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The Noble Experiment

autumn essays “To Autumn” – A Resounding Proclamation of Life and Hope. The Noble Jackie Robinson! The poem To Autumn is an amazing piece of work written by one of the greatest poets of the phaedo summary, all time, John Keats. From a simple reading, the poem paints a beautiful picture of the coming season. However, one may wonder if there is more to the poem than what the experiment words simply say. After it is studied and topics such as sound, diction and imagery are analyzed, one can clearly say that Keats used those techniques to illustrate the summary progression of death, and to show that there is still life at the end of life. From the very beginning of To Autumn,” sound appears to be an important aspect of Keats’s technique.

When the the noble experiment jackie robinson words are studied, there is an the phaedo even mixture of loud and the noble jackie, soft sounds. Some soft sounding words – words that use consonant sounds that are soft when spoken such as an s -- include mists , close , son , bless , mossed , and trees . Evanescence! There are also the hard sounding words – words that use consonant sounds that are loud when spoken such as a b or t -- like maturing , round , thatch , and budding . The words do not appear to be randomly used, but they seem to have a pattern: the hard and soft sounds come in pairs. In the second line, we see, close bosom friend of the maturing sun.” Close and bosom go together, with close being loud and experiment robinson, soft with the hard c and soft s , and bosom being loud and soft with the b and s . The words “maturing sun” are not placed together haphazardly either. Maturing is a very hard word with the m and t sound; sun is a very soft word, beginning with an s . What Think! Also, in the third line Keats says, “Conspiring with him how to the noble robinson load and bless.” Autumn is conspiring . . . to load (loud due to the p and Essay, d sounds) and bless (soft due to the double s sound). Again, Keats pairs a loud and a soft sound. This gives the experiment robinson whole stanza a generally loud, lively sound with a quiet hiss in the background. This tells of the great bounty of the current time, but adds a quiet feeling to it, such as what Keats was trying to communicate -- that death or a time of quiet is the phaedo approaching.

The second stanza has mainly quiet sounds. With words such as oft , store , swath , seeks , careless , soft-lifted , and robinson, drowsed, the whole stanza is filled with soft s and w sounds. This makes the stanza very sleepy and slow but with a warm comfortable feeling. Think Of Madame Loisel! What is most brilliant is that he writes about the noble jackie, sleep and moral standard, then uses words that sound like sleep to describe it. That makes the reader really experience how he is explaining death with sounds, not just words. This change from stanza one also goes along with the progression of the noble robinson, life. Germany! It started out jackie robinson loud and young, and now has begun to soften, such as life does when one grows older or nears death. The third stanza somewhat follows the course set down by the previous two stanzas, but it also does something surprising. One may predict that the third stanza becomes softer still, following the progression, yet it does not quite do so. Surfer Essay! It does start according to prediction, very quiet and feathery, with words such as stubble-plains , rosy , wailful , sallows , and lives or dies . This is generally very soft, which continues the the noble experiment jackie robinson progression, but there is a hitch. Keats writes, And full-grown lambs loud bleat from hilly-bourn.” The whole line stands out very radically because it is almost all loud sounds, especially bleat , with its b and t along with the voiced long e vowel.

In doing so, he seems to be saying that there is oral polio vaccine still hope and life even as death is approaching. This line seems to be the transitional one because, after it, the sound goes back to the pattern of stanza one, supporting the cry of life in the previous line. He again matches loud and experiment, soft sounds, such as treble and soft , red breast and whistles , sallows and twitter . This gives it the same kind of light and lively feeling as stanza one but only for a couple lines. So, Keats explains the development of death by going from lively and loud at evanescence meaning the beginning, then very soft, and even softer still. The Noble Experiment Robinson! Finally, he makes his point of how life exists by changing the sound to lively to end his ode. The diction and the imagery also play important roles in the interpretation of the poem To Autumn.” Words such as maturing , load , fill , ripeness , swell , plump , and budding give the dawning of the poem a very full and luscious feeling. Also, the repetition of the word more in the phrase “more and hello meaning, still more” is used to further give the jackie impression of a bountiful time. All of this gives a feeling of youth and aliveness and goes with the theme because it starts the poem out showing how life is before if begins to slow down into the progression of death. Soul Essay! Very lively personification is also used.

At the start, the Sun and Autumn are called friends and they are talking and the noble jackie robinson, conspiring, such as young children would do. Also, many of the words are very tactile, such as swell , plump , budding , and bend . This gives autumn a very real and concrete feeling that is important because although life starts out real as in stanza one, death will follow as a quiet, somewhat mysterious concept. Surfer! In stanza two the diction and imagery flow right with the sound and the progress of the poem. They become sleepy and tired with phrases like “sitting careless,” “soft-lifted,” “sound asleep,” “drowsed,” and “laden head.” This gives a feeling of the noble experiment robinson, laziness and goes right with the oral polio sounds before because they also slow down the feeling and show how death is beginning to approach. Keats also uses visual diction to create imagery in experiment jackie words like seeks , look , watchest , and seen . These are less concrete than tactile imagery and continue the progression towards the end. This second stanza helps to make the reader feel the slowing of life and how it begins to slip out of Soul, their grasp but only jackie, allowing them to see the life and no longer feel it.

The last stanza follows the progression of the previous two, but then alters course. The two questions in the first line, which are part of the diction, sound bitter, acting as the realization of death. Propaganda Ww1! Keats says, Where are the songs of Spring? Aye, where are they? It is almost as if he is resentfully asking where that melody is now that death, and autumn, are here. The diction is full of words pertaining to death, consisting of soft-dying day , wailful choir, mourn, and the noble experiment jackie, lives or dies . They, in particular, give the beginning part of stanza three a sense of death. However, he does not make it all bleak by including imagery such as stubble plains and rosy hue , which paint the approaching death in a softer way while still sad and moral standard, mournful. He also used auditory imagery to illustrate the progression with words such as wailful choir, mourn, treble soft, music, sing, whistles , and twitters . Sound is the most abstract concept employed so far and helps one understand the course of death by showing how it fades into something abstruse. The, when it looks like everything is experiment lost to death, he completely changes course and says, And full-grown lambs loud bleat from hilly bourn.” The lamb bleats out, showing that even when death comes there is still life crying out to polio be heard. The word bleat especially illustrates that by just standing out. He finishes out with the hope of life by including lively images such as crickets singing, red breasts whistling, and swallows twittering.

This ends Keats message of the vitality at the conclusion of life. Keats used the poem To Autumn to illustrate the experiment jackie progression of death and the existence of hope and life in the face of impending death. Summary! He uses sound by experiment, moving from a mixture of loud and soft words in stanza one, to mainly soft in stanza two, to a complete mixture in Soul Surfer Essay stanza three of experiment jackie robinson, soft then loud. He also uses diction and imagery by reflecting the quick and kinesthetic constitution of youth, the slow and full characteristics of the coming death, and the arrested and barren traits of death, and the phaedo summary, finally, the experiment robinson resounding proclamation of life and Soul Surfer, hope in the very end.

The Noble Experiment (Jackie Robinson Story)

The noble experiment jackie robinson

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"The Noble Experiment" Jackie Robinson as told to Alfred Duckett by

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Jackie Robinson: The Noble Experiment | A World of Learning

La Celestina de Fernando de Rojas : un monde plein de vide. En examinant la poetique du vide cultivee par La Celestina (1499), cette etude se propose d’analyser l’emergence, au sein de l’univers deploye dans la tragicomedie, d’une apprehension nouvelle du monde. The Noble Experiment Robinson? Une apprehension nouvelle faite de scepticisme et de desillusion que l’?uvre fait entendre jusque dans sa celebration des plaisirs et au c?ur meme du rire qui la parcourt. Polio Vaccine? Ce travail souhaite mettre en lumiere la richesse de ce regard nouveau pose sur le monde en tentant de montrer, a travers l’analyse de motifs recurrents en lien avec la notion de vacuite, combien La Celestina est pleine de son vide, feconde du neant dans lequel elle fait sombrer, avec l'elegance d'un desespoir joyeux, le monde ne au fil de ses pages. 1 Fernando de Rojas, La Celestina, Comedia o tragicomedia de Calisto j Melibea, Edicion, introduccion (. The Noble Jackie Robinson? ) 2 Pour une etude reliant precisement La Celestina a son contexte, on Soul pourra consulter Vincent Parello (. Experiment Robinson? ) 3 Pour une synthese des controverses liees au probleme d'autorite pose par La Celestina, on meaning pourra se (. Experiment Robinson? ) 1 La Celestina 1 de Fernando de Rojas voit le jour en 1499, en Espagne, au c?ur de cette periode cruciale pour l'histoire des arts, des peuples, des hommes et des idees, qui vit basculer ce que nous appelons le Moyen Age dans cette epoque que nous disons moderne. Moral Standard? ?uvre dont l'ecriture cherche a saisir ce mouvement qui l'emporte vers la modernite, ?uvre se donnant a voir en equilibre sur le fil reliant deux mondes, un fil en train de se rompre, La Celestina est aussi nee au c?ur d'une societe, celle de l'Espagne des Rois Catholiques, elle-meme en pleine mutation et a un tournant decisif de son histoire2, notamment dans son rapport aux minorites religieuses. Experiment Jackie Robinson? La Celestina, ?uvre ecrite, dans sa totalite ou en partie3, par Fernando de Rojas, juriste de formation, lettre evoluant dans la sphere universitaire de Salamanque, et convers de la quatrieme generation, prend vie au sein de ce double contexte, dont elle se nourrit. Moral Standard? Riche de l'imaginaire a la fois collectif et singulier qui la sous-tend, l'?uvre donne en effet a voir l'emergence d'une apprehension nouvelle du monde.

Une apprehension nouvelle faite de scepticisme et de deses­perance, et ce jusqu'au plus profond du rire que l'?uvre fait si volontiers entendre, ou des plaisirs qu'avec tant d'allegresse elle celebre. The Noble? J'aimerais tenter d'en rendre compte ici en proposant un examen de l'une des poetiques cultivees par l'?uvre, celle du vide, d'un monde plein de vide. Le monde plein de vide de La Celestina, c'est tout d'abord celui que met en place l'ecriture de la vacuite de sens du monde. 2 Cette vacuite de sens du monde apparait dans l'?uvre sous diverses formes, et notamment a travers une image tres traditionnelle, celle du monde mis sens dessus dessous, celle du monde a l'envers. Germany Propaganda Ww1? Tres nombreux sont les elements de l'?uvre qui renvoient au monde a l'envers et j'attirerai votre attention sur deux exemples, qui me semblent a meme de mettre en lumiere deux visages du monde a l'envers dans l'?uvre. Experiment? Le monde a l'envers, c'est tout d'abord celui que decrit le valet Parmeno au debut de la tragicomedia, avant de basculer lui-meme de l'autre cote du monde, avant d'incarner lui-meme l'image de l'inversion des valeurs. Moral Standard? Parmeno vient d'etre violemment rabroue par son maitre Calisto, par celui-la meme qu'il tentait pourtant de prevenir contre la malignite de Celestina, diabolique entremetteuse dont le maitre veut acheter les services afin de conquerir Melibea, la noble jeune fille dont il est fou d'amour.

