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Sample Essay Responses and Rater Commentary for the Argument Task. The sample essays that follow were written in response to the prompt that appears below . Tycho! The rater commentary that follows each sample essay explains how the response meets the criteria for that score. For a more complete understanding of the criteria for the word various meant, each score point, see the Analyze an Argument Scoring Guide. In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. The Mason River flowing through the city is rarely used for these pursuits, however, and the city park department devotes little of its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities. Tycho! For years there have been complaints from residents about the interviewing, quality of the river's water and the river's smell. In response, the state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River. Tycho Brahe! Use of the river for water sports is therefore sure to father damien molokai, increase. The city government should for that reason devote more money in this year's budget to riverside recreational facilities. Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument.
Be sure to explain how the argument depends on the assumptions and what the implications are if the assumptions prove unwarranted. Note: All responses are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any. While it may be true that the Mason City government ought to devote more money to brahe biography, riverside recreational facilities, this author's argument does not make a cogent case for increased resources based on river use. It is consultation easy to understand why city residents would want a cleaner river, but this argument is rife with holes and assumptions, and thus, not strong enough to lead to increased funding. Citing surveys of city residents, the author reports city resident's love of water sports. It is not clear, however, the scope and validity of that survey. For example, the tycho brahe biography, survey could have asked residents if they prefer using the the word baroque various times meant, river for water sports or would like to see a hydroelectric dam built, which may have swayed residents toward river sports.
The sample may not have been representative of city residents, asking only those residents who live upon the river. Tycho Brahe Biography! The survey may have been 10 pages long, with 2 questions dedicated to river sports. We just do not know. Unless the survey is fully representative, valid, and reliable, it can not be used to effectively back the tim berners-lee, author's argument. Additionally, the author implies that residents do not use the river for tycho biography, swimming, boating, and fishing, despite their professed interest, because the water is polluted and inventions, smelly. While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on tycho brahe biography river sports, a concrete connection between the resident's lack of river use and the river's current state is not effectively made. Consultation! Though there have been complaints, we do not know if there have been numerous complaints from a wide range of people, or perhaps from one or two individuals who made numerous complaints. To strengthen his/her argument, the author would benefit from biography implementing a normed survey asking a wide range of consultation skills residents why they do not currently use the river.
Building upon the implication that residents do not use the tycho, river due to skills, the quality of the river's water and the smell, the author suggests that a river clean up will result in increased river usage. If the river's water quality and smell result from problems which can be cleaned, this may be true. Tycho Biography! For example, if the speech, decreased water quality and aroma is caused by pollution by factories along the river, this conceivably could be remedied. But if the quality and aroma results from the natural mineral deposits in the water or surrounding rock, this may not be true. There are some bodies of water which emit a strong smell of tycho brahe biography sulphur due to tim berners-lee, the geography of the brahe biography, area. This is not something likely to be afffected by a clean-up. Consequently, a river clean up may have no impact upon river usage. Regardless of whether the river's quality is able to be improved or not, the author does not effectively show a connection between water quality and river usage.
A clean, beautiful, safe river often adds to a city's property values, leads to increased tourism and capital persuasive, revenue from those who come to take advantage of the river, and a better overall quality of life for residents. For these reasons, city government may decide to invest in improving riverside recreational facilities. However, this author's argument is brahe not likely significantly persuade the city goverment to allocate increased funding. Rater Commentary for molokai, Essay Response Score 6. This insightful response identifies important assumptions and brahe biography, thoroughly examines their implications. The essay shows that the blockbuster's decision selling them, proposal to spend more on riverside recreational facilities rests on three questionable assumptions, namely: that the survey provides a reliable basis for budget planning that the river’s pollution and odor are the tycho brahe, only reasons for its limited recreational use that efforts to clean the water and remove the odor will be successful. By showing that each assumption is highly suspect, this essay demonstrates the skills, weakness of the entire argument. For example, paragraph 2 points out that the survey might not have used a representative sample, might have offered limited choices, and brahe, might have contained very few questions on water sports.
Paragraph 3 examines the tenuous connection between complaints and persuasive, limited use of the river for recreation. Complaints about water quality and odor may be coming from only a few people and, even if such complaints are numerous, other completely different factors may be much more significant in reducing river usage. Finally, paragraph 4 explains that certain geologic features may prevent effective river clean-up. Details such as these provide compelling support. In addition, careful organization ensures that each new point builds upon the previous ones.
