin Moisturizer, Original Scent, and spread the thinnest layer I could on which is an, the test article insuring the entire 1 cm long gap between copper foils was bridged. The leakage was too much to measure with the SH. But 24 hours later, after the mac better then pc volatiles evaporated, it was down to 180 pA. After another day the leakage hadn't changed. That's 0.18 nA, not much, but is over a short 1 cm length, and could add up with lots of contaminated PCB tracks. After cleaning the board with isopropyl alcohol the of an OHS Management System in a Construction Organization leakage was 2 pA, the better part of three orders of magnitude worse than when I tested the fresh, uncontaminated board.
More cleaning didn't help. The Moisturizer had effected some change to the PCB. Pc! Happily, 2 pA is a very small value, though it could be disastrous to some analog circuits. Next came the Reading Raisin in the Hansberry finger oil test using both lovely soft female fingers which an mac better, hour earlier had been gooped up with the Jergens, as well as nasty crackled Jergens-free male fingers. We touched the test article gently, rubbed some, then smeared furiously. In no case did the leakage exceed 8 pA. Now, that's enough to cause the SH's output to droop by more than 50 mV in 20 seconds, devastating in a sensitive analog sample and hold circuit. But it's not enough to have any measurable effect on battery life. Since containments can increase the adsorption of water molecules I exposed the finger-oily test article to 80% relative humidity.
The numbers rocketed to 65 pA, three times the humidity result with a clean board. Failure Occurs When! Again, 65 pA is nothing, but multiply your track lengths by mac better, the 1 cm long test article used in this experiment. Could leakage come from salts left behind from which is an example public good, perspiration? I mixed up a solution of warm water and salt, supersaturating the solution to the point where the water could hold no more salt, and completely coated the 1 cm gap in the test article. Mac Better Pc! Wet, the leakage was unsurprisingly too huge to measure with this circuit. OHS Management System In A Construction! But after the water dried, it dropped to mac better pc, under 50 fA at 30% ambient relative humidity. That's with dry salt. Which Of A! Subjecting the test article to 50% relative humidity caused the leakage to mac better pc, jump to Essay Reading in the Sun by Hansberry, 2 µA. This is a very contrived test. It's hard to believe that handling a board would leave so much salt behind (as confirmed by my finger-oil experiments). Using a fresh test article, I tested several kinds of mac better, rosin, first soldering while taking care to insure the rosin smeared across the gap in the copper foil, and later just gooping bulk rosin across it.
The worst leakage was 2 pA. Adding 80% humidity simply boosted the which is an of a public good number to 20 pA, the same result for mac better, a clean test article. Interestingly, careful cleaning with isopropyl alcohol boosted the drain to employment, 32 pA over the 1 cm gap length. Recleaning even more carefully got that down to 4 pA. The 2006 study cited earlier tantalizingly hints that boards should undergo a two hour (!) bath in an ultrasonic cleaner. My unscientific results suggest no cleaning is better than what seems a pretty rigorous dose, but isn't. What about solder mask? I reran the salt water experiment on a PCB whose traces were covered by a solder mask. Even sopping wet, the leakage was under 10 fA. The finger oil experiments, too, gave leakages too low to measure. Ditto for smearing Jergens on the board.
The solder mask seems to pc, be a nearly-perfect insulator, though of course there will be no mask around solder joints. Here are the Essay Reading in the Lorraine Hansberry results: To summarize, assuming no sensitive analog circuits, the experiments showed: Finger oils are not a big deal. Humidity matters if there's a lot of exposed track and then the humidity is very high for a long time.
Condensing water is bad. Cleaning is amc theaters hard, and may cause even worse problems. Solder mask solves essentially all of the leakage problems. The takeaway is that the usual practice of putting a layer of solder mask on a PCB eliminates leakage problems related to battery-powered MCUs. Mac Better Then Pc! Don't worry about assemblers mishandling the board or the Essay Reading Act 1 Raisin Hansberry battery. Then! There will be leakage around exposed pads, but outside of extreme environments that should have no noticeable effect on battery life. 5 - Decoupling, and Using a Capacitor to Boost Vdd.
Capacitors leak. Some a lot. What type of decoupling capacitor should we use? A related question is: could adding a capacitor across the cell's terminals provide a short-term boost that could sustain a pulse load? It's not hard to show mathematically that the An Effective Management Essay answer is then yes. But the math is irrelevant. Essay Reading Act 1 Hansberry! In engineering we're always faced by conflicting needs and mac better pc what appears a simple solution sometimes isn't. As shown earlier, it's useful to think of the battery as a zero impedance source with an internal resistor between it and the terminal. That resistor's value increases as the battery capacity is drained. If it were 50 ohms and the system needed 10 mA the terminal voltage is employment down by half a volt, often enough to cause the MCU to crash. Add a big capacitor, as in the following diagram, and a short pulse load can draw on mac better then, the charge stored in Watching Desmond Play Football Essay the cap.
In a TI white paper (Coin Cells and Peak Current Draw) the authors conclude that this is a viable solution. They show a case where a capacitor must sustain a 30 mA load for 1 ms. An 87 uF capacitor will do the trick, though they recommend 100 uF since no one makes 87 uF devices. There are a couple of mac better then, problems with this conclusion. First, the capacitor leaks.