Transforme par l'ingratitude de son maitre en victime de sa propre vertu, Parmeno deplore : O desdichado de mi ! Por ser leal, padezco mal. Experiment Jackie Robinson? Otros se ganan por malos, yo me pierdo por bueno. What Of Madame Loisel? El mundo es tal.4. 5 C. The Noble? Heusch, « Las desviaciones de Parmeno o la caida de un angel », Celestinesca, 26, 1-2, 2002, p. What Do You Of Madame Loisel? (. Experiment Robinson? ) 6 F. Essay? de Rojas, ed. The Noble Jackie Robinson? cit ., p. Think? 269 : « no sabes nada del mundo ni de sus deleytes ». 3 Le monde ici decrit est donc un monde qui tourne a l'envers, et au sein duquel bien et mal ont echange leur place sur l'echelle des valeurs judeo-chretiennes. The Noble Experiment Jackie Robinson? Constater que le monde est mis sens dessus dessous est d'ailleurs ce qui motive la metamorphose de Parmeno : les phrases citees sont en effet tres exactement celles qui introduisent sa decision de se mettre a tourner lui aussi dans le sens du monde, c'est-a-dire a dire a contresens du bon sens, ou du sens bon, en devenant le servus fallax qui n'hesitera pas a travailler a la perte de son maitre. Essay? Ainsi la figure du monde a l'envers est-elle tout d'abord donnee a voir dans l'?uvre comme cause, et non seulement comme image, de la corruption du monde et des etres.

Une corruption contre laquelle les personnages qui tentent de le faire se battent vainement, vainement et presque par peche d'orgueil, par pretention, cette pretention de la jeunesse qui n'a pas encore pris la mesure de l'ampleur de la tache. Jackie Robinson? Parmeno, celui que Carlos Heusch5 a tres justement presente sous les traits de l'ange revolte qui, une fois dechu, devient diable, ne commence en effet par etre bon que parce qu'il est jeune, une jeunesse sur laquelle le texte insiste a diverses reprises. Think? On notera par exemple la serie des diminutifs utilises par Celestina pour s'adresser a Parmeno et lui signifier qu'il demeure encore, pour quelques instants qui ne sauraient durer, dans le monde de l'enfance, un monde qui justement, comme elle le lui fait remarquer en ce meme endroit de l'?uvre6, ne sait encore rien du monde : Que diras a esto Parmeno ? Neciuelo, loquito, angelico, perlica, simplezico! Lobitos en tal gestico ? Llegate aca, putico.7. 8 Ed. The Noble Experiment Jackie? cit ., p. The Phaedo? 502.

9 Ed. The Noble Experiment? cit ., p. Polio Vaccine? 509 ou 585 par exemple. Robinson? 10 Ed. Oral Vaccine? cit ., p. Jackie? 433. Moral Standard? 11 F. The Noble Experiment Jackie? Delpech, « Systeme erotique et mythologie folklorique dans les conjuros amatorios », dans Amours (. Oral Vaccine? ) 12 Jose Maria Diez Borque, « Conjuros, oraciones, ensalmos : formas marginales de la poesia oral en lo (. The Noble Jackie? ) 13 Ed. The Phaedo? cit ., p. The Noble Robinson? 332 et 360. Moral Standard? 14 Ed. Experiment? cit ., p. Germany Propaganda? 416. Jackie? 15 Ed. Moral Standard? cit ., p. The Noble Jackie Robinson? 382. 4 Il est d'ailleurs un autre personnage de l'?uvre sur la jeunesse duquel le texte insiste aussi et peut-etre plus encore. Polio Vaccine? Il s'agit bien sur du personnage de Tristan : des sa premiere apparition8, Tristan est appele Tristanico, petit Tristan. Experiment Jackie? Ce diminutif, qui se verra decline de facons multiples par l'?uvre9, place d'emblee le personnage sous le signe de l'enfance, une enfance que l'?uvre situe a l'origine de la non-corruption de Tristan, donnant ainsi a entendre cette non-corruption comme vouee a disparaitre, a l'instar de la jeunesse qui la motive. Germany Propaganda? Le monde a l'envers mis en place par l'?uvre, c'est aussi celui que dessine l'entremetteuse et hechicera Celestina. The Noble Jackie? Bien qu'elle soit hechicera (ensorceleuse) et non bruja (sorciere), Celestina, comme ces dernieres, fait en effet subir une inversion au monde dans son ensemble et, en particulier, au monde religieux. Evanescence Hello Meaning? Tout d'abord parce qu'elle en denonce les desordres, puisque les eveques eux-memes font partie de sa clientele de maquerelle10, mais aussi parce que sa pratique magique integre cette inversion du rite religieux inherente a la pratique de la sorcellerie.

Francois Delpech, qui a etudie le rapport entre systeme erotique et mythologie folklorique au sein de ces prieres destinees a faire naitre l'amour que l'on appelait conjuros amatorios 11 , ou bien encore Jose Maria Diez Borque12, lequel s'est penche sur l'organisation poetique de ces conjuros, ont en effet montre que la pratique de la sorcellerie integrait un renversement de la liturgie chretienne. The Noble Experiment Robinson? Dans ces pratiques, on oral vaccine conjurait le diable, certes, mais aussi, dans une optique a contresens de l'optique chretienne, on the noble y conjurait les saints de la liturgie chretienne, jusqu'a faire de cette derniere une liturgie a l'envers. Moral Standard? Quelques exemples de ce processus d'inversion opere par le personnage de la presque sorciere Celestina : l'on remarquera tout d'abord que Celestina, a des fins on robinson ne peut plus malignes et selon un procede destine a capturer, comme le fait entendre le terme philocaptio, le c?ur et la volonte de la belle Melibea, utilisera la force de ce meme cordon de Melibea qui a touche, et Celestina ne manque pas d'en faire la remarque a deux reprises13, les reliques de Rome et de Jerusalem. Surfer? Ce faisant, Celestina ne detourne pas seulement l'objet de sa vocation initiale, mais va jusqu'a renverser le pouvoir spirituel de l'objet, jusqu'a lui faire subir une parfaite inversion. The Noble Experiment Jackie Robinson? De la meme maniere, l'on notera que c'est au sein meme de l'espace de l'eglise que l'entremetteuse un peu sorciere et tout a fait maquerelle qu'est Celestina, fait ses meilleures affaires. Propaganda Ww1? Ou bien encore, l'on se souviendra que ce sont les grains de son chapelet, « las cuentas del rosario »14, qui permettent a celle qui est aussi ravaudeuse des virginites mises a mal, de tenir a jour le decompte des virgos, des hymens, qu'elle a deja restaures ou qui lui restent encore a reparer.

Enfin, l'on pourra aussi et peut-etre surtout se rappeler la parodie des paroles du Christ a laquelle se livre Celestina15. 5 Si le motif du monde sens dessus dessous permet bien la mise en place d'un systeme metaphorique propre a figurer l'inversion de l'Ordre ou a denoncer le desordre du monde, ce motif repose toutefois sur un systeme de pensee qui propose une grille de lecture du monde. Experiment? La figure du monde a l'envers dit en effet deux choses simultanement : elle dit que le monde ne tourne pas dans le bon sens, mais elle dit aussi en meme temps qu'il existe un bon sens, qu'il existe un endroit a l'envers. Essay? Cette figure, et ses multiples formes possibles, s'articulent donc sur la base d'un systeme stable. The Noble Robinson? Bien qu'il renvoie au non-sens du monde, le motif du monde a l'envers etablit en effet encore une frontiere nette, et c'est d'ailleurs pourquoi il etait constitutif de cette parenthese qu'etait le carnaval medieval, entre endroit et envers, il propose encore une discrimination entre norme et non-norme, entre bien et mal. Soul? On ne pourrait en dire autant des procedes qui, dans La Celestina, aboutissent a la peinture d'un monde non plus seulement tournant en sens inverse, mais d'un monde vide, vide de sens. 16 Ed. The Noble Jackie Robinson? cit ., p. Essay? 290.

17 Ed. The Noble? cit ., p. Germany Propaganda Ww1? 477 : « ? En quien fallare yo fe ? ? Adonde ay verdad ? ? Quien carece de engano ? ? A (. The Noble Experiment? ) 6 Ces procedes sont nombreux. Polio? Que l'on songe tout d'abord a ces interrogations laissees sans reponse dont La Celestina est parsemee, et qui tout au long de l'?uvre, questionnent avec entetement le serieux d'une quelconque tentative de discrimination entre bien et mal, vidant ainsi les notions et valeurs de tout contenu stable. The Noble Experiment? Qu'est-ce que la raison ? Qu'est-ce que la passion ? Qu'est-ce que l'honneur, qu'est-ce que l'amour ? interroge Calisto16. Summary? Ou bien encore, alors qu'il est en proie au desespoir17, que sont confiance, verite, tromperie, faussete ? Qui est l'ennemi et qui l'ami ? Ailleurs, l'?uvre va jusqu'a montrer une Celestina en train de sommer un fou de bien vouloir lui definir ce qu'est la raison : Que es razon, loco ?18. 19 Ed. The Noble Robinson? cit ., p. Soul Surfer? 290-291.

20 Ed. The Noble Jackie? cit ., p. What Do You Think? 297. The Noble Experiment Jackie Robinson? 21 Ed. Evanescence Hello? cit., p. The Noble Experiment Jackie? 520. Do You Of Madame? 22 O. Jackie? Biaggini, « Sentencia a mi ver digna de perpetua y recordable memoria : mise en scene et subve (. Meaning? ) 7 « Qu'est-ce que la raison, fou ? », demande-t-elle en effet a Parmeno. The Noble Experiment Jackie Robinson? Ces questions, parce qu'elles restent sans reponse, mais aussi parce que l'?uvre fait entendre qu'il ne peut en aller autrement19, donnent a voir le vide que l'on risquerait de trouver au fond des notions ou valeurs que l'on chercherait a creuser un peu serieusement. Meaning? Et ce non seulement parce que, comme le dit Sempronio : « el bien y el mal (. The Noble Jackie? ) todo pierde con el tiempo la fuerca »20, mais aussi et surtout parce qu'elles ne sont qu'insondable beance, au fond de laquelle git le reve du sens, du sens du monde. Moral Standard? Ces questions sur le caractere insoluble desquelles l'?uvre attire l'attention, apres avoir pourtant affiche, dans le paratexte, un objectif didactique indissociable d'une vision claire de la frontiere entre bien et mal, vident donc les valeurs et notions de leur substance signifiante. The Noble Robinson? Une scene, la septieme de l'acte XIV, illustre bien ce fonctionnement de l'?uvre. Essay? Dans un tres long monologue21, au cours d'un proces imaginaire cense trancher entre culpabilite ou innocence du juge qui a ordonne la decollation de ses deux valets, Calisto prend tour a tour le role de la defense et celui de l'accusation.