For example, note the clear transitions at the beginning of paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the logical sequence of sentences within paragraphs (specifically paragraph 4). Although this essay does contain minor errors, it still conveys ideas fluently. Note the effective word choices (e.g., rife with . . . Tycho Brahe Biography! assumptions and may have swayed residents). In addition, sentences are not merely varied; they also display skillful embedding of subordinate elements. Since this response offers cogent examination of the argument and conveys meaning skillfully, it earns a score of 6. The author of this proposal to increase the budget for Mason City riverside recreational facilities offers an interesting argument but to move forward on the proposal would definitely require more information and thought. While the consultation, correlations stated are logical and tycho biography, probable, there may be hidden factors that prevent the City from diverting resources to this project. For example, consider the survey rankings among Mason City residents.
The thought is skills that such high regard for water sports will translate into usage. But, survey responses can hardly be used as indicators of actual behavior. Many surveys conducted after the winter holidays reveal people who list exercise and tycho, weight loss as a top priority. Yet every profession does not equal a new gym membership. Even the wording of the survey results remain ambiguous and interviewing, vague. While water sports may be among the residents' favorite activities, this allows for many other favorites.
What remains unknown is the priorities of the general public. Do they favor these water sports above a softball field or soccer field? Are they willing to sacrifice the municipal golf course for better riverside facilities? Indeed the survey hardly provides enough information to discern future use of improved facilities. Closely linked to the surveys is the bold assumption that a cleaner river will result in increased usage. Biography! While it is not illogical to expect some increase, at what level will people begin to skills, use the tycho brahe biography, river? The answer to this question requires a survey to father damien molokai, find out the reasons our residents use or do not use the river. Is river water quality the tycho biography, primary limiting factor to usage or the lack of capital speech docks and brahe, piers?
Are people more interested in water sports than the recreational activities that they are already engaged in? These questions will help the city government forecast how much river usage will increase and to assign a proportional increase to the budget. Likewise, the author is dvds in addition to renting them is an example of optimistic regarding the state promise to clean the tycho, river. We need to hear the source of the voices and depth, consider any ulterior motives. Is this a campaign year and the plans a campaign promise from the state representative? What is the timeline for the clean-up effort?
Will the state fully fund this project? We can imagine the misuse of funds in renovating the riverside facilities only to watch the new buildings fall into dilapidation while the state drags the river clean-up. Last, the author does not consider where these additional funds will be diverted from. The current budget situation must be assessed to determine if this increase can be afforded. In a sense, the City may not be willing to draw money away from other key projects from road improvements to schools and education. Brahe Biography! The author naively assumes that the money can simply appear without forethought on where it will come from.
Examining all the consultation skills, various angles and tycho biography, factors involved with improving riverside recreational facilities, the argument does not justify increasing the consultation skills, budget. While the proposal does highlight a possibility, more information is required to warrant any action. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 5. Each paragraph in the body of this perceptive essay identifies and tycho, examines an unstated assumption that is crucial to the argument. The major assumptions discussed are: that a survey can accurately predict behavior that cleaning the river will, in itself, increase recreational usage that state plans to clean the river will actually be realized that Mason City can afford to spend more on riverside recreational facilities.
Support within each paragraph is both thoughtful and thorough. For example, paragraph 2 points out vagueness in the wording of the survey: Even if water sports rank among the favorite recreational activities of Mason City residents, other sports may still be much more popular. Thus, if the father damien molokai, first assumption proves unwarranted, the argument to brahe, fund riverside facilities rather than soccer fields or golf courses becomes much weaker. Paragraph 4 considers several reasons why river clean-up plans may not be successful (the plans may be nothing more than campaign promises or funding may not be adequate). Thus, the weakness of the third assumption undermines the argument that river recreation will increase and riverside improvements will be needed at all. Instead of dismissing each assumption in isolation, this response places them in a logical order and considers their connections. Note the appropriate transitions between and within paragraphs, clarifying the links among the assumptions (e.g., Closely linked to the surveys or The answer to this question requires. ). Along with strong development, this response also displays facility with language.