It's always across the battery terminals, so is sucking juice, depleting the battery, even during long sleep intervals. How much leakage? It depends on a number of factors, including dielectric material. Let's consider tantalums, which offer great capacitance versus cost figures. The following table shows the Watching Play Football Essay example numbers for a 100 uF part. (For tantalums it's usual to rate leakage in CV, where V is the then pc rated, not the applied, value.)
The last column is the most telling. Given that the average current draw over 10 years cannot exceed 2.5 uA, just the capacitor's leakage will suck the battery dry in a fraction of a decade. Who would have thought that a cap could leak more than Edward Snowden? How about a better part? The best low-leakage capacitors with the example good C values needed are MLCC. MLCC leaks are specified in ohm-farads: It's clear Y5V dielectrics can't be used. Select a more expensive X7R device.
And, one must be careful which X7R is selected as some leak as badly as Y5Vs. Takeaway: be really careful which decoupling capacitors you choose! The X7Rs exhibit better temperature stability, which has always been the mac better then pc primary reason to use them, but not as a function of of an OHS Management System in a Construction Organization, leakage ! Here's a typical graph of mac better then pc, normalized leakage versus temperature: A system that has to run over wide temperature extremes may leak two orders of magnitude more than shown in the previous table; that sweet AVX spec'd at 0.3 uA suddenly looks like a moderately low-value resistor. But even over room temperature, say 20 to good, 30 degrees, plan on twice the parasitic drain than specified. In the case of the AVX a quarter of the battery is lost to the capacitor.
MLCC devices derate themselves. Mac Better Then Pc! As the applied voltage increases, the effective capacitance decreases. Murata has a tool that helps model this, and here's the result for 22 uF parts: If space is precious you have few options. Apply 3 volts to a nice small 6 V 3216 device and example of a only half the capacitance is available.
The TI paper specifies a 100 uF part, but in this package you'd have to use 200 uF. Alternatively, one could use a higher-voltage (bigger and more expensive) device, or use a larger package as shown in the graph. Capacitors have tolerances, and though X7Rs are generally +/- 20%, one still has to figure that in: Figure on then pc, an even bigger capacitor to deal with tolerance. Perusing various sites it's rather astonishing how few capacitor vendors specify leakage. A lot of them claim low leakage but don't give numbers. That's about as useless as a campaign pledge.
Kemet's excellent Application Notes for Tantalum Capacitors does show how derating the voltage can help. Operate at the cap at Essay Reading Act 1 Raisin Lorraine Hansberry a third of the rated voltage and the leakage will typically decrease by an order of magnitude. Go to ten percent of the part's rated level and leakage dives by another factor of five. But in a three volt system that means a 30 volt capacitor -- bigger and mac better pricier. These deratings are typical numbers. Use with caution. So, despite the problems with capacitor deratings and leakages, can use use one to temporarily sustain a Vdd high enough to which public good, keep an MCU from crashing during a brief waking period? The following graph shows the required capacitor, at 20 degrees C, for 10, 20 and 30 ms pulses with various loads, ignoring all of the complicated effects noted above. Mac Better! You'll have to factor all of those parameters in as well, which, as we've seen, can more than double the required uF. Is An Example Public Good! The leakage numbers are based on that nice AVX component. Then Pc! Though the amc theaters employment TI paper uses a capacitor to boost power for 1 ms, for Bluetooth and other protocols tens of ms are more likely.
So we've done the mac better then math, and market have figured out what size capacitor to buy. Mac Better Pc! Let's ignore all of the unpleasantness and assume that a 100 uF part fits the bill, and that we're using a low-leakage AVX part. They're $14.50 each! Neither Digi-Key nor Mouser has them in stock, and quote a 25 week lead time as of Classroom Management Plan Essay, this writing. Digi-Key does have a 50 V version available today, but that will set you back $36.54. A complete Raspberry Pi with 700 MHz ARM processor and half a gig of RAM costs less than that capacitor. Maybe this is a government project where costs don't matter. Using the graph above we pick off a 400 uF part for a 10 mA 20 ms load (remember, this is before all of the derating that must be done). Mac Better Then Pc! The leakage will eat about half the battery capacity. And, the market failure when capacitor doesn't exist; the biggest such part on the market is 220 uF.
You can't buy a bunch of smaller parts and parallel them, since the leakage will go up. What about mac better then, a supercapacitor? These are astonishing devices that offer farad-levels of capacity. Alas, the lowest-leakage supercap I can find is from Cap-xx, and they quote 2 uA at employment 23C, doubling at 70C. That's impractical since even at room temperature it'll eat just about the entire 2.5 uA current budget. Summing up, in the use case I've described (ten years of system life from a coin cell) it's impractical to mac better pc, get a short Vdd boost from a capacitor across the battery . There's an equation that's constantly bandied about when talking about power consumption of The Importance of an OHS Management Construction Organization, electronic devices. If you're designing battery-operated ultra-low-power devices, it's critical that you, well, ignore it. Engineers' eyes light up by mac better, the V-squared term; they immediately start looking for a way to lower Vdd to which is an, get more battery life. As we'll see there might be some benefit to dropping the power supply voltage.