Dans cette scene qui argumente aussi equitablement dans un sens que dans l'autre, on the noble jackie robinson peut voir transparaitre le juriste Fernando de Rojas qui a questionne la notion de verite, ici donnee a voir comme changeant de visage selon le point de vue adopte. Germany Propaganda Ww1? Il est d'ailleurs interessant de remarquer que Calisto ne tranche rien a l'issue de ce proces imaginaire. The Noble Experiment Jackie? Piege par sa propre capacite a construire these et antithese, il finit par abandonner la partie et par conclure a l'innocence du juge, non parce qu'il aurait reussi a s'en convaincre intellectuellement, mais parce qu'il sent monter en lui le desir de Melibea, et que la satisfaction de ce desir pourrait etre contrariee par la fastidieuse mise en place d'une vengeance contre le juge. What? De la reflexion intellectuelle sur les notions de verite, d'innocence ou de culpabilite, il ne ressort rien, rien qu'une intuition de la vanite de toute tentative d'exploration de leur contenu objectif. The Noble Experiment Robinson? La facon dont l'?uvre joue avec la notion d 'auctoritas, cette reference a l'autorite alors utilisee comme outil de legitimation de la pensee exprimee ou de la verite proclamee, va d'ailleurs dans le meme sens. Surfer? Olivier Biaggini22 l'a bien montre : mise dans la bouche de person­nages qui la devoient, la pervertissent, l'exploitent a contresens et en revelent ainsi les failles, l 'auctoritas, la parole de Seneque, d'Aristote ou de Petrarque, n'est plus qu'une parole videe de sa capacite a guider, elle n'est plus qu'amoncellement de references reduites au vide, donnees a voir par l'?uvre dans leur inanite.

Le rire, qui au sein de l'?uvre peut pourtant, notamment lorsqu'il ridiculise le discours courtois dissident, servir le propos moral affirme au sein du paratexte, est aussi, paradoxale­ment, mis au service de cet aneantissement des valeurs et notions. The Noble Experiment Jackie? Sans trop insister ici sur le rire, qu'une autre intervention va prendre pour objet central, je dirai simplement qu'il est aussi dans La Celestina un rire dont la fonction demystificatrice desenchante le monde et reduit a neant les plus beaux reves. Do You Of Madame Loisel? L'amour ? Une gesticulation ridicule dont le fou d'amour Calisto parvient lui-meme a se gausser. The Noble Experiment Robinson? Alors qu'il se meurt d'amour, une plaisanterie grivoise de Sempronio suffit a le faire passer des larmes au rire, un rire qui l'oblige a mettre son amour a distance, comme il le deplore d'ailleurs lui-meme : Maldito seas, que fecho me has reyr 23. 24 J.-P.

Lecertua, « Le jardin de Melibee : metaphores sexuelles et connotations symboliques dans quel (. Moral Standard? ) 8 « Maudit sois-tu, car tu m'as fait rire », s'indigne en effet Calisto, qui vient de se prendre lui-meme en flagrant delit de rire, et donc de desacralisation, de ce meme amour qu'un instant plus tot il elevait jusqu'a Dieu, qu'un instant plus tot il mettait a la place de Dieu. Experiment Robinson? La vertu ? C'est celle de Melibea dans son jardin, plumee comme une volaille, selon la comparaison de l'amoureux Calisto soudain transforme en grossier plaisantin, vertu dont Jean-Paul Lecertua24, a travers sa lecture du jardin de Melibea, a si bien analyse la degradation comique. Oral Vaccine? C'est la le rire corrosif qui aneantit, le rire amer de la desillusion, d'un desengano avant la lettre, un rire critique, endeuille d'avoir trop sonde la vanite des choses. C'est cependant surtout a travers la proliferation des images de la folie qu'apparait le reflet de la vacuite de sens du monde. 25 Ed. The Noble Robinson? cit ., p. Propaganda? 221. The Noble Jackie Robinson? 26 Voir Martine Bigeard, La folie et les fous litteraires en Espagne (1500-1650), Paris, Centre de Rec (. Oral? ) 27 Ed. Experiment Jackie Robinson? cit ., p. Summary? 235. 9 Des l 'incipit, au c?ur de la declaration d'intention didactique, la folie est la, folie d'amour qui detourne de Dieu et dont l'?uvre, « en reprehension de los locos enamorados »25, pretend vouloir denoncer les dangers. Robinson? Folie d'amour dont est atteint le protagoniste Calisto.

Atteint, car l'amour passionnel, le fol amour, etait bien, pour les esprits populaires et scientifiques du temps, un mal repertorie dans la liste des troubles mentaux, une forme de demence dont Miguel Sabuco, medecin espagnol du XVI e siecle, ecrit dans sa Nueva Filosofia de la naturaleza del hombre (1587) qu'elle pouvait etre provoquee par le desir exacerbe puis frustre26. Hello? Folie d'amour de Calisto l'amant grotesquement courtois qui dans son fameux « Melibeo soy »27 renonce a etre chretien pour se faire Melibeen, mais aussi folie de tous les autres personnages. The Noble? Car c'est a chaque page, presque a chaque ligne, en tous sens, a tout moment, a tout propos, de toutes les facons, que l'on se traite de fou, que chacun traite soi-meme et tous les autres de fou, de folle, de petit fou, loquito, loquillo, de sin seso, de fou decervele, de desvariado, de derange. The Phaedo? Dans La Celestina, meme celui qui n'a pas encore ete identifie, puisqu'on ne lui a pas encore ouvert la porte a laquelle il est en train de frapper, est d'emblee traite de fou. The Noble Experiment? Areusa, entendant frapper fortement a sa porte, dit ainsi a Elicia : Quiero yr abrir, que es loco o privado quien llama.28. 10 Le deferlement de la folie a travers le texte est tel, que le motif en arrive a transformer l'?uvre en une sorte de maison de fous au sein de laquelle chaque fou passerait son temps a pointer du doigt la folie de l'autre, de ses paroles, de ses actes et de ses croyances. Summary? Maison de fous qui bien sur renvoie aussi l'image d'un monde pris de folie, d'un monde insense, denue de sens. The Noble Experiment Jackie? Ravi de compter un fou d'amour de plus en la personne de Parmeno, Sempronio fait ainsi le lien entre la folie des personnages et celle du monde : Ya todos amamos ? El mundo se va a perder ! Calisto a Melibea, yo a Elicia ; tu, de envidia, has buscado con quien perder esse poco de seso que tienes.29. 11 Et Parmeno de lui repondre que si la folie etait souffrance, le monde ne serait plus que hurlement de douleur : Luego, locura es amar y yo soy loco y sin seso ? Pues si la locura fuesse dolores, en cada casa avria bozes.30. 31 M. Hello Meaning? Foucault, Histoire de la folie a l'age classique , Paris, Gallimard, 1972, p. The Noble? 45-46. Soul Surfer? 32 lbid., p. Experiment Robinson? 317.

12 Dans son Histoire de la folie a l'age classique 31 , Michel Foucault montre bien comment, a cette epoque charniere qu'est la Renaissance, tout ce qui a pu etre eprouve de ou formule sur la folie a ete anime par un affrontement que l'on retrouve au sein de La Celestina, affrontement entre deux images opposees de la folie, qui toutes deux renvoient au vide. The Phaedo? D'un cote on the noble experiment robinson trouve une folie tragique, sombre, reliee au theme de la mort et de la chute, et l'on remarquera a ce propos que dans l'?uvre, trois morts, celles de Calisto, Sempronio et Parmeno, sont reliees avec insistance a l'image des sesos, de la cervelle repandue a terre, de la cervelle qui s'est ecoulee de la tete des sin seso, des fous decerveles. Propaganda? Coincidence textuelle qui tisse un lien entre mort, une forme de neant, et folie. The Noble Robinson? De l'autre cote on evanescence trouve une folie rieuse, gorgee de conscience critique, interrogeant le monde, et cette fois on the noble experiment robinson se souviendra que le fou Calisto, dans sa comique folie, est aussi celui qui interroge le contenu des notions et donne a voir leur vide, comme le font a un degre ou un autre tous les fous, c'est-a-dire presque tous les personnages, de l'?uvre. Moral Standard? La folie, en outre, ne renvoie pas seulement a l'idee d'un monde vide de sens. The Noble Jackie Robinson? Elle est aussi une incarnation du concept de vide, elle est le vide lui-meme. Surfer? Dans l'ouvrage cite plus haut, M. Jackie Robinson? Foucault souligne ainsi le lien etabli entre folie et vide, des la progressive disparition, a partir du XV e siecle, de la croyance au role du Diable dans la genese des troubles mentaux. Oral Polio Vaccine? Il ecrit que la folie etait alors devenue : « la manifestation (.) du non-etre, (.), une folie eprouvee comme deraison, c'est-a-dire comme negativite vide de la raison »32. The Noble Experiment Jackie Robinson? Cette folie entendue comme negativite pure, entendue comme vide de la raison, est d'ailleurs bien celle que l'on retrouve dans la definition qu'en fournit le dictionnaire de Covarrubias, le Tesoro de la lengua castellana, ecrit en 1611, ou Sebastian de Covarrubias donne une etymologie aussi fausse qu'interessante pour l'entree loco (fou). Moral Standard? Il associe en effet a la fois etroitement et de facons multiples la folie au vide dans sa definition du terme : 33 Sebastian de Covarrubias, Tesoro de la lengua castellana o espanola, Edicion de Martin de Riquer, B (. Robinson? ) La etimologia deste vocablo tornara loco a cualquier hombre cuerdo, porque no se halla cosa que hincha su vacio.

Y sea su primera interpretacion de la palabra locus, loci, por el lugar, atento que al loco solemos llamar vacio y sin seso ; y assi aquel lugar parece que queda sin llenarse.33. 34 On pourra lire a ce propos l'introduction de Keith Whinnom a La carcel de amor : Diego de San Pedro (. What Do You Think Loisel? ) 13 Ainsi, pour les esprits du temps et ceux de la periode posterieure, c'est aussi l'image du vide que demultiplie l'?uvre lorsqu'elle fait deferler les fous, fous qui sont en outre souvent associes, a la fois par le savoir medical de l'epoque et par les fictions, a l'element aerien, representation materielle au plus pres de cet immateriel qu'est le vide. Experiment Jackie? Pour les medecins34, ce sont ainsi les vapeurs empoisonnees du desir insatisfait qui montent au cerveau de l'amant et le plongent dans la demence, ou bien encore, dans le domaine litteraire, on oral polio vaccine verra le Criticon de Gracian associer la folie d'orgueil a l'element air. The Noble Robinson? En ce sens, il n'est pas ininteressant de remarquer que lorsque la prostituee Areusa met en place sa manipulation de Sosia, elle dit a sa compagne Elicia qu'elle projette, pour rendre Sosia fou d'amour, de le gonfler du vent de la flatterie, afin de lui insuffler l'orgueilleuse illusion d'etre le seul homme dans son c?ur. Hello? Elle dit en effet : lo paro lleno de viento de lisonjas.35.

14 Le monde plein de vide de La Celestina, c'est aussi celui du vide de la parole et de la parole dans le vide. 15 Cette parole vide, je la vois apparaitre notamment a travers l'ostentation, l'exhibition, de la mecanique rhetorique. Experiment? Cette ostentation releve bien sur en premier lieu du projet esthetique d'un auteur desireux de faire montre de sa capacite a manier les figures de la rhetorique. Vaccine? Le morceau de bravoure artistique n'en est pas moins porteur d'un sens justement en rapport avec le vide de la parole. The Noble Experiment? Quelques courts exemples. Oral Vaccine? Pour convaincre Melibea de se rendre, Celestina lui fait valoir la souffrance d'amour de Calisto, strategie qui recueille dans un premier temps la colere de Melibea. Experiment Robinson? Pour se defendre, Celestina recourt alors au syllogisme : mis palabras (. What Do You? ) en si no eran malas ; que cada dia ay hombres penados por mugeres y mugeres por hombres, y esto obra la natura y la natura ordenola Dios, y Dios no hizo cosa mala 36 . 16 L'auteur fait ici ostentation du maniement pervers d'une rhetorique sophistique, destinee a tromper grace au masque de la logique. The Noble Experiment Jackie Robinson? Or cette ostentation est doublement interessante. Ww1? Parce qu'elle exhibe l'ossature du discours, sa mecanique, elle peut tout d'abord etre lue comme un contre-discours implicite oppose par l'intentionnalite edifiante aux sophismes de Celestina. Jackie Robinson? La parole de Celestina epouse en effet le moule de la rhetorique sophistique au point de se denoncer elle-meme comme sophisme, au point d'attirer l'attention sur sa nature fallacieuse. Germany Propaganda? Lorsqu'elle recourt au meme type de figure pour convaincre Parmeno de suivre ses conseils, l'arme rhetorique maniee par Celestina est a ce point apparente que Parmeno ne se laisse pas meme prendre par ce qu'il appelle des « [palabras] envueltas en dulce veneno »37, c'est-a-dire des mots baignes dans le doux poison.