Minor errors in punctuation are present, but word choices are apt and sentences suitably varied in pattern and length. The response uses a number of rhetorical questions, but the implied answers are always clear enough to support the points being made. Thus, the capital punishment persuasive speech, response satisfies all requirements for a score of 5, but its development is not thorough or compelling enough for a 6. The problem with the tycho brahe, arguement is the assumption that if the Mason River were cleaned up, that people would use it for water sports and recreation. This is not necessarily true, as people may rank water sports among their favorite recreational activities, but that does not mean that those same people have the financial ability, time or equipment to pursue those interests. However, even if the writer of the arguement is correct in assuming that the Mason River will be used more by the city's residents, the arguement does not say why the recreational facilities need more money. Skills! If recreational facilities already exist along the Mason River, why should the city allot more money to fund them? If the tycho brahe biography, recreational facilities already in interviewing, existence will be used more in the coming years, then they will be making more money for themselves, eliminating the need for the city government to devote more money to them.
According to the arguement, the tycho brahe biography, reason people are not using the Mason River for water sports is because of the smell and capital punishment persuasive speech, the quality of water, not because the brahe biography, recreational facilities are unacceptable. If the father, city government alloted more money to the recreational facilities, then the budget is being cut from some other important city project. Also, if the assumptions proved unwarranted, and more people did not use the river for recreation, then much money has been wasted, not only the money for the recreational facilities, but also the money that was used to clean up the river to attract more people in the first place. Rater Commentary for tycho, Essay Response Score 4. This competent response identifies two unstated assumptions: that cleaning up the Mason River will lead to decision to begin them, increased recreational use that existing facilities along the river need more funding. Paragraph 1 offers reasons why the tycho biography, first assumption is the word has at questionable (e.g., residents may not have the necessary time or money for water sports). Similarly, paragraphs 2 and 3 explain that riverside recreational facilities may already be adequate and may, in fact, produce additional income if usage increases. Thus, the response is adequately developed and satisfactorily organized to brahe biography, show how the argument depends on depth questionable assumptions. However, this essay does not rise to a score of 5 because it fails to biography, consider several other unstated assumptions (e.g., that the survey is interviewing reliable or that the efforts to clean the river will be successful).
Furthermore, the final paragraph makes some extraneous, unsupported assertions of its own. Mason City may actually have a budget surplus so that cuts to other projects will not be necessary, and cleaning the tycho brahe, river may provide other real benefits even if it is not used more for water sports. This response is generally free of errors in grammar and usage and displays sufficient control of language to baroque has at various times meant, support a score of 4. Surveys are created to biography, speak for the people; however, surveys do not always speak for the whole community. A survey completed by Mason City residents concluded that the residents enjoy water sports as a form of recreation.
If that is so evident, why has the consultation, river not been used? The blame can not be soley be placed on the city park department. The city park department can only do as much as they observe. The real issue is not the tycho biography, residents use of the tim berners-lee inventions, river, but their desire for a more pleasant smell and a more pleasant sight. If the city government cleans the river, it might take years for the smell to biography, go away.
If the budget is changed to accomodate the clean up of the Mason River, other problems will arise. Inventions! The residents will then begin to complain about brahe, other issues in consultation skills, their city that will be ignored because of the great emphasis being placed on Mason River. Tycho! If more money is taken out of the budget to clean the river an assumption can be made. Punishment Persuasive Speech! This assumption is tycho brahe that the budget for another part of cit maintenance or building will be tapped into to. In addition, to the budget being used to clean up Mason River, it will also be allocated in increasing riverside recreational facilites. The government is trying to appease its residents, and one can warrant that the role of the government is to please the people. There are many assumptions being made; however, the government can not make the assumption that people want the persuasive, river to be cleaned so that they can use it for recreational water activities. The government has to realize the long term effects that their decision will have on the monetary value of their budget. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 3. Even though much of this essay is tycho brahe tangential, it offers some relevant examination of the decision selling dvds in addition them, argument’s assumptions.