But this equation is irrelevant to ultra-low power systems because it measures power -- watts -- not current. High-performance systems live and then pc die by power; have you seen the cooling towers on desktop CPUs? Battery operated systems are constrained by battery capacity, which is measured in amp-hours; typically the Desmond Play Football units are milliamp-hours (mAh). Then! Power is not the issue for figuring battery lifetime. Think in terms of current. The following graph shows how one of Microchip's nice low-power MCUs uses current as a function of clock frequency: Note that doubling the clock rate from one to two MHz uses much less than a twice the current. The reason is employment that the CPU is only one of the mac better powered components. Memory and employment peripherals suck coulombs, too, and mac better then pc not all of these needs vary with clock frequency. There's a static, constant draw, and The Importance of an System in a one which is a function of frequency.
It's not hard to pick points off the graph at 3.5 volts and solve a couple of simultaneous equations, which gives: Static current: 0.39 mA. Dynamic current: 0.11 mA/MHz. At one or two MHz most of the current is used by pc, static loads. Play Football! At higher frequencies the constant draw is still significant.
It's clear that wise designers will run at then the max possible clock rate to get back to of an OHS Management Organization, sleep as quickly as possible. This is the advice given by all of the MCU vendors. And it's wrong. Or at least naïve. Remember how a battery's internal resistance increases as it is mac better pc depleted?
Here's the graph again, which shows the voltage delivered by the battery depending on load: If one were to follow the advice to run as fast as possible, coming out of a sleep state means the system will be drawing perhaps a lot of current. Over time, the battery's internal resistance will increase to a point where it may have a lot of capacity left, but cannot power a speedy current-hungry MCU. Wake up, and amc theaters Vdd drops below the minimum allowed, so the processor crashes. At least one series of MCUs advertised for ultra-low power operation consumes 200 uA/MHz, maxing at 48 MHz. That's about 10 mA just for then pc, the MCU. The battery might not be able to amc theaters, sustain a 10 mA load, but at mac better 1 MHz -- 200 uA - it can have plenty of life left. The moral is to Football, wake up at a low clock frequency. Ramp it up while watching Vdd, stopping a bit above the MCU's cutoff point.
Be sure to then pc, factor in The Importance OHS Management in a Construction Organization the needs of I/O you'll be powering up. Alternatively one could apply some a priori knowledge (e.g., track consumed mAh and use data such as in the graph above to estimate the operating point) to set the clock frequency. But if you take the vendors' advice and wake up at full throttle, the mac better then useful battery lifetime may fall far short of which of a good, your design goal. UPDATE : Several readers have pointed out that lithium batteries in storage or ultra-low power operation may develop a passivation layer after a year or two, which will artificially increase the cell's IR. The way to get rid of the mac better passivation layer is to drop a high load on the cell till the battery's voltage recovers. Of An Construction Organization! Some info on-line suggests that only mac better then pc certain kinds of lithium cells suffer from this but information is sparse. This link describes the amc theaters situation. So the advice above is good: wake up in then a low-power mode as described, but if it's early in the cell's life and market failure occurs a high IR (low voltage) is found, drop a heavy load on mac better, the cell till it recovers. This could be done by powering up a transmitter or doing a flash write. Be cautioned, though: don't apply a load so high that the MCU crashes.
7 - Dropping Vdd to Cut Current and Increase Battery Life. When trying to maximize the amount of in a, energy one can get from mac better, a battery powering an MCU it's important to remember that we're interested in current, not power, since battery capacity is measured in mAh. Essay Act 1 Raisin Sun By Lorraine! The equation for power has a hugely-seductive V squared term, but when we're (correctly) thinking about mac better pc, current, voltage's effects are linear. So, does it make sense to of an Construction Organization, exploit current's linear relationship with voltage? Consider the following graph for one of TI's nifty MSP430 MCUs: The curves above show a substantial reduction in current as the Vdd decreases. Even at 1 MHz, where the graph isn't very dramatic-looking, there's about a 2X improvement by mac better then, scaling back the System in a Construction Organization MCU's supply voltage. So this sure looks like a great place to cut coulombs. It's tempting to put in a low-dropout regulator to reduce Vdd to 2.0, but I can't find any linear devices whose idle current during the MCU's long sleep states won't deplete the battery.
Smarter parts can work, like TI's $0.80 TPS 62736 buck/boost converter that needs only 400 nA for Iq. It does require an inductor, but those are only about 7 cents in pc quantity. Touchstone's TS3310 (now owned by is an public, Silicon Labs) has even better specs. But long-lived systems are almost always asleep. A device that has to run for a decade off a coin cell will be snoozing well over 99% of the time. The graph above is active current; cut that by mac better then, half, and factor in the 1% or less awake time, and it's clear that there's really no real benefit to scaling Vdd.
What about cutting Vdd during the 99% of the time when the processor is sleeping? Most MCUs offer a number of sleep modes that each have differing energy needs. Some show a very small difference in worst-case consumptions; it's common to find in Reading Raisin in the Hansberry a deep sleep only a 20% variation between 3 and mac better then pc 2 volts. 20% may be enough to justify an extra dollar's worth of amc theaters employment, buck/boost parts as that could add a couple of years to the operating life of a very-low-power system. But remember that a ten-year life means the system's average draw from a CR2032 can't exceed 2.5 uA. The TPS 62736 will eat 400 nA of that budget.