Jusqu'a un certain point, Celestina partage cependant sa maitrise des rhetoriques ou des codes formels avec la quasi-totalite des personnages, et chacun y va de son petit discours rhetorique, toujours oriente dans le sens qui l'arrange. Experiment Jackie Robinson? Or, a travers cette exhibition de la mecanique rhetorique, on vaccine peut lire aussi une volonte de l'auteur de donner a voir, en negatif, le creux qui se trouve a l'interieur du moule. The Noble Experiment Jackie? Ce que la parole a de pre-fixe, de pre-etabli, de formel, est exhibe jusqu'a faire naitre l'impression que la parole est toute entiere dans sa seule forme, qu'elle est une forme desincarnee, videe. Hello Meaning? La parole, comme le rappelle Areusa lorsqu'elle projette de souffler la parole flatteuse dans l'esprit de Sosia pour le rendre fou d'amour, c'est du vent. The Noble Experiment Robinson? On remarquera en outre la proliferation, tout au long de l'?uvre, des termes vano/vana, de vanus (vide), ou bien hueco (creux), associes a l'idee de parole. Germany Propaganda? Parmi de multiples exemples possibles38, on the noble experiment robinson pourrait citer vanos y huecos prometimientos (vaines et creuses promesses), vanas palabras (mots vains), vanos consejos (vains conseils). The Phaedo? Quant a l'inscription du discours dans le registre du code litteraire, elle produit le meme effet : la parole y apparait creuse, desincarnee. Experiment Jackie Robinson? Que l'on pense par exemple a la premiere rencontre de Calisto et Melibea dans le jardin. Summary? Le code courtois sous-jacent au discours amoureux de Calisto est a ce point perceptible que la parole d'amour est videe jusqu'a n'etre plus qu'un moule revelateur de son propre creux. Experiment Robinson? Areusa le fait d'ailleurs remarquer a Sosia, lorsqu'elle se plaint a lui que tous les hommes aient toujours sous la main, pour seduire les femmes, de ces mots coules au moule : todos los hombres traygays proveydas essas razones (.) tan comunes para todas, hechas de molde.39. 17 Quant aux paroles de Melibea dans cette premiere scene de rencontre, elles sont elles aussi truquees, minees de l'interieur par l'ostentation de leur caractere conventionnel, par l'exhibition de l'intertextualite qu'elles integrent.

Derriere la colere de Melibea, de la jeune fille noble a la vertu offensee, on oral vaccine entend en effet resonner toutes les coleres litteraires de ses cons?urs fictionnelles, mais aussi et surtout, on jackie robinson entend resonner la tradition misogyne medievale, le fameux : 40 Juan Ruiz, Arcipreste de Hita, Libro de Buen Amor, Edicion de G. Oral? B. Jackie? Gybbon Monypenny, Madrid, Casta (. What Do You Think Of Madame? ) Todas las fenbras han en si estas maneras ; al comienco del fecho syenpre son refferteras40. 41 Ed. Experiment Robinson? cit., p. Germany Propaganda? 331, 353, 358, etc. The Noble Jackie Robinson? 42 Ed. Moral Standard? cit ., p. The Noble Experiment Jackie? 460. 18 du Libro de buen amor (1341), qui a l'instar de tant d'autres textes du Moyen Age, predit par ces vers l'immanquable transformation du « non » initial de la belle en un « oui » d'autant plus ardent que le non qui l'a precede aura ete violent. Summary? Celestina est bien la d'ailleurs pour relayer explicitement le message implicite de l'intertextualite, et rappeler que le refus initial de la belle n'est que le premier pas d'une danse bien connue, et ce a diverses reprises41. The Noble Experiment Jackie Robinson? Grace a l'intertextualite, grace a la super­position des objets fictionnels que cette derniere implique, la colere initiale de Melibea se voit donc ravalee au rang de toutes ces coleres litteraires, semblables a la sienne ou pires encore qu'elle, et qui pourtant ont fini par ceder le terrain, et ce avec ardeur et allegresse. Vaccine? Cette colere initiale de Melibea devient ainsi le signe de son immanquable reddition future, et c'est la force meme de cette colere qui revele sa faiblesse. Jackie? Ainsi, en denoncant le vide de la parole, l'exhibition du moule formel parvient aussi a vider les personnages de leur substance.

Calisto, par exemple, dans un premier moment de l'?uvre, s'identifie si pleinement, d'un point de vue formel, au code courtois, qu'il en devient une sorte de pantin, une mecanique susceptible de s'enrayer au moindre grain dans le rouage, a la moindre atteinte du code. Moral Standard? Alors que Celestina lui fait valoir a quel point Melibea est deja toute a lui, il implore l'entremetteuse de bien vouloir parler « cortes »42, c'est-a-dire a la fois, pour la forme espagnole, courtoise­ment et en respectant les codes de l'amour courtois. Robinson? Le texte donne ainsi a voir le personnage de Calisto comme incapable de fonctionner autrement qu'a travers ce code courtois, code courtois qui veut que lui, le siervo de amor, le serf ou esclave d'amour, soit tout a elle, et non qu'elle, la toute-puissante Dama et alta mugier, soit toute a lui, comme osait le pretendre Celestina. 19 Dans La Celestina, la parole vide est en outre tres souvent proferee dans le vide. 20 Le fonctionnement de la parole adressee au vide apparait par exemple de facon particulierement interessante dans la scene du cordon. Evanescence Hello Meaning? Victorieuse, car elle attribue a ce don de Melibea une fonction proleptique qui annonce le don futur du corps de la jeune fille, l'entremetteuse remet a Calisto le cordon que Melibea a fini par accorder. Experiment Jackie Robinson? Dans un premier temps, Calisto recourt de facon traditionnelle a la figure rhetorique appelee prosopopee, qui permet de s'adresser a un objet inanime comme s'il etait humain. Evanescence Hello? De facon traditionnelle, c'est-a-dire en maniant des formes interrogatives et exclamatives dont le caractere formel reste present a l'esprit du personnage. Experiment Robinson? Cependant, tres vite, l'auteur va outrer le procede43, jusqu'a mettre en scene un Calisto attendant veritablement une reponse du cordon, l'implorant ou le sommant tour a tour de repondre, un Calisto amoureux d'un cordon dont il a litteralement oublie le statut d'objet inanime. Moral Standard? Le Calisto ici mis en scene, c'est bien sur tout d'abord un Calisto fou, fou fetichiste qui reve aux secrets du corps merveilleux que le cordon a du voir : oh que secretos habras visto.44. 21 Le Calisto de cette scene est cependant aussi un Calisto amoureux de l'objet en tant que tel, amoureux d'un vide et adressant ses paroles d'amour au vide, a un objet qui finit par eclipser Melibea elle-meme.

22 Celestina releve bien cette disparition de la personne de Melibea sous l'objet cordon. The Noble Experiment Jackie? Elle parle de delire et rappelle Calisto a l'ordre en lui demandant de veiller a traiter le cordon en cordon, sans confondre la personne avec l'objet : deves, senor, (. Essay? ) tratar al cordon como cordon. The Noble? (. What Do You Of Madame? ) no haga tu lengua yguales la persona y el vestido.45. 23 De meme, Sempronio souligne egalement cet aneantissement progressif de Melibea auquel aboutit le discours d'amour que son maitre Calisto est en train d'adresser au cordon. The Noble Experiment Jackie Robinson? C'est sur le mode comique qu'il le fait, en insinuant que son maitre est en train de vivre un instant erotique avec le cordon au lieu de le vivre avec Melibea, grace a un jeu sur l'equivoque des termes holgar, qui dans la langue de l'epoque a pour sens prendre du plaisir, sexuel ou non, et gozar, qui encore aujourd'hui signifie jouir, sexuellement ou non : Senor, por holgar con el cordon no querras gozar de Melibea.46. 47 Ed. Propaganda Ww1? cit ., p. Robinson? 421 et 538. Summary? 48 Ed. Experiment Jackie Robinson? cit ., p. Think Of Madame Loisel? 533. 24 Ainsi, en s'adressant au vide de l'objet, Calisto en arrive-t-il a reduire a neant l'existence de Melibea. The Noble Experiment Jackie Robinson? Ce n'est pas seulement de sa substance de Dama dont Melibea est ici videe. Moral Standard? Les contre-portraits de Melibea, par exemple ceux que brosse la jalouse Elicia en associant Melibea a des evocations repugnantes47, ou bien plus largement, la degradation comique dont le personnage de Melibea fait l'objet tout au long de l'?uvre, parviennent a vider le personnage de sa substance litteraire de Dama de la tradition courtoise.

Mais il s'agit dans la scene du cordon de plus que cela, car ce n'est pas seulement de sa substance de Dama, mais aussi de son existence aux yeux de celui-la meme qui pretend l'aimer, dont Melibea se voit ici videe. The Noble Experiment Jackie? Elle n'est plus qu'idee desincarnee. Evanescence? De nombreux liens tissent une parente entre Melibea et la Dulcinea du Quichotte (1605 et 1615) de Cervantes. The Noble? Cette scene de La Celestina, en particulier, permet de voir en Melibea les germes de Dulcinea, pure invention de Don Quichotte, lequel decrete qu'il lui faut aimer, puisque les chevaliers aiment tous, et qui dans ce but s'invente une chimere d'amour a adorer dans les regles de l'art, avec la constance et la conviction d'une foi inebranlable. Oral Vaccine? Il est d'ailleurs dans La Celestina un autre exemple interessant de cet aneantissement de l'autre au moyen de la parole adressee au vide. Jackie Robinson? En colere contre Centurio, Areusa commence par s'irriter contre le personnage en s'adressant a lui a la deuxieme personne du singulier.

Puis soudain, Areusa48, alors que Centurio est toujours bien present, recourt a la troisieme personne en parlant devant lui de ce poltron, de ses mensonges, de la folie de l'avoir laisse entrer chez elle, en se demandant ce qu 'il peut bien avoir pour plaire. What Think Loisel? Et s'ensuit un portrait de Centurio qui metamorphose ce dernier en un objet grotesquement hideux, portrait qui ne prendra fin qu'avec l'ordre de disparaitre. Experiment? L'exemple est d'autant plus interessant qu'ici l'interlocuteur est present, mais qu'il est delocute, exclu du champ de l'interlocution. Summary? Ainsi la parole vide de La Celestina peut-elle etre aussi une parole adressee au vide et qui, ce faisant, vide l'autre, le reduit a neant. 49 C. The Noble Jackie? Heusch, L'invention de Rojas : La Celestine, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 2008, p. Oral? 1 (. The Noble? ) 25 Comme l'a bien remarque Carlos Heusch49 en etudiant l'evolution du dialogue vers le monologue a travers l'?uvre, le creux des personnages se voit progressivement comble, etoffe d'une dimension qui a la fois complexifie, humanise et individualise le personnage. Oral Polio? Ce comblement progressif du vide des personnages ne marque cependant pas la fin du protagonisme du vide dans l'?uvre. 50 Ed. Robinson? cit ., p. Soul? 532 et 536.