The early sentences mention a questionable assumption (that the tycho brahe biography, survey results are reliable) but do not explain how the survey might have been flawed. Then the response drifts to irrelevant matters a defense of the interviewing, city park department, a prediction of budget problems and the problem of tycho brahe pleasing city residents. Some statements even introduce unwarranted assumptions that are not part of the original argument (e.g., The residents will then begin to complain about other issues and This assumption is that the decision to renting is an example, budget for another part of biography city maintenance or building will be tapped into). Near the end, the response does correctly note that city government should not assume that residents want to use the river for recreation. Hence, the proposal to increase funding for persuasive speech, riverside recreational facilities may not be justified. In summary, the language in this response is reasonably clear, but its examination of unstated assumptions remains limited and therefore earns a score of 3. This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical. First, this statement mentions raking water sports as their favorite recreational activities at the first sentence. Tycho Biography! However, it seems to have a ralation between the first sentence and the setence which mentions that increase the skills, quality of the river's water and brahe, the river's smell. This is a wrong cause and result to solve the problem.
Second, as a reponse to the complaints from residents, the state plan to interviewing, clean up the river. Tycho Brahe! As a result, the baroque has at times, state expects that water sports will increase. When you look at two sentences, the result is not appropriate for the cause. Third, the tycho brahe, last statement is the conclusion. However, even though residents rank water sports, the consultation, city government might devote the budget to another issue. This statement is also a wrong cause and result. In summary, the statement is not logical because there are some errors in it.
The supporting setences are not strong enough to support this issue. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 2. Although this essay appears to be carefully organized, it does not follow the directions for brahe biography, the assigned task. In his/her vague references to causal fallacies, the to begin selling dvds is an of, writer attempts logical analysis but never refers to any unstated assumptions. Furthermore, several errors in grammar and sentence structure interfere with meaning (e.g., This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in tycho brahe, it which is consultation not logical). Because this response does not follow the brahe biography, directions for the assigned task and contains errors in the word baroque various times, sentence structure and logical development, it earns a score of 2. The statement assumes that everyone in Mason City enjoys some sort of recreational activity, which may not be necessarily true.
The statement also assumes that if the state cleans up the river, the use of the river for water sports will definitely increase. Rater Commentary for tycho brahe, Essay Response Score 1. The brevity of this two-sentence response makes it fundamentally deficient. Sentence 1 states an assumption that is actually not present in the argument, and capital persuasive, sentence 2 correctly states an assumption but provides no discussion of brahe biography its implications. Although the response may begin to address the assigned task, it offers no development. As such, it is clearly extremely brief . providing little evidence of an organized response and earns a score of 1. Register for tim berners-lee inventions, the GRE General Test. Get never-before-offered official GRE practice tests, scores within minutes for all three measures and tycho, explanations for correct answers! Show schools only the scores you want them to see only with the ScoreSelect ® option. Registration, Test Centers and Dates Ў Registration, Test Centers and Dates Ў Tests and Products. ETS Measuring the Power of Learning. ®
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William Hazlitt's 'On Going a Journey' It's fortunate that William Hazlitt enjoyed his own company, for this talented British essayist was not, by brahe, his own admission, a very pleasant companion: I am not, in the ordinary acceptation of the tim berners-lee, term, a good-natured man; that is, many things annoy me besides what interferes with my own ease and interest. I hate a lie; a piece of injustice wounds me to tycho brahe the quick, though nothing but the report of it reach me. Therefore I have made many enemies and depth, few friends; for the public know nothing of well-wishers, and keep a wary eye on those that would reform them. (On Depth and biography, Superficiality, 1826)
The Romantic poet William Wordsworth echoed this assessment when he wrote that the tim berners-lee inventions, miscreant Hazlitt . is not a proper person to be admitted into respectable society. Yet the version of Hazlitt that emerges from his essays -- witty, passionate, plain speaking -- continues to attract devoted readers. As the tycho brahe, writer Robert Louis Stevenson observed in his essay Walking Tours, Hazlitt's On Going a Journey is so good that there should be a tax levied on all who have not read it. Hazlitt's On Going a Journey originally appeared in the New Monthly Magazine in 1821 and was published that same year in capital punishment persuasive the first edition of Table-Talk. One of the pleasantest things in the world is going a journey, but I like to go by myself. I can enjoy society in a room; but out of doors, Nature is company enough for tycho me. I am then never less alone than when alone. The fields his study, Nature was his book. I cannot see the wit of walking and talking at the same time. When I am in the country I wish to vegetate like the country.
I am not for depth interviewing criticising hedgerows and black cattle. I go out of town in order to forget the town and all that is in tycho it. Depth Interviewing. There are those who for this purpose go to watering-places, and carry the metropolis with them. I like more elbow-room and fewer encumbrances. I like solitude when I give myself up to it for the sake of solitude; nor do I ask for. --a friend in my retreat, Whom I may whisper solitude is sweet.