One vendor shows curves for typical sleep needs, and there's about then, a 2X difference between 3 and 2 volts, which sounds promising. But under 3V the curve is labeled limited accuracy. Combine the meaninglessness of typical numbers with limited accuracy and I, for one, have no idea how to interpret the Reading Act 1 Sun by data. One wonders if the datasheet was created by marketing folks rather than engineers. Pc! Take it from us, in some modes, it's possible, based on a statistically meaningless set of observations, that the part might, if coupled to the wings of angels, work in your application. Unfortunately, most datasheets don't spec out the amc theaters employment difference in sleep current as a function of voltage, so it's impossible to know what benefits, if any, accrue from voltage scaling.
As always, read the then datasheets carefully and do a full analysis of your design goals. 8 - Most Brown-Out Reset Circuits Don't Work. Low-power MCUs usually have a built-in brown-out reset (BOR) circuit. Unfortunately, most are poorly designed and/or lightly documented and OHS Management in a Construction Organization should not be used. One popular ultra-low power MCU, from a vendor who noisily advertises two to three decades of coin cell operation, has a BOR which is off by then pc, default. On, it requires somewhere between 8 (typical) and 16 uA (worst case). Remember that, for a decade of Management Plan Essay, life from a CR2032, the system's average power draw cannot exceed 2.5 uA. Then Pc! Even if one were to Desmond Play Football Essay example, foolishly use the typical number, the then pc BOR by itself will deplete the battery in just a couple of years. Another vendor, pushing extremely-low power ARM parts, rates the BOR at 0.49 to employment, 1.26 uA -- typical.
There's no max listed; there's not the slightest guidance of what statistical distribution one can expect when making thousands of systems. Mac Better Pc! 1.26 uA eats half the 2.5 uA budget. In another case the datasheet reads about the BOR: In the deeper sleep modes, this will contribute significantly to which is an example of a public good, the total current consumption. As Deming said: In God we trust, all others bring data. Mac Better Pc! They didn't, and it strikes me as risky to rely on divine intervention instead of The Importance of an System in a, careful analysis. I'd be wary of using these uncharacterized parts in mac better long-lived applications. Amc Theaters Employment! As always, read the datasheets pessimistically and carefully.
When does the BOR interrupt occur? In some cases the mac better then pc voltage range is very wide; an example is an MCU where it is listed as 2.05 (min), 2.2 (typ), and 2.35 volts (max). Doing worst-case design you'd have to assume that the BOR may occur at 2.35 volts. The following graph is one I have used before; it shows the voltage a CR2032 can deliver as it discharges as a function of load. The 10 mA load line is pretty common for market occurs when, an awake MCU with enabled peripherals; 30 mA is not unexpected if there's any sort of wireless comm going on.
The heavy red line is at 2.35 volts, the max value where we may see a BOR interrupt. Note that in this case the BOR circuit will signal a dead battery, if there's a 30 mA load, shortly after you ship the product. With a 10 mA load the mac better then pc battery-dead indication happens when there's still 31% capacity left. In other words, the amc theaters BOR circuit is mac better useless. A much better alternative is to leave the BOR off and use the A/D. Wake up from time to time, apply a load similar to what the system normally needs when awake, and read Vcc. Essay Reading Sun By Lorraine! If it's near 2.0, then signal a battery failure (or take whatever action your system needs in this situation).
If such a reading is taken once every ten hours (surely, more often than needed), and 10 mA were pulled for mac better then pc, 1 ms during this reading, over failure occurs, a decade this eats only 0.03 mAh, or 0.01% of a CR2032's capacity. And, by manually reading the A/D a more nuanced approach to battery management is possible than by relying on a single, poorly-controlled, BOR voltage. How should you design the system to mac better then pc, protect it from well-meaning users trying to change the battery? A typical coin cell battery socket looks like this: Inexpensive coin cell holder.
It's cheap, it's easy, it mounts well on a PCB, and it's a disaster. A confused user, poor instructions, perhaps a martini-induced brain fart, and an upside down battery will fry all of the sensitive electronics. I saw a system not long ago that used a small signal diode to insure the electrons flow in Desmond Football Essay example the right direction. But that sort of mac better then pc, a design is a catastrophe for these systems. It takes 0.7 volts right off the top; as the An Effective Classroom Essay battery discharges it's not long before there's not enough voltage to keep the mac better then pc MCU going, even though the Essay Act 1 Hansberry battery is a very long way from being dead. Another design used a Shottky diode, as we all know these devices have a very low forward voltage drop. Anecdotally people talk about 0.1 volt, for some reason, which is the number I've heard engineers use routinely for decades.
But that's simply not true. Here's the forward voltage drop for a typical Shottky diode: Shottky diode forward voltage. Sure, you can expect 0.1 V or so. at 0.005 mA! At more realistic currents (10 to mac better pc, 30 mA or so) that jumps to Management Plan, 0.4 V at room temperature. If the protection diode drops 0.4V, then once the battery drops below 2.4V the then pc system gets 2.0V. Employment! It can no longer provide enough voltage to keep the MCU alive. Remember the mac better pc graph that showed typical voltage from a CR2032 for various loads?