51 Ed. Jackie Robinson? cit., p. The Phaedo Summary? 581-582. 26 Au contraire, a mesure que les personnages s'emplissent, c'est le monde autour d'eux qui se vide, un vide dont ils acquierent une conscience de plus en plus aigue et qui les laisse seuls face au vide tragique du monde. Experiment Jackie? C'est par exemple Elicia qui se desespere de ne trouver personne avec qui partager sa peine a la mort de son amoureux Sempronio50, c'est Melibea reprochant a Calisto de la laisser lancer ses paroles insensees dans le vide51, c'est Calisto qui, a l'oppose de celui qu'il a ete durant la scene du cordon, devient celui qui s'effraie de parler tout seul, de s'adresser au vide : Que digo ? Con quien hablo ?52. 27 Enfin, c'est surtout Pleberio, Pleberio et le vide immense que son planctus donne a voir. Soul Surfer Essay? Ce planctus, comme tous les llantos, se construit en grande partie sur les figures prefixees de la rhetorique, et s'adresser a l'absent fait justement partie integrante de la convention du planctus. The Noble Robinson? Il n'empeche. Germany? La facon dont Fernando de Rojas joue avec la contrainte, la facon dont il renove la convention, confere a ce planctus une force et une charge emotionnelle extraordinaires, qui font toucher du doigt le vide laisse par l'absence, qui rendent tangible le vide laisse par la mort de l'etre aime. The Noble? La force expressive du vide qui plane sur ce planctus de Pleberio gagne, car elle en ressort comme mise en relief et revelee, a etre mise en perspective avec le traitement poetique du vide dans le llanto de la mere du Leriano de la Carcel de amor.

Dans la Carcel de amor (1492), ?uvre de Diego de San Pedro parfaitement contemporaine de La Celestina et dont cette derniere est en partie la parodie, la mere du protagoniste Leriano, apostrophe aussi, bien sur, le fils mort qu'elle est en train de pleurer. Oral Polio Vaccine? Pourtant le vide laisse par son absence n'a pas la meme resonance. Jackie? Tout d'abord parce que la mere de Leriano conclut sur de futures retrouvailles avec son fils dans l'au-dela, sa foi en une vie autre fermant le planctus sur une note d'espoir. Soul Surfer? Ensuite, parce que son planctus n'a pas le dernier mot de l'?uvre, qui ensuite donne a entendre, a travers le recit de l 'auctor, un Leriano s'enfoncant doucement dans une mort paisible qui met fin a sa souffrance. 53 D. The Noble Experiment Robinson? de San Pedro, Carcel de amor. Propaganda? p. The Noble Jackie? 176. Acabados son mis males53. 28 ou c'en est fini de ma douleur, dit en effet Leriano avant de s'eteindre, et comme remerciant la mort de le delivrer. Y assi quedo su muerte en testimonio de su fe54.

29 ajoute ensuite l 'auctor, ici le messager, donnant ainsi un sens a la mort de Leriano. Moral Standard? Si la poetique du vide mise en ?uvre dans le planctus de Pleberio s'avere dramatiquement plus efficace, c'est aussi cependant parce que Fernando de Rojas, dans le planctus de Pleberio, a su allier a la convention rhetorique, a l'expression emphatique de la douleur, la peinture de la quotidiennete du malheur, le prosaisme de la souffrance et de la solitude laissees par le vide. The Noble Jackie Robinson? Le pere s'adresse a sa fille morte, au vide, et a cette fille absente, a ce vide, il parle justement du vide qu'elle laisse. Summary? Du vide qu'elle laisse dans sa vie vue comme abstraction, mais surtout, et c'est la ce que j'appelle le prosaisme de la souffrance laissee par le vide, il parle du vide concret, presque materiel, qu'elle laisse dans va vie quotidienne, sa petite vie de tous les jours. The Noble Experiment Robinson? « Que ferai-je quand je rentrerai dans ta chambre et que je la trouverai vide ? Que ferai-je quand je t'appellerai et que tu ne me repondras pas ? », interroge-t-il, en effet55. Propaganda Ww1? C'est precise­ment dans l'evocation du vide concret laissee par la fille morte que me semble resider une sorte de condensation poetique du vide cree par l'absence, ou du vide irremediable laisse par la mort. 30 Une mort qui progressivement envahit l'?uvre, et dont l'envahissement se voit poetise par la metamorphose, dans la bouche d'Areusa, du locus amoenus du jardin de Melibea en jardin noir plonge dans les tenebres du malheur et de la mort. Experiment Robinson? Souhaitant voir mourir les amants trop heureux qui ont involontairement cause la mort de son amoureux, Areusa peint ainsi de noir et de desolation le jardin de leurs doux ebats : Las yerbas deleytosas donde tomays los hurtados solazes se conviertan en culebras, los cantares se os tornen lloro, los sombrosos arboles del huerto se sequen con vuestra vista, sus flores olorosas se tornen de negra color.56. 31 Une mort qui vide l'?uvre de presque tous ses personnages, fauchant tout d'abord Celestina, Sempronio, Parmeno, puis Calisto, Melibea, et peut-etre meme, car une ambiguite subsiste a ce propos, Alisa, la mere de Melibea. Essay? Pourquoi, si tu es bien morte, me laisses-tu porter seul la souffrance ? demande en effet Pleberio a sa femme, qu'il voit couchee sur le cadavre de leur fille57.

Vide de la mort et vide de la solitude de celui qui doit porter seul l'incommunicable souffrance viennent ici se confondre, en cet ultime instant de l'?uvre. The Noble Experiment Jackie Robinson? Ultime instant de l'?uvre qui donne a voir un personnage seul en scene, s'adressant au vide pour lui parler du vide, du vide laisse en son c?ur par la mort de la fille aimee mais aussi du vide abyssal d'un monde sans immanence et qui n'est plus que beance. Moral Standard? Personnage seul en scene qui lance les tout derniers mots de l'?uvre dans une interrogation dont le desespoir semble aussi vain que l'espoir : Por que me dexaste triste y solo in robinson hac lachrimarum valle ?58. 32 Vide de la mort qui est aussi d'ailleurs dans La Celestina mort dans le vide. Germany Propaganda Ww1? C'est en effet d'une fenetre que Parmeno et Sempronio tombent dans le vide avant d'etre acheves. The Noble Jackie? C'est d'une echelle que Calisto tombe dans le vide, ce vide sur lequel Fernando de Rojas fait insister Melibea, lorsqu'elle raconte a son pere la mort de son amant Calisto : « Puso el pie en vazio »59, il a mis le pied dans le vide, precise-t­elle en effet de facon significative. Moral Standard? Enfin, c'est aussi dans le vide que se jette Melibea depuis le haut de la tour, un vide dont les dernieres paroles de Melibea donnent d'ailleurs a entendre la profondeur. The Noble Experiment Jackie? Les derniers mots de Melibea sont en effet ceux-ci, adresses a son pere qu'elle previent de sa chute imminente dans le vide : este cuerpo que alla baxa.60. 33 Dans ces ultimes paroles de Melibea, l'on remarquera en espagnol la forme en a du deictique alla, particulierement propre a dire le deplace­ment vers, la trajectoire vers, une forme en a qui de cette facon, devient en quelque sorte instrument de mesure du vide qui va engloutir Melibea. Propaganda? En ce sens, j'aime bien laisser au mot pozo de la premiere phrase du planctus de Pleberio son sens de puits, meme s'il peut aussi vouloir dire sepulcre dans la langue de l'epoque. The Noble Robinson? « Nuestro gozo en el pozo »61 (notre bonheur au fond du puits), dit en effet Pleberio.

Cette image du puits au fond duquel sombre le bonheur me semble en effet en parfaite adequation avec le vide qui hante l'?uvre. 34 Le vide du Planctus de Pleberio et de l'?uvre dans son entier, c'est enfin cette vacance du ciel, ce vide d'un monde que Dieu aurait abandonne ou deserte, ce vide d'un monde prive du sens que lui donnait une providence en laquelle on Essay ne croit plus, en laquelle Pleberio ne parvient plus a croire62, ce vide d'un monde denue de spiritualite et qui autorise Carlos Fuentes a parler d'une expulsion de Dieu : Entre l'allegresse orale de la jeunesse et la tristesse muette de la vieillesse, Fernando de Rojas se contente d'exister a jamais dans un livre. The Noble? Sa vengeance secrete consiste a expulser Dieu, en silence, de la cite et du livre : il n'y a pas une seule reference a Dieu dans La Celestina. Summary? 63 , 64 J. The Noble Experiment Jackie? Ruiz, Libro. Propaganda Ww1? p. Experiment? 308, strophe 958. 35 Je ne fournirai qu'un seul exemple, significatif, de ce vide spirituel, grace a un dernier examen du maniement de l'intertextualite par l'auteur. Hello? Il existe dans le Libro de buen amor (1341) de Juan Ruiz un episode appele episode des serranas. The Noble Experiment Robinson? Je n'entrerai pas ici dans la tres grande complexite des serranas mais dirai simplement que ces entites feminines que sont les serranas integrent une dimension d'initiatrice et de guide du protagoniste, egare dans la froidure des montagnes.

Elles le conduisent, au terme d'epreuves initiatiques, vers le bon chemin, vers la voie menant a la verite de Dieu. What Think Of Madame Loisel? Au sein de l'episode, ce role de guide spirituel des serranas est poetiquement figure par l'aide physique qu'elles apportent au personnage, en le prenant sur leur dos pour l'aider a traverser les rivieres et gravir les montagnes64. Jackie? On trouve une reminiscence de cet episode clef dans La Celestina, lorsque la vieille entremetteuse rassure Calisto sur le succes de son entremise. Germany Propaganda Ww1? Elle reconforte en effet Calisto en lui assurant qu'elle sera capable d'aplanir les rochers sous ses pas, de lui faire franchir des rivieres en crue : que te haria llanas las penas para andar, que te faria las mas crescidas aguas corrientes pasar sin mojarte.65. 36 Cette reminiscence du Libro de buen amor se voit cependant brutalement videe de sa dimension spirituelle par la petite phrase que Fernando de Rojas place dans la bouche de Celestina. The Noble Jackie Robinson? Cette derniere, qui dans les vers cites vient de renvoyer a l'image des serranas du Libro de buen amor, ajoute en effet que Calisto connait bien mal l'efficacite de celle a qui il donne son argent66. What Think Loisel? En quelques mots ajoutes a la trame primitive du livre de Juan Ruiz, Fernando de Rojas transforme l'initiatrice-guide en entre­metteuse cupide que seul l'argent motive, et l'initie en client de la marchande de luxure. Experiment? En quelques mots, Fernando de Rojas fait basculer la spiritualite du Libro de buen amor dans le vide de La Celestina. 67 Voir sur ce point Joseph Perez, « La Celestina , livre converso ou livre de converso ? », dans Fern (. Oral Vaccine? ) 37 La poetique du vide cultivee par l'ecriture de La Celestina peut etre lue a travers le prisme du lien qui la relie a la transformation de cette societe espagnole qui voit l'argent, celui du Nouveau Monde que Christophe Colomb vient de decouvrir (1492) sous l'egide de la couronne de Castille, affluer et venir se substituer aux valeurs chevaleresques. The Noble? Tout aussi pertinemment, cette poetique du vide peut etre mise en correlation avec le scepticisme du milieu de convers intellectuels et laics, globalement peu ou non croyants ou pratiquants, parmi lesquels Fernando de Rojas a pu vivre67. Soul Essay? Ou bien encore et peut-etre surtout, elle peut etre reliee a la desesperance du convers voyant sa terre d'Espagne, celle qui l'a vu naitre comme elle a vu naitre ses ancetres, devenir le theatre d'une chasse a l'Autre que les nouveaux statuts de purete de sang (1449) viennent marquer au fer rouge de l'exclusion et que la recente entree en fonction de l'Inquisition (1480) transforme en cible privilegiee de repression et de suspicion.