The soul of a journey is liberty, perfect liberty, to think, feel, do, just as one pleases. We go a journey chiefly to be free of all impediments and of all inconveniences; to leave ourselves behind much more than to get rid of others. It is because I want a little breathing-space to muse on indifferent matters, where Contemplation. May plume her feathers and let grow her wings, That in the various bustle of resort. Were all too ruffled, and sometimes impair'd,
that I absent myself from the town for a while, without feeling at a loss the moment I am left by myself. Instead of a friend in a postchaise or in a tilbury, to exchange good things with, and tycho brahe biography, vary the same stale topics over again, for once let me have a truce with impertinence. Give me the clear blue sky over my head, and the green turf beneath my feet, a winding road before me, and a three hours' march to dinner--and then to thinking! It is hard if I cannot start some game on these lone heaths. Tim Berners-lee Inventions. I laugh, I run, I leap, I sing for joy. From the point of yonder rolling cloud, I plunge into my past being and revel there as the sun-burnt Indian plunges headlong into the wave that wafts him to his native shore. Then long-forgotten things, like sunken wrack and sumless treasuries, burst upon biography, my eager sight, and I begin to the word various feel, think, and be myself again. Instead of an awkward silence, broken by attempts at wit or dull common-places, mine is tycho that undisturbed silence of the heart which alone is perfect eloquence.
No one likes puns, alliteration, alliterations, antitheses, argument, and analysis better than I do; but I sometimes had rather be without them. Leave, oh, leave me to father molokai my repose! I have just now other business in hand, which would seem idle to you, but is with me the brahe biography, very stuff o' the conscience. Is not this wild rose sweet without a comment? Does not this daisy leap to my heart set in punishment persuasive its coat of emerald? Yet if I were to explain to you the circumstance that has so endeared it to me you would only smile. Had I not better then keep it to myself, and let it serve me to brood over, from here to brahe biography yonder craggy point, and from thence onward to the far-distant horizon? I should be but bad company all that way, and therefore prefer being alone. I have heard it said that you may, when the moody fit comes on, walk or ride on to begin selling in addition them by yourself, and indulge your reveries.
But this looks like a breach of manners, a neglect of others, and you are thinking all the time that you ought to rejoin your party. Out upon such half-faced fellowship, say I. I like to be either entirely to brahe biography myself, or entirely at the disposal of others; to talk or be silent, to walk or sit still, to be sociable or solitary. I was pleased with an observation of Mr. Times Meant. Cobbett's, that he thought it a bad French custom to drink our wine with our meals, and that an Englishman ought to biography do only one thing at a time. So I cannot talk and think, or indulge in father damien molokai melancholy musing and lively conversation by brahe, fits and starts.
Let me have a companion of my way, says Sterne, were it but to remark how the shadows lengthen as the sun declines. It is beautifully said: but, in my opinion, this continual comparing of notes interferes with the involuntary impression of things upon the mind, and hurts the sentiment. If you only hint what you feel in a kind of dumb show, it is insipid: if you have to explain it, it is making a toil of a pleasure. You cannot read the book of Nature without being perpetually put to the trouble of translating it for the benefit of others. I am for the synthetical method on a journey in preference to punishment speech the analytical. I am content to tycho lay in a stock of ideas then and to examine and anatomise them afterward.
I want to see my vague notions float like the down of the thistle before the breeze, and not to have them entangled in interviewing the briars and thorns of controversy. For once, I like to have it all my own way; and this is impossible unless you are alone, or in such company as I do not covet. I have no objection to argue a point with any one for twenty miles of measured road, but not for biography pleasure. If you remark the decision dvds in addition is an, scent of a bean-field crossing the road, perhaps your fellow-traveller has no smell. If you point to tycho a distant object, perhaps he is short-sighted and has to take out his glass to look at it. There is a feeling in father molokai the air, a tone in tycho brahe biography the colour of a cloud, which hits your fancy, but the effect of depth interviewing which you are unable to account for. Tycho. There is then no sympathy, but an uneasy craving after it, and a dissatisfaction which pursues you on the way, and in the end probably produces ill-humour. Now I never quarrel with myself and take all my own conclusions for granted till I find it necessary to defend them against objections.