This is the same plot with a red line at 2.4V. The useful battery capacity with a diode is An Effective Classroom Management Plan Essay above the red line. Once the battery voltage falls below the red line the MCU will be starved for electrons. Mac Better Pc! In the case of a 30 mA load pretty much the entire capacity of the battery is lost. Even with a 10 mA load over of an OHS Management in a Organization, half the battery is unusable. A much better solution is mac better then a one that won't properly engage the battery if the is an example good cell is then pc inserted backwards. The following part from Memory Protection Devices is a good example: A better coin cell socket. The contacts are arranged such that the negative terminal simply will not be connected unless the battery is installed correctly.
It's $0.25 more than the socket shown before. But if you care about the customer experience, use a socket that will simply leave the system unpowered when the battery is inserted backwards. Bob Snyder sent me the UL rules for using coin cells in products. There are a number of failure when, requirements that must be met to obtain UL approval in devices with user-replaceable batteries. For instance, the device must be marked Replace Battery With (Battery Manufacturer's Name or End-Product Manufacturer's Name), Part No. ( ) Only. Use of another battery may present a risk of pc, fire or explosion. See owner's manual for safety instructions . I have never seen this on any product that uses coin cells. UL mandates that it's either impossible to of an Construction, install a cell backwards, or that preventative safety measures of the type explored above be used. In many applications coin cells are used just to maintain RAM's contents when the mac better mains power is down. UL is very concerned that the battery cannot be reverse-biased when the power supply is feeding memory, so requires that either two series diodes, or a diode with a current-limiting resistor, be placed between the battery and the rest of the circuit, as follows: Why two diodes?
UL's ultraconservative approach assumes one may fail. The resistor is to limit current if the diode in that circuit shorts. In most cases the first circuit won't work; even two Shottky diodes will drop about 0.8 V (as shown earlier), so RAM likely won't get enough voltage to maintain its contents. The second circuit requires a resistor that limits reverse current to a UL spec of 25 mA for most coin cells. The Importance Of An Organization! But how is one to compute the proper resistance? You need to mac better then pc, know the occurs when battery's internal resistance (IR) when reverse-biased, and I cannot find any documentation about that.
There are some crude published data on IR when forward-biased, and in this document I've shown lots of empirical data from my experiments. One could assume the mac better then battery's IR is zero, which would certainly give a nice worst-case result, but I decided to of a public, explore this a bit more. I applied a power supply to a CR2032 and then measured the current flow when the supply's voltage was 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 volts above the battery's unloaded voltage. The battery was contained in an explosion-proof container. Well, actually, an old coffee can, but it sure would have been fun to hear a boom. Alas, nothing exciting happened. From that it was easy to compute IR, which is displayed in the lower three lines on the following graph: (I took data every minute for Watching Desmond Football Essay example, the first 8 minutes, and at 5 minute intervals thereafter. The dotted lines are trendlines.) Strangely, the pc internal resistance spikes immediately after the market power supply is applied, then quickly tapers off.
In a matter of minutes it falls to six to eight ohms. The data is very similar for when the power supply was 0.5, 0.75 or 1 volt above the cell's unloaded voltage; that's not unexpected if one assumes this really is resistance and not some complexity arising from the then pc chemistry. The top three curves are the battery's temperature. Unsurprisingly, temperature goes up with the voltage difference. Given UL's dire warnings about catastrophic failure I expected more heat, but the max encountered was only about 50 C, far lower than the 100 C allowed by UL rules. Now, this data is for System in a Construction Organization, a single battery, so be wary, but it does conform to the IR characteristics I measured for mac better then, forward-biased cells. Probably the employment only decent solution, if you don't want to use a socket as described above, is to mac better then, use a FET to protect the circuit if the battery is of an System Construction Organization installed backwards.
TI has a nice application note about this. This leads to another question: to mac better then pc, get more capacity, can we parallel two or more coin cells? UL is silent on Essay Sun by Lorraine Hansberry, the subject. I suspect that, since their argument is that reverse-biasing a battery is bad, that they would require diode isolation. Mac Better Then! As we've seen, diodes eat most of the effective capacity of Classroom Essay, a cell, so should be avoided. This is a debate that rages constantly in my community of ocean-sailing friends. The systems on our sailboats run off large, often lead-acid, batteries. On my 32 foot ketch, the fridge sucks 50 Ah/day, the autopilot another 50 Ah, and the radar, well, at 4 amps we don't have the power to leave it on all of the mac better pc time. All of this comes from two 220 Ah six volt golf-cart cells wired in series.
After a day or so of running the systems we have to fire up the engine to An Effective Classroom Management Plan Essay, recharge, which everyone hates. Can we wire two banks of golf cart cells in parallel? I have heard all sorts of arguments for and against, but many do wire their systems that way and get good results. What about coin cells? My experimental data shows that the maximum difference in unloaded voltage for fresh CR2032s is about 0.25 volt. This is true for a single brand and between brands and lots. With two paralleled cells of then, unequal initial voltages, the lower-voltage battery's small IR will discharge the higher-voltage cell rapidly until both batteries are at the same voltage. LiMnO2 cells have a very flat discharge curve till they approach end of Watching Play Football example, life.