Cette poetique du vide me semble cependant aussi devoir etre lue comme signe precoce d'un humanisme naissant qui, pour mener a bien sa vaste entreprise de revision des concepts, doit avant tout vider ces derniers de leur contenu prealable. Experiment Jackie? C'est la une poetique du vide pleine de son vide. Germany Propaganda Ww1? Car le monde de La Celestina est bien plein, riche, de son vide, un vide qui porte en germe les questionnements d'un Cervantes aussi bien que le desengano d'un Quevedo, le monde pris de folie d'un Gracian comme le vide baroque d'un Calderon, et au-dela peut-etre encore, la tabula rasa du rationalisme cartesien, le nihilisme nietzscheen, et tout le vide immense des philosophies de l'absurde. 1 Fernando de Rojas, La Celestina, Comedia o tragicomedia de Calisto j Melibea, Edicion, introduccion y notas de Peter E. The Noble Experiment? Russell, Madrid, Clasicos Castalia, 2008. Of Madame Loisel? Toutes les references a l'?uvre renverront a cette edition. 2 Pour une etude reliant precisement La Celestina a son contexte, on the noble jackie pourra consulter Vincent Parello, « Aquel mudar de trajes, aquel derribar j renovar edificios : la modernite historico-sociale de La Celestina », dans Fernando de Rojas : La Celestina, comedia o tragicomedia de Calisto j Melibea, George Martin (dir.), Paris, Ellipses, 2008, p. What Do You Think Of Madame? 7-20. 3 Pour une synthese des controverses liees au probleme d'autorite pose par La Celestina, on robinson pourra se reporter a l'introduction de Peter E. What Think Loisel? Russell dans l'edition utilisee. 5 C. The Noble Experiment Jackie Robinson? Heusch, « Las desviaciones de Parmeno o la caida de un angel », Celestinesca, 26, 1-2, 2002, p. Do You Think? 29-44. 6 F. The Noble Jackie? de Rojas, ed. The Phaedo? cit ., p. The Noble? 269 : « no sabes nada del mundo ni de sus deleytes ». 9 Ed. Germany? cit ., p. Experiment Robinson? 509 ou 585 par exemple.

11 F. Germany Propaganda Ww1? Delpech, « Systeme erotique et mythologie folklorique dans les conjuros amatorios », dans Amours legitimes, amours illegitimes en Espagne (XVl e -XVll e siecles), Augustin Redondo (dir.), Paris, Publications de la Sorbonne, 1985, p. The Noble Experiment Jackie? 213-230, voir p. Do You Of Madame Loisel? 220. 12 Jose Maria Diez Borque, « Conjuros, oraciones, ensalmos : formas marginales de la poesia oral en los siglos de oro », Bulletin hispanique, n°1-2, janvier-juin 1985, p. The Noble Experiment Robinson? 47-87. 17 Ed. Oral Vaccine? cit ., p. Experiment Robinson? 477 : « ? En quien fallare yo fe ? ? Adonde ay verdad ? ? Quien carece de engano ? ? Adonde no moran falsarios ? ? Quien es claro enemigo ? ? Quien es verdadero amigo ? ? Donde ne se fabrican traiciones ? » 22 O. Moral Standard? Biaggini, « Sentencia a mi ver digna de perpetua y recordable memoria : mise en scene et subversion de Yauctoritas dans La Celestine », dans Lectures de La Celestine, Virginie Dumanoir et Ricardo Saez (dir.), Rennes, Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2008, p. Jackie Robinson? 125­156. 24 J.-P. Germany Propaganda? Lecertua, « Le jardin de Melibee : metaphores sexuelles et connotations symboliques dans quelques episodes de La Celestine », Trames : Etudes Iberiques 2 (1978), p. The Noble Experiment? 105-138. 26 Voir Martine Bigeard, La folie et les fous litteraires en Espagne (1500-1650), Paris, Centre de Recherches d'Etudes Hispaniques, 1972, p. Germany Propaganda Ww1? 18.

31 M. The Noble Experiment Jackie Robinson? Foucault, Histoire de la folie a l'age classique , Paris, Gallimard, 1972, p. The Phaedo? 45-46. 33 Sebastian de Covarrubias, Tesoro de la lengua castellana o espanola, Edicion de Martin de Riquer, Barcelona, Alta Fulla, 1993, p. Experiment Robinson? 770b. 34 On pourra lire a ce propos l'introduction de Keith Whinnom a La carcel de amor : Diego de San Pedro, La carcel de amor, Edicion de K. Soul? Whinnom, Madrid, Clasicos Castalia, 1971, p. Experiment Robinson? 26. 40 Juan Ruiz, Arcipreste de Hita, Libro de Buen Amor, Edicion de G. Soul Surfer? B. Robinson? Gybbon Monypenny, Madrid, Castalia, 1988, p. Do You Of Madame? 237, strophe 632, v. The Noble Experiment Jackie? 1-2. 49 C. Soul? Heusch, L'invention de Rojas : La Celestine, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 2008, p. The Noble Experiment Jackie Robinson? 137-146. 53 D. Summary? de San Pedro, Carcel de amor. The Noble Jackie Robinson? p. Moral Standard? 176. 62 Ed. The Noble Jackie Robinson? cit ., p. Summary? 617 619 notamment.

64 J. Jackie? Ruiz, Libro. Oral Polio Vaccine? p. The Noble Robinson? 308, strophe 958. 67 Voir sur ce point Joseph Perez, « La Celestina , livre converso ou livre de converso ? », dans Fernando de Rojas : La Celestina… , p. Hello? 21-29, p. The Noble Jackie Robinson? 23-28 en particulier. Odile Lasserre Dempure , « La Celestina de Fernando de Rojas : un monde plein de vide », Babel , 22 | 2010, 11-30. Odile Lasserre Dempure , « La Celestina de Fernando de Rojas : un monde plein de vide », Babel [En ligne], 22 | 2010, mis en ligne le 18 juillet 2013, consulte le 02 octobre 2017. Moral Standard? URL : ; DOI : 10.4000/babel.206. Babel (EA 2649) — Universite du Sud Toulon-Var. Agregee d'Espagnol, Maitre de Conferences a l'Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, specialiste du domaine Espagne du Siecle d'Or (XVI e et XVII e siecles), membre et membre associe des laboratoires Babel (EA 2649 — Universite du Sud Toulon-Var) et CRES-LECEMO (EA 3979 — Universite de Paris III Sorbonne-Nouvelle), Odile Lasserre-Dempure a soutenu a l'Universite de Paris III Sorbonne-Nouvelle une these de doctorat intitulee : Maison et femme dans le theatre profane de Luis Velez de Guevara (1578-1644). Jackie Robinson? Recherches sur la dramatisation de l'espace reel et symbolique de la feminite. Evanescence Hello Meaning? Ses activites de recherche ont fait l'objet de plusieurs publications et privilegient actuelle­ment l'etude des concepts de theatralite (scenographie), d'alterite (representation litteraire de la diversite religieuse, sexuelle ou identitaire), ainsi que celle de la strategie narrative et de ses implications esthetiques, philosophiques et ideologiques (poetiques de la mobilite, du vide, de la confusion). Agregee d'Espagnol, Maitre de Conferences a l'Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, specialiste du domaine Espagne du Siecle d'Or (XVI e et XVII e siecles), membre et membre associe des laboratoires Babel (EA 2649 — Universite du Sud Toulon-Var) et CRES-LECEMO (EA 3979 — Universite de Paris III Sorbonne-Nouvelle), Odile Lasserre-Dempure a soutenu a l'Universite de Paris III Sorbonne-Nouvelle une these de doctorat intitulee : Maison et femme dans le theatre profane de Luis Velez de Guevara (1578-1644). The Noble Robinson? Recherches sur la dramatisation de l'espace reel et symbolique de la feminite.

Ses activites de recherche ont fait l'objet de plusieurs publications et privilegient actuelle­ment l'etude des concepts de theatralite (scenographie), d'alterite (representation litteraire de la diversite religieuse, sexuelle ou identitaire), ainsi que celle de la strategie narrative et de ses implications esthetiques, philosophiques et ideologiques (poetiques de la mobilite, du vide, de la confusion). Polichinelle, patrimoine immateriel de notre temps. L’ethos en poesie 33 | 2016. Litteratures et arts contemporains : l’hybridite a l’?uvre 32 | 2015. Histoire culturelle des points cardinaux 31 | 2015. The Masculine South 30 | 2014. Paysages mediterraneens – Correspondances poetiques 29 | 2014. Horizons des mondes mediterraneen et atlantique : imaginaires compares 28 | 2013. Le prisme americain 27 | 2013. Actualite(s) de Montherlant 26 | 2012. Renverser la norme : figures de la rupture dans le monde hispanique 25 | 2012.

Images de la folie au tournant du Moyen Age et de la Renaissance 24 | 2011. Litterature et cinema 22 | 2010. La Celestina : etudes croisees 20 | 2009. Ecrire la montagne 19 | 2009. Univers fictionnels dans le monde hispanique 18 | 2008. Du bilinguisme en matiere de poesie 16 | 2007.

La mise en recueil des textes medievaux 15 | 2007. Le Moyen Age mis en scene : perspectives contemporaines 13 | 2006. Figures de la disparition dans le monde hispanique et latino-americain 12 | 2005. Regards culturels sur les phenomenes migratoires 8 | 2003. Le voyage initiatique, decouvertes, rencontres, experiences en montagne (XVII e -XX e siecles) 7 | 2003. Rhetoriques mediterraneennes 6 | 2002. La bibliotheque 1 4 | 2000. Litterature et propheties 3 | 1999. Ecritures heterogenes 2 | 1997. Mere Mediterranee 1 | 1996. ISSN electronique 2263-4746.

Informations Titre : Babel Litteratures plurielles En bref : Revue de litterature comparative et multingue.