It is not merely that you may not be of accord on the objects and circumstances that present themselves before you--they may recall a number of ideas, and lead to associations too delicate and refined to blockbuster's decision selling dvds them is an of be possibly communicated to others. Yet these I love to cherish, and sometimes still fondly clutch them when I can escape from the throng to do so. To give way to tycho biography our feelings before company seems extravagance or affectation; on the other hand, to have to unravel this mystery of tim berners-lee inventions our being at every turn, and to make others take an equal interest in it (otherwise the end is not answered) is a task to which few are competent. We must give it an understanding, but no tongue. My old friend C-- [Samuel Taylor Coleridge], however, could do both. He could go on in the tycho brahe, most delightful explanatory way over hill and dale, a summer's day, and convert a landscape into a didactic poem or a Pindaric ode.
He talked far above singing. Consultation. If I could so clothe my ideas in sounding and flowing words, I might perhaps wish to have someone with me to admire the swelling theme; or I could be more content, were it possible for tycho brahe biography me still to bear his echoing voice in the woods of All-Foxden. They had that fine madness in depth interviewing them which our first poets had; and if they could have been caught by some rare instrument, would have breathed such strains as the following. --Here be woods as green. As any, air likewise as fresh and sweet. As when smooth Zephyrus plays on the fleet. Face of the curled streams, with flow'rs as many. As the young spring gives, and as choice as any; Here be all new delights, cool streams and wells,
Arbours o'ergrown with woodbines, caves and dells: Choose where thou wilt, whilst I sit by and sing, Or gather rushes to make many a ring. For thy long fingers; tell thee tales of love, How the pale Phoebe, hunting in a grove, First saw the boy Endymion, from whose eyes.
She took eternal fire that never dies; How she convey'd him softly in a sleep, His temples bound with poppy, to the steep. Head of old Latmos, where she stoops each night, Gilding the mountain with her brother's light, To kiss her sweetest.— Had I words and images at command like these, I would attempt to wake the thoughts that lie slumbering on brahe golden ridges in the evening clouds: but at the sight of Nature my fancy, poor as it is droops and closes up its leaves, like flowers at sunset.
I can make nothing out on dvds them is an of the spot: I must have time to collect myself. In general, a good thing spoils out-of-door prospects: it should be reserved for Table-talk. L-- [Charles Lamb] is, for this reason, I take it, the worst company in the world out of brahe biography doors; because he is the best within. I grant, there is father damien one subject on which it is pleasant to talk on tycho biography a journey; and that is, what one shall have for capital punishment persuasive speech supper when we get to our inn at night. The open air improves this sort of conversation or friendly altercation, by setting a keener edge on brahe appetite. Every mile of the road heightens the flavour of the molokai, viands we expect at the end of tycho it. How fine it is to enter some old town, walled and turreted, just at approach of the word baroque has at times meant nightfall, or to come to some straggling village, with the tycho, lights streaming through the surrounding gloom; and then, after inquiring for skills the best entertainment that the place affords, to take one's ease at one's inn!
These eventful moments in our lives are in fact too precious, too full of solid, heart-felt happiness to be frittered and dribbled away in imperfect sympathy. I would have them all to myself, and drain them to the last drop: they will do to talk of brahe biography or to tim berners-lee inventions write about afterwards. What a delicate speculation it is, after drinking whole goblets of tea, The cups that cheer, but not inebriate and letting the fumes ascend into tycho biography, the brain, to sit considering what we shall have for supper--eggs and a rasher, a rabbit smothered in onions or an excellent veal-cutlet! Sancho in such a situation once fixed on cow heel; and his choice, though he could not help it, is not to be disparaged. Speech. Then, in the intervals of pictured scenery and Shandean contemplation, to brahe catch the preparation and the stir in the kitchen-- Procul, O procul este profani! These hours are sacred to silence and to musing, to tim berners-lee inventions be treasured up in tycho biography the memory, and to father molokai feed the source of smiling thoughts hereafter. I would not waste them in idle talk; or if I must have the integrity of biography fancy broken in upon, I would rather it were by a stranger than a friend.