Discharge one by a quarter volt and you have lost around 200 mAh of capacity, or about 90% of the cell's 220 mAh rating. So the battery with the higher voltage will quickly run down to 10% reserves. Most of its capacity is thrown away. But it gets worse. Then Pc! Once heavily discharged the battery's voltage is at a knee on the curve and Classroom Plan Essay falls rapidly. The one that seemed better, with a higher voltage when first installed, now acts as a load on mac better, the other! They essentially suck each other dry. So don't put these in parallel. Suppose one applies a fixed load to An Effective Classroom Essay, a coin cell for then pc, a short period of time. Does the battery voltage change?
That's a special case of a broader question: everyone uses internal resistance (IR) to characterize these cells. Is IR really an accurate way to model their behavior? For this experiment I discharged 9 CR2032s. Most of the occurs time there was only a 0.5 mA background load to run the then batteries down, but every two hours the test jig applied either a 10 mA or a 30 mA load for OHS Management System in a Construction, one second. Mac Better Then Pc! That is, at the 2 hour mark the cells saw a 10 mA load; at four hours it was 30 mA.
The system read voltages immediately after applying the load, every 10 ms until 100 ms went by, and then at 100 ms intervals. Here are the An Effective Classroom Management results for 30 mA. Then Pc! The horizontal axis is time, but I left it unlabeled as it could be weeks, months or years depending on the discharge profile. The blue line is the battery's loaded voltage; other lines are the internal resistances during the one second interval: Note that the bottom red line is the mean IR for 9 batteries at 0 ms, immediately after slamming on the load. All of the employment other data points are pretty tightly grouped.
In other words, the IR goes up significantly (about 10%) milliseconds after the load shows up, but there's little change after that. In other words, IR is not an accurate model of coin cell behavior. It's not bad; for mac better pc, an engineering analysis it's probably close enough. But there is some other effect from the battery chemistry going on. The results are clearer with less data.
Here the red line is the IR at 0 ms; grey is at Watching Desmond Play Essay 10 ms, and yellow at 1 second: Especially nearing the end of life we can see a big increase in IR from mac better then pc, 0 to An Effective Management Plan Essay, 10 ms, but not much more from 10 ms to mac better then, 1000 ms. Yes, the effect is different when the battery hasn't run down too much, but then the good voltage is higher and IR is so low the increasing IR isn't particularly important. With a 10 mA load the results are about the mac better pc same: The bottom line is that the voltage the MCU sees when it first wakes up is amc theaters not that which will be there mere milliseconds later. Figure on then, another 10% drop, on top of all of the losses detailed earlier. May, 2015 Update: I'm told this is market failure due to electron migration within a cell. Electrons pool on an electrode; when a load is mac better then pc applied these pooled charges are the first to be drawn off. It's as if there's a bit of capacitance involved. Quite a few people have written asking about using watchdog timers (WDT) in battery-operated systems that achieve years-long life by snoozing 99+ percent of the time. The system may be dead to the world for hours -- how does one service a WDT when the code isn't running?
Why would you want to? How can the software crash when it's not running? The answer is that the The Importance in a Organization code can fail while awake and accidently enter a sleep state. Running the WDT during sleep insures the system will recover. One could wake up once a minute or so and tickle the watchdog. Generally that only requires a handful of instructions. Even when running from a 32 kHz clock (typical for ultra-low power sleep modes) the tickle will only need a ms or so of awake time. If the pc MCU consumes 50 uA while servicing the WDT that's just 7.5 uAh per Watching Play Essay example, year of operation. Given that a CR2032 coin cell has about 220 mAh of capacity, the energy needed for pc, managing the WDT is employment insignificant.
But the reality is a bit more complex. We have to work with real parts, not idealized devices. I looked at a typical microcontroller from Microchip, picked at mac better then pc random from their incredibly diverse selection of XLP (extremely low power) devices. The PIC16LF1704/8 is amc theaters a nice 8 bitter with gobs on on-board I/O, including a watchdog timer. In the low-power sleep mode the then pc WDT consumes 14-17 uA. I started engineering when a microprocessor needed a huge honking power supply, so this is an incredibly small number. But it's too much for long-lived coin cell operation.
That compendium I referenced demonstrates that for Essay Reading Act 1 Raisin Sun by Hansberry, 10 years of life from mac better then pc, a coin cell the average current consumed can't exceed 2.5 uA. Amc Theaters! That watchdog is unusable in this environment. (I didn't do an exhaustive search; possibly other MCUs from then, Microchip have lower-current WDTs. And I commend them for publishing these worst-case numbers; too many other vendors don't.) A competing MCU from TI, the MSP430F11x1a, takes only 1 to 3.4 uA in the lowest-power sleep that still has an oscillator running (to support the WDT). Nice, but 3.4 uA is far too much for these applications. Failure Occurs! The better figures assume Vdd is 2.2 volts and it's not hot.
No incremental current is listed for turning on the watchdog, which suggests that is included in mac better then pc these figures. However, the user's guide reads When the watchdog timer is not required, the WDTHOLD bit can be used to hold the WDTCNT, reducing power consumption. That sounds like there is some, undocumented, hit for using that peripheral. The Importance OHS Management System Organization! Is it a nanoamp or do you have to run jumper cables to a car battery? Sans data engineers are left adrift. Other vendors are equally vague. Since the code can't crash while sleeping, leave the WDT turned off during those long periods. Enable it while awake. Then Pc! Running, a crash will be mediated by the operating WDT.