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The Noble Experiment (Jackie Robinson Story)

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2. The Noble Experiment. Write a Convincing Career Objective. The first major section of your resume is the phaedo, called the Career Objective. This applicant’s Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for an interview because she included relevant information throughout the objective. There are four reasons this example has a strong Career Objective. Experiment Robinson. Pay particular attention to the bolded parts: 1st: It immediately states years of experience:

7+ years of Essay experience in food preparation and experiment jackie robinson service… 2nd: It indicates earned titles or certificates: Certificate in the phaedo, Food Handling and the noble jackie Safety. 3rd: It emphasizes deep knowledge of the business: Keen knowledge of hello wines, entrees , and the responsibilities of a successful restauranteur. 4th: It states the position she wants to fill:

“Aiming to…effectively perform a management position at your restaurant. “ In the eyes of a hiring manager, this applicant’s Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for an interview because she included great resume builders throughout the experiment objective. It is Soul, also well written, and targeted at the managerial role she wants to fill. Good news! Food service manager roles are projected to increase by the noble robinson, 11% through 2022. It’s very important to remember that the Career Objective does not relate to what YOU want from the job, but rather what you can do for the company . In this way, the applicant makes a convincing argument that she’d be an asset to the company in a managerial role. Our step by moral standard, step Career Objective writing guide can give you concrete ideas about how to write your own. 3. Describe your Server Experience with Numbers. Adding numbers to the noble jackie robinson your job description bullet points will help the hiring manager grasp the size and scope of your responsibilities, and meaning give them a clearer mental picture of your experience. By quantifying your resume, it will immediately become better than the vast majority of your competition. The easiest way to do this is to the noble experiment jackie robinson simply write how big your food establishment is, and how many seats it has. Hello Meaning. The applicant does this twice for the two establishments she worked in, as you can see from the bolded text below:

Write patrons’ food orders on experiment slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into propaganda ww1, computers for transmittal to kitchen staff in a 150+ seat restaurant Present menus to patrons and answer questions about menu items, making recommendations upon request in a 70+ seat restaurant. Even by making this simple addition, your resume will immediately be better than the vast majority of your competition. If you really want to blow away the hiring manager, you’ll need to the noble experiment jackie do more complex research, like this example: Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and the meals they should accompany, leading to daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average. Do you know how much you make in sales daily or monthly? You can expect to make an average of evanescence meaning $47,960 per years as a Food Service Manager. Most restaurants — especially big chains — will track their servers’ sales statistics for jackie, the purposes of budgeting (and, of course, to cajole low performers).

You can ask your manager to do you think loisel see these statistics, and include them on your resume. Even if you didn’t perform spectacularly (like the jackie applicant), simply including this information in your resume will indicate to the hiring manager that you are self-motivated and hard working. This is called writing an “achievement oriented” resume — and vaccine these tend to land the most interviews. Bonus: Action Verbs for Your Server Resume. 4. Include Relevant Additional Skills. Your Additional Skills section should not list your hobbies and interests, unless they are relevant to the job. Being bilingual in Spanish and English is a valuable asset to have, especially for a managerial position. (For instance, a wine connoisseur would be a valuable asset to a restaurant that sells wine.)

Since you are a professional food service worker, regardless if you are crafting a server resume or one seeking a more supervisory role, you should definitely include these bullet points in your Additional Skills section to jackie build a stronger resume: Familiarity with Point of Sale terminals Problem solving and communication skills. If you also happen to be bilingual in Spanish and English, that also tends to be a valuable asset to have in a US based restaurant — especially for a managerial position. Candidate emphasizes having a Certification in Food Handling and Safety Candidate places Education Section first due to having recent school experience Candidate mentions her high customer satisfaction rating. Getting the Education Section Right. All entry-level candidate resume must begin with the education section.

Although this candidate has had prior work experience, it was as a trainee, or as a part-time worker. The most important reason the applicant is considered entry-level is moral standard, because she just recently graduated from community college . This applicant has educational experience related to food service (Certificate in Food Handling and Safety, BA in Food Science). The Noble. Understandably, you may not — and that’s fine. If you have no experience whatsoever, you’ll need to polio write a very convincing cover letter that the the noble experiment robinson employer should take a chance on you. The education section on an entry-level resume can be more detailed and whimsical than a professional resume , because it’s likely that you don’t have prior work experience. The hiring manager will be interested to know if you are generally an active person or not. Hello. Therefore, you can include information about: Clubs you’ve joined Greek life you participate in Relevant coursework GPA (if above 3.5/4.0) Other Good Food Service Industry Samples.

Waiter – (Note: One of the the noble experiment few decent resume samples in this industry on the net. The Professional Experience section introductory paragraphs are a bit overdone, and could instead use more bullet points. Surfer Essay. Otherwise, this is a great sample.) Waiter- (Note: A simple, but effective resume. Experiment Jackie Robinson. Has a well done “Professional Profile”.) Cook – (Note: Overall an excellent resume, although the Work Experience section is not formatted very well.) Share Food Service (Waitress #038; Waiter) Resume Samples Our code geeks and oral polio vaccine HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in experiment jackie, today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF.

Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to do you think of madame your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and the noble jackie robinson Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of oral polio a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to experiment jackie robinson the test, and learn how to what do you think loisel make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout.

See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to the noble experiment jackie download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful. Every office is bound to have that one person that abuses the call-out policy. These people go above and.

Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on oral vaccine some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and robinson HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market. HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to summary choose from, and easily export to MS Word and experiment robinson PDF.

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ESSAY ON CAUSES OF CORRUPTION AND ITS REMEDIES. An act done with intent to give some advantage inconsistent with official duty and the rights of the noble jackie, others. It includes bribery, but is more comprehensive; because an hello meaning, act may be corruptly done, though the advantage to be derived from robinson it be not offered by another. Sometimes corruption is understood as something against law; such as, a contract by which the borrower agreed to pay the lender usurious interest. It is said, in the phaedo such case, that it was corruptly agreed, etc. CAUSES OF CORRUPTION: The causes of corruption are many and complex.

Following are some of the causes of corruption . ” Emergence of political elite who believe in interest-oriented rather than nation-oriented programmes and policies. ” Artificial scarcity created by the people with malevolent intentions wrecks the fabric of the economy. ” Corruption is the noble jackie robinson, caused as well as increased because of the change in the value system and ethical qualities of men who administer. Soul. The old ideals of morality, service and honesty are regarded as an the noble experiment jackie, achronistic. ” Tolerance of people towards corruption , complete lack of intense public outcry against corruption and the absence of strong public forum to oppose corruption allow corruption to reign over moral standard people . ” Vast size of the noble experiment robinson, population coupled with widespread illiteracy and summary the poor economic infrastructure lead to endemic corruption in the noble robinson public life. ” In a highly inflationary economy, low salaries of government officials compel them to resort to the road of corruption . Graduates from germany ww1 IIMs with no experience draw a far handsome salary than what government secretaries draw. ” Complex laws and procedures alienate common people to ask for the noble robinson any help from moral standard government. ” Election time is a time when corruption is at its peak level.

Big industrialist fund politicians to meet high cost of election and ultimately to the noble experiment, seek personal favour. Bribery to politicians buys influence, and bribery by politicians buys votes. In order to get elected, politicians bribe poor illiterate people , who are slogging for two times’ meal. REMEDIES OF CORRUPTION. Is it possible to contain corruption in our society? Corruption is a cancer, which every Indian must strive to cure. Many new leaders when come into power declare their determination to eradicate corruption but soon they themselves become corrupt and start amassing huge wealth. Many People become materialistic and money oriented, there is no important of ethics and morals in business dealings. Many people thinking that money which coming to their pocket is good, same way many thinking that money which going out from their pocket is bad, but they don’t consider the way money traveling. This is because these kinds of people have no moral accountability to anybody; and these kind have people have full trust on money, they strongly believing that money can hold big role in their life, they believing that money can solve their current and future problems, they believing that money can give them life without problems.

Some of the remedies are given below: ” What can be remedy of corruption? It can be only possible if people can understand and start to believe the values of ethics and morality in their life. Oral Vaccine. People will start to believe that their life is accountable if they really start to believe in the noble experiment jackie GOD, in oneness of GOD and if they really start to live life on the way which GOD has chosen for oral vaccine mankind. GOD has given the the noble experiment wisdom to each and every human being, heart of the phaedo summary, everyone telling him/her that the way he/she following to get money is the noble robinson, good/bad. The most important thing is person should listen and follow the good part of his heart. ” Foolproof laws should be made so that there is no room for oral discretion for politicians and bureaucrats. The role of the experiment jackie politician should be minimized. Application of the evolved policies should be left in the hands of independent commission or authority in each area of public interest. Decision of the commission or authority should be challengeable only in the courts. ” Cooperation of the people has to be obtained for successfully containing corruption.

People should have a right to recall the elected representatives if they see them becoming indifferent to the electorate. ” Funding of elections is at the core of political corruption. Electoral reforms are crucial in this regard. Several reforms like: State funding of election expenses for the phaedo summary candidates; strict enforcement of statutory requirements like holding in-party elections, making political parties get their accounts audited regularly and filing income-tax returns; denying persons with criminal records a chance to the noble experiment robinson, contest elections, should be brought in. ” Responsiveness, accountability and transparency are a must for oral vaccine a clean system.

Bureaucracy, the backbone of good governance, should be made more citizen friendly, accountable, ethical and transparent. ” More and more courts should be opened for speedy inexpensive justice so that cases don’t linger in courts for years and justice is delivered on experiment robinson time. ” Local bodies, Independent of the government, like Lokpals, Lokadalats, CVCs and Vigilance Commissions should be formed to moral standard, provide speedy justice with low expenses. ” A new Fundamental Right viz. Right to Information should be introduced, which will empower the citizens to ask for the information they want. Barring some confidential information, which concerns national and international security, other information should be made available to general public as and the noble experiment robinson when required. Stringent actions against corrupt officials will certainly have a deterrent impact. Corruption is an vaccine, intractable problem.

It is like diabetes, can only be controlled, but not totally eliminated. It may not be possible to root out corruption completely at all levels but it is possible to contain it within tolerable limits. Honest and dedicated persons in public life, control over experiment jackie robinson electoral expenses could be the most important prescriptions to combat corruption. Corruption has a corrosive impact on our economy. Germany Propaganda. It worsens our image in international market and leads to the noble robinson, loss of hello meaning, overseas opportunities. Corruption is a global problem that all countries of the world have to confront, solutions, however, can only be home grown. I used the sentence “we the common man are the solution” because we are the only reason why corruption is so popular in INDIA. We are the persons who are motivating corruption to be successful.

We support corruption that is why it exits. Experiment. Since we are the only person who elects ministers that are supporting corruption in INDIA. Common citizen of INDIA let us start working from now onwards with common goal of removing corruption from INDIA. Think the day when we will achieve our goal and whole world will say “INDIA IS AN DEVELOPED COUNTRY. Essay on Vigilance and E-Governance. Essay on Vigilance and E-Governance. 1. What is Vigilance? 2. What is E-Governance?

3. What is germany propaganda, E-Governance? 4. E Governance Plans: 6. Computerized Interstate Check Posts in robinson Gujarat. 7. Online Indian Railway Train Status and reservation System: 8. Work Progress Monitoring System: What is Vigilance? A very simple meaning of vigilance is watchfulness or to bring awareness.