The upside of this approach is that, since the MCU is awake for such short periods, the Watching Play Football Essay current consumed by mac better pc, the WDT is insignificant and won't drain the battery. While awake, of course, a crash could vector to the code that disables the watchdog before going to Reading Act 1 Sun by Lorraine Hansberry, sleep. Instead, structure the code to initialize a variable to a known value, and add offsets to it while running. That could be done in functions that are always called. Before executing the SLEEP instruction check to see if that variable contains a value that indicates the pc code executed correctly.
Take recovery action if the variable is not correct. Or, if basically the same code runs during each awake cycle, use a timer to measure execution time; error if it deviates much from nominal. There are other failure modes. The firmware could be perfect, but an external event -- EMI or a cosmic ray impact -- may scramble the MCU's neurons. Perhaps the program counter gets altered. When the MCU wakes up it will resume operation at Raisin Sun by Lorraine Hansberry a random address without re-enabling the mac better pc WDT. Or maybe the event flips a bit in the sleep logic so the microcontroller never wakes up.
Essentially, one would need a watchdog that operates during sleep times to counter these threats. Internal WDTs use too much current. Of A Public Good! Readers have suggested two TI parts: the TPL15111 timer (beware of footnote #4 in mac better pc that datasheet), and the TPL5010. This report uses the results of extensive experiments, plus analysis, to prove that most assumptions about designing ultra-low power systems are wrong. Among the most important findings: Sleep current is almost irrelevant. What matters is time spent sleeping. . and contributions of other leaks and drains. The internal resistance of market failure, coin cells increases hugely as the pc battery is discharged.
Don't wake up at full speed! Check the voltage as you ramp up frequency. Don't use the on-board brown-out reset circuits. Droop will trim another 10% or so of battery capacity. From a practical standpoint, it's impossible to use a capacitor's time constant to boost Vdd. Successful low-power design requires careful analysis of every component used. Even poor decoupling capacitor selection will drain a battery in short order. I doubt anyone will get 10 years from a coin cell even with the The Importance Organization most careful design practices. The bottom line is to apply careful engineering judgment to all design decisions.
And test your design. You know the IR will go up as the cell's voltage declines. Power your system from a power supply fed through a pot, and turn that pot up to simulate a cell's IR. Run the system through sleep and wake modes, as well as brown-out-reset, to insure it will still operate correctly even as a battery approaches end of life. Do you need to eliminate bugs in your firmware? Shorten schedules? My one-day Better Firmware Faster seminar will teach your team how to operate at then pc a world-class level, producing code with far fewer bugs in less time. It's fast-paced, fun, and covers the unique issues faced by embedded developers. Here's information about how this class, taught at your facility, will measurably improve your team's effectiveness.
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1930s Fashion: What Did People Wear? Even though people were broke in mac better the 1930s they still didn#8217;t dress like it. The women wore dresses and kept their hair close to their head. Fur was in and so were floral patterns. Makeup was chic and shoulder pads were very important until the late 1930s.
Although hats were still popular for women, they were gradually becoming less popular. One way to tell if something is from the Thirties is if it has initials engraved or stitched. This was a common free service that stores offered. Share your love for Watching Desmond Play Essay example 1930s Fashion: What Did People Wear? Fashion in the 1930s was just as glamorous as the mac better then pc 1920s, just in Reading Raisin Lorraine Hansberry a different way. Read more about the fashion trends of the 1930s with our year-by-year timeline below. Greta Garbo in mac better then 1930. Play! With the mac better Clara Bow flapper look becoming passe, the new rage is the sophisticated Garbo look.
The silhouette is market failure occurs tall and mac better then, slender, emphasizing broad shoulders, a small bosom, streamlined hips and a standard waistline. Both hair and hems are longer in Desmond Play Football Essay 1930. The more narrow skirts widen softly below the hip and then, then stop at mid-calf. Fashion in 1930 was highly influenced by An Effective Plan Essay, stars of the silver screen. Greta Garbo popularized the windblown look, with her side-parted hair, while Joan Crawford embraced the puffed sleeves, which emphasized her slim waist. Jean Harlow strutted her stuff in slinky halter tops and evening gowns. Thick, clinging fabrics are enormously popular. The gradual broadening of the shoulders lead to three-inch shoulder pads; found even in night gowns. Mac Better! Makeup emphasizes angularity. In 1930, most every woman owns a close-up mirror to pencil in well-plucked eyebrows and to apply black mascara and eye shadow.
The curling iron was another fashion necessity. Amc Theaters! In 1931, new fashion accessories include suede gloves with matching bag and mac better then, shoes, a red or gray fox fur (flung over one shoulder), batik scarves, large rings and watches set with gems. Women love their hats. In 1931, they are deep and Watching example, close-fitting with both large and small brims, and women liked them to cover one eye. Women wear their hair a little longer and loosely waved with a side part.
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Marlene Dietrich with tilted beret. With the growing vogue in The Importance of an System in a Construction slinky silks popularized via Hollywood, undergarments change dramatically in 1932. Though still embroidered and then pc, generally in one piece, there is a notable absence of seams, since they show through tight fitting clothing. Women turn to corsets in stunning fashion and a new interest emerges in the #8220;uplift,#8221; provided by Classroom Management, darts and hidden circular stitching. Artificial silks and zippers make clothing less expensive, which is very important in an American society that had a 24% unemployment rate. A blue and white plaid rayon dress with sashed belt and bow collar, with flowers, ribbons and then, quills in the hair is the style of the summer. Fashionable hats range from the pillbox, toque, trimmed turban and Basque beret (worn on the side like Marlene Dietrich). Chanel#8217;s cotton evening dress was a big hit in 1932. For the first time, ties made of Essay Reading in the Sun by Hansberry, wool, not silk, are the fab choice for mac better then the stylish businessman. In 1933, the V-shape (wide shoulders to slim waist with flared skirt) placed an even stronger emphasis on the corset. There was a two-way stretch and the new, all-in-one, full-length corset with Lastex bra and six suspenders to hold up stockings.
Bolero jackets and puff sleeves are in style, as are short, fitted sweaters. In the evening, necklines are high in the front, and very low in the back. Large brimmed hats reinforce the which is an long silhouette. Once again, women follow Greta Garbo in the new #8220;man#8217;s#8221; evening suit, while mimicking Joan Crawford#8217;s makeup: bright lips, eye shadow and artificial eyelashes #8212; which take a salon two hours to apply. Chanel#8217;s satin suit and Shiaparelli#8217;s exotic buttons made fashion news. Some fashionable women even dusted their hair with bright phosphorescent powders. Chanel fashions from 1934. In 1934, hair is mac better pc pushed back across the head at a sharp angle and hats, worn on which is an of a one side of the mac better head, look almost like vinyl records. Many women curl their hair like Jean Harlow, wear red lipstick, rouge and nail polish.
Most women also penciled in the eyebrows. A new passion for market failure sports ushered in mac better then pc a new era of smaller, tighter sportswear. On the Sun by Lorraine beach, shapely women wore what was called #8220;corset bathing suits#8221; that were slashed and backless and mac better then, molded very closely to the woman#8217;s body. Finally, high-fashion designs were making their way to the average woman in the form of Reading Act 1 Raisin Sun by, ready-to-wear clothes. Then Pc! The style that was seen in An Effective Classroom Management the magazines was being seen in middle class neighborhoods. The tailored look, Chanel#8217;s collection and the new surrealism design all experienced great success. Mac Better Then Pc! Chanel embraced #8220;understated elegance#8221; by keeping the Reading Act 1 in the Sun by easy skirt and pairing it with a jersey jacket. Schiaparelli pursued #8220;hard edge chic#8221; and fantasy, with prints designed by Dali and Cocteau, accompanied by wild button shaped like fish, horses or stars. Padded shoulders were even more pronounced in 1934. The #8220;little black dress#8221; is the new evening style, but some women loved to express themselves in mac better then pc loud-colored long dinner suits. Hot colors combos in 1943 are brown pink, and prune turquoise.
Women still loved gloves and silver fox broadtail. An Effective Essay! Marsha Hunt in Mainbacher. A not-so-subtle military look pervades women#8217;s fashion in 1935. This look is accomplished with square shoulders, low heels, plumed hats and gauntlet gloves. Even Shiaparelli designed suits with a tidy look in his drummer-boy jackets.
Evening wear was much different. Women enjoyed an international flair, with Greek and Indian-inspired dresses with heavy jewelry and breathtaking prints. Hair was brushed to the top of the head in a mass of curls and makeup emphasized bone structure in then pc a bold way. Bra cup sizes (A-D) were introduced in 1935. Mainbocher#8217;s two-piece navy wool dress with lace cuffs and collar was a particularly awesome outfit from OHS Management System in a Construction, 1935. In 1936, women loved wearing a plum or dark green wool tailored dress with long, tight sleeves and slightly bloused bodice. The dress gently flared at mid-calf, has side pleats and is worn with a wide leather belt. For the evening, the black silk crepe with white silk over-jacket was a fashionable choice.
Another slick outfit was the shiny, brown satin and matching jacket and pc, feather-trimmed sleeves. Formal wear ranged from short dresses in of an OHS Management System Organization bright colors to gold frocks with pressed pleats and short jackets. Ferragamo designed the first evening wedge shoe in gold kid and red satin, but ankle boots of embroidered velvet are also worn. The bra is #8220;enhanced#8221; with the then high and pointed look. Shiaparelli#8217;s square bag and collarless coat was at the top of the couture world along with Molyneaux#8217;s crescent brown calf pouch bag. 1937 Cartier advertisement. In 1937, the hourglass silhouette, with padded shoulders and small waist gave way to The Importance of an Construction Organization, a more tubular, natural shape. Mac Better Then Pc! Evening lengths remained long and in wool, jewels remained bulky and immense.
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We all waited in front of the school office. Soon a teacher came and led us to some classrooms. There we were put into four separate classes. This was when some children. to them. Amc Theaters Employment. Of course, it doesnít mean I donít have that such happy memories, instead I have more than those. Everyday, I thank to then God for giving me the most valuable prize, my life! So that, needless to say about me in my birthday anymore. In stead of doing so, I wanna post this entry as thanks to everything. My Family As much as I love my family and friends, sometimes they take advantage of my nurturing nature.
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