But here when we are talking about vigilance, it means we are talking about how to fight against corruption .corruption includes misuse of power, money and misuse of government property etc. we want to bring corruption at zero level. This can be ensured by watchfulness, caution and vigilance or we can say in others words it can be achieved by E governance. Because E governance provide access to information to empower citizens, enable their participation in government and enhance the awareness, watchfulness or vigilance. What is E-Governance? It is the use of various modern Information and Communication Technologies such as Internet, Local Area Networks, mobiles etc. by Government to improve the effectiveness, efficiency, service delivery, promote democracy and minimize the corruption. Or we can say e Governance means electronic controllership and electronic management.

E- Governance Plans: As we now vigilance is Soul Essay, required for ensuring the the noble experiment jackie robinson effective, proper and corruption- less functioning of any private, public or government organization/group/individual. For same purpose government has implemented various online services under National E-Governance Plans. Following are the examples of online service under National E-Governance Plan Income Tax. M. Railway Reservation. Here we will discuss some examples and we will see how they are proven effective tools of vigilance for not only fighting against corruption but also improving effectiveness, efficiency and comfortness of public. Previously(i.e. Before the computerization of The Department of Revenue in Karnataka), farmers had to meaning, seek out the experiment robinson Village Accountant to ww1, get a copy of the Record of Rights, Tenancy and the noble robinson Crops (RTC) -- a document needed for many tasks such as obtaining bank loans. There were delays and harassment.

Bribes had to be paid. Land owners find it difficult to access the the phaedo summary Village Accountant, as his duties entail traveling. The time taken by the noble robinson, Village Accountants to Soul, provide RTCs has ranged from the noble jackie 3 to 30 days depending upon the importance of the record for the farmer and the size of the bribe. Propaganda. A typical bribe for a certificate could range from Rs.100 to Rs.2000. If some details were to be written in an ambiguous fashion, out of selfish motives, the bribe could go up to Rs.10,000. The Noble Experiment Jackie Robinson. Land records in the custody of Village Accountant were not open for public scrutiny. But Now (i.e. after the hello meaning computerization of robinson, The Department of Revenue in Karnataka) for a fee of Rs.15, a printed copy of the RTC can be obtained online at computerized land record kiosks (Bhoomi centers) in 140 taluk offices.

Without delaying and any bribe. The Bhoomi software incorporates the bio-logon metrics system, which authenticates all users of the software using their fingerprint. A log is maintained of all transactions in a session. Vaccine. This makes an officer accountable for his decisions and the noble jackie robinson actions. Oral. The government also has plans to web-enable the database to make available to the farmer a copy of the the noble experiment land record locally through an Internet kiosk -- although without signature such a copy will only have an informative value.

This scheme also useful for preventing lands-scam Due to availability of all the data related to land is at a common server. Computerized Interstate Check Posts in oral polio Gujarat. Gujarat has an extensive road network, which carries a large volume of experiment robinson, commercial traffic. Major highway systems link Dehli to Mumbai and provide the principal link to the Kandla sea port on Gujarat's west coast. Gujarat's 10 check posts are positioned at the border with three neighboring Indian states. Nearly 25,000 transport vehicles enter daily through these check posts.

Trucking companies want to maximize their earnings from each vehicle. Often this has prompted transporters to load their trucks beyond permissible axle load, creating a serious safety hazard. Previously (i.e. before the computerization), a suspect vehicle is flagged to a stop, and germany ww1 then weighed on a weigh bridge located away from traffic. The legal penalty for overload is Rs 2,000 per ton. However, any fine often has been (illegally) negotiated. The problem of corruption was particularly difficult to attack as the corrupt were backed by politicians. In the absence of any systematic inspection of vehicles, the robinson transport companies also adopted various illegal practices. Duplicate copies of a single registration book from the Regional Transport Office (RTO) have been used for many different vehicles, using fake license plates. In the computerized process, all the check posts are monitored at summary a central location using video cameras installed at every check post cabin. The video camera captures the registration number of all trucks approaching the check post. (There are flood-lights and traffic lights which make the check posts appear like a runway at the noble jackie night.) Software converts the video image of the Soul Essay registration number to a digital form and the details of the truck are accessed from a central data base.

An electronic weigh bridge captures the the noble experiment weight and the computer issues a demand note for fine, automatically. Through the summary use of computers and the noble jackie other electronic devices at 10 remote interstate border check posts in Gujarat, India, a team of savvy public officials have reduced corruption and significantly increased the state's tax revenue. Online Indian Railway Train Status and reservation System: Before the polio computerization system it was very difficult to know the availability of seat and experiment jackie getting reservation without paying additional money. Passenger has to pay additional money inside the train also. But after computerization availability of seat are known to what do you think of madame, all also passenger can himself book ticket online, it reduces the money handling (dealing) in other words we can say its reducing the corruption.

Also auto up gradation of passenger tickets increases the revenue to Indian railways and decreases the additional income (bribe) to the noble experiment jackie robinson, TTC. Work Progress Monitoring System: This software is intensively used in all type of industry to monitor the work progress of company/ section/ individual. This is not directly relate with money corruption but it is dealing with monitoring corruption which include delaying of projects/works which leads to increase hidden cost of company also leads to inefficient work. Now we can say vigilance and e governance are complementary to each other. To prevent or minimize the corruption we have to moral standard, have transparent system which can be achieve by the noble experiment robinson, deploying E-governance in all sector and of madame everywhere. But the biggest challenge of deploying e-governance is not technology but change management. Change management is important not only in terms of the noble jackie, cultural change but also in terms of changing operations and processes workflow that the automated environment will introduce.

E-governance, however, is not really the use of IT in governance but as a tool to ensure good governance. E-governance does not mean proliferation of computers and accessories; it is basically a political decision which calls for Soul Essay discipline, attitudinal change in officers and employees, and experiment jackie robinson massive government process re-engineering. ESSAY :FIRE SAFETY AT NUCLEAR POWER PLANT. FIRE SAFETY AT NUCLEAR POWER PLANT. Most of the time, we are inclined to think that fires only happen to other people. Soul Essay. not to me, not to my home. Most people may not be concerned with fire safety until it is experiment robinson, too late. The best way to Soul Essay, fight fire is to prevent it in jackie the first place.

Before discussing about fire safety at NPP first of all we should understand what is fire and type of fire. Fire is a form of combustion. Most typically, the oral word fire refers to the combination of the brilliant glow and large amount of experiment robinson, heat released during a rapid, self-sustaining exothermic oxidation process of combustible gases ejected from a fuel. The flames are a body of gas that releases heat and Surfer light. Fires start when a fuel is subjected to heat or another energy source, e.g. a match or lighter, and are sustained by the further release of heat energy until all the combustible fuel is consumed. F Class A : Fires that involve flammable solids such as wood, cloth, rubber, paper, and some types of plastics. F Class B : Fires that involve flammable liquids or liquifiable solids such as petrol/gasoline, oil, paint, some waxes plastics, but not cooking fats or oils. F Class E : Fires that involve any of the materials found in Class A and B fires, but with the introduction of an electrical appliances, wiring, or other electrically energized objects in the vicinity of the robinson fire, with a resultant electrical shock risk if a conductive agent is used to control the the phaedo summary fire.

F Class F : Fires involving cooking fats and oils. The high temperature of the oils when on fire far exceeds that of other flammable liquids making normal extinguishing agents ineffective. What is fire safety and why it is important at NPP. Now let’s understand what Fire safety is and why it is the noble jackie robinson, important at NPP ? Fire safety is a component of Building Safety. It concerns safety measures to prevent the effects of fires and is the result of proper use of fire protection measures. Fire is an evanescence hello meaning, important concern at nuclear plants, because it has the experiment potential to impact critical systems needed to safely maintain and shut down the moral standard reactor. Let’s discuss about one fire incident occurred at Browns Ferry NPP. On March 22, 1975, workers at the Browns Ferry plant in northern Alabama were using a candle to check for air leaks at the noble experiment openings in a wall where trays of electrical cables passed from one room to oral vaccine, another.

As a worker held a candle near one of the openings, the flow of air drew the flame toward polyurethane foam used to seal the openings. The foam ignited and spread fire along the cables. The Noble Experiment. As the cable insulation burned, the fire eventually shorted out the plant’s backup safety systems. Workers tried to extinguish the fire and notified the control room. Surfer. Shortly afterward, a municipal fire department arrived at the scene.

Operators manually shut down both reactors and experiment jackie robinson kept the plant in a safe condition throughout the Surfer Essay incident. However, several factors hampered firefighting efforts, including a shortage of emergency breathing gear and the noble jackie robinson plant operators’ reluctance to use water in electrical areas. Four days later, the NRC(Nuclear regulatory control) appointed a panel to study the incident. Its February 1976 report identified a number of the phaedo summary, needed improvements in fire protection programs. Citing “the defense-in-depth” approach toward plant safety, however, the experiment jackie robinson report found that public health and safety were protected during the incident, despite significant shortcomings in fire protection. The report established that the Essay three hallmarks of nuclear plant fire protection are to: F prevent fires from starting. F quickly detect and extinguish fires to limit damage.

F design plants to minimize damage to essential functions and ensure safe shutdown. Fire safety at NPP : for preventing fire at Nuclear power plant we are following the defense in depth philosophy. Defense-in-Depth philosophy : there are multiple approaches to fire protection at a nuclear plant. Prevention programs, such as plant design, administrative procedures, inspections and employee training, ensure the safe control of combustible materials and ignition sources. Detection and suppression systems and trained personnel are ready to control and extinguish quickly any fire that might occur.. Plant design: fire prevention program start from design stage it self. Some examples are as follows:

F Providing proper fire exits and experiment jackie robinson maintaining proper signage of them ( exit signs pointing to them that can function in a power failure) F Placing fire extinguishers and fire alarms in Surfer easily accessible places. F Providing sophisticated fire protection system for detecting the fire and extinguish the fire. F Plant design such that it minimize the effect of fires on essential functions, using combustible-free separation, fire barrier, and fire detection and suppression systems between one set of systems and the noble experiment robinson its back-up set. Maintenance: Routinely inspection and preventing maintenance should be carried out to insure: F Proper function of fire alarm control panels for quick detection and warning of fire. F Properly storing/using of Soul, material , that may be needed inside the building for storage or operational requirements. F maintaining a complete inventory of the noble experiment robinson, fire stops.

F Good condition of fire fighting system and equipments. Administrative Controls for moral standard maintaining a facility and conducting oneself in accordance with the provisions of the fire code, from the moment that the plant construction started. This is robinson, based on thorough knowledge of the summary code by the administration and ensuring that the employees or operators of the plants are fully aware of the currently applicable regulations, including supplementary documents that may be applicable, which are referenced in the fire code. Administration should limit the experiment introduction of combustible materials into safety-related areas of the plant, strictly controlling their handling, and evanescence hello storage. Training : Employees receive mandatory fire prevention training that begins with the administrative controls that govern their particular line of work. This includes training for:

F general fire protection. F fire department and brigade. Fire Watches Plants use fire watches when normal fire protection equipment is experiment, not functional—while being serviced, for example. Employees receive special training that includes the location and propaganda use of fire extinguishers and other fire protection equipment. Either fixed or roving fire watches are used, depending on the situation.

Sharing Industry Experience: The nuclear power industry places great value on sharing lessons learned from experience. Experience People share the knowledge on removing the bottle necks and solution to the noble robinson, unseen emergency crises. Conclusion: As we Know that “prevention is better than cure”, if we follow the defense in depth philosophy we will be able to prevent fire at what do you think loisel nuclear power plant. “INVEST IN FIRE SAFETY IT IS BLUE CHIP”