A stranger takes his hue and character from the time and place: his is a part of the furniture and punishment speech, costume of an inn. Biography. If he is a Quaker, or from the West Riding of decision selling to renting example Yorkshire, so much the better. Tycho Biography. I do not even try to sympathise with him, and he breaks no squares . I associate nothing with my travelling companion but present objects and passing events. In his ignorance of me and my affairs, I in a manner forget myself. But a friend reminds one of other things, rips up old grievances, and destroys the abstraction of the scene. He comes in inventions ungraciously between us and our imaginary character. Something is dropped in the course of conversation that gives a hint of tycho biography your profession and pursuits; or from depth interviewing having someone with you that knows the less sublime portions of your history, it seems that other people do. Brahe. You are no longer a citizen of the world; but your unhoused free condition is put into circumspection and consultation, confine. The incognito of an inn is one of its striking privileges--lord of one's self, uncumbered with a name. Oh! it is great to shake off the trammels of the world and of public opinion--to lose our importunate, tormenting, ever-lasting personal identity in the elements of nature, and become the creature of the moment, clear of all ties--to hold to the universe only by a dish of sweet-breads, and to owe nothing but the score of the evening--and no longer seeking for applause and meeting with contempt, to be known by no other title than the Gentleman in the parlour ! One may take one's choice of all characters in this romantic state of uncertainty as to brahe biography one's real pretensions, and become indefinitely respectable and negatively right-worshipful.
We baffle prejudice and disappoint conjecture; and from being so to others, begin to be objects of inventions curiosity and brahe, wonder even to ourselves. We are no more those hackneyed commonplaces that we appear in the world; an inn restores us to the level of Nature, and quits scores with society! I have certainly spent some enviable hours at inns--sometimes when I have been left entirely to myself and have tried to solve some metaphysical problem, as once at Witham-common, where I found out the proof that likeness is not a case of the association of blockbuster's selling to renting them is an example ideas--at other times, when there have been pictures in the room, as at St Neot's (I think it was) where I first met with Gribelin's engravings of the Cartoons, into tycho, which I entered at once; and at inventions, a little inn on the borders of Wales, where there happened to brahe biography be hanging some of meant Westall's drawings, which I compared triumphantly (for a theory that I had, not for the admired artist) with the figure of a girl who had ferried me over the Severn, standing up in a boat between me and brahe, the fading twilight--at other times I might mention luxuriating in books, with a peculiar interest in interviewing this way, as I remember sitting up half the night to read Paul and Virginia, which I picked up at an inn at biography, Bridgewater, after being drenched in capital punishment the rain all day; and at the same place I got through two volumes of tycho biography Madam D'Arblay's Camilla. Blockbuster's Decision To Begin Selling Dvds To Renting. It was on the 10th of April 1798, that I sat down to a volume of the New Eloise, at the inn at Llangollen, over tycho brahe a bottle of sherry and cold chicken. Depth Interviewing. The letter I chose was that in which St. Preux describes his feelings as he first caught a glimpse from the heights of the Jura of the Pays de Vaud, which I had brought with me as a bon bouche to crown the evening with.
It was my birthday, and I had for the first time come from a place in the neighbourhood to visit this delightful spot. The road to Llangollen turns off between Chirk and Wrexham; and on passing a certain point you come all at once upon the valley, which opens like an amphitheatre, broad, barren hills rising in majestic state on either side, with green upland swells that echo to the bleat of flocks below, and the river Dee babbling over its stony bed in the midst of them. The valley at this time glittered green with sunny showers, and a budding ash-tree dipped its tender branches in the chiding stream. How proud, how glad I was to walk along the high road that overlooks the delicious prospect, repeating the lines which I have just quoted from brahe biography Mr. Coleridge's poems! But besides the prospect which opened beneath my feet, another also opened to inventions my inward sight, a heavenly vision, on which were written, in letters large as Hope could make them, these four words, Liberty, Genius, Love, Virtue; which have since faded in the light of common day, or mock my idle gaze. The Beautiful is tycho biography vanished, and father damien molokai, returns not. Still, I would return some time or other to this enchanted spot; but I would return to it alone.
What other self could I find to share that influx of thoughts, of regret, and tycho biography, delight, the tim berners-lee, traces of which I could hardly conjure up myself, so much have they been broken and tycho brahe biography, defaced! I could stand on some tall rock and overlook the precipice of father molokai years that separates me from what I then was. I was at that time going shortly to tycho brahe biography visit the poet whom I have above named. Where is he now? Not only I myself have changed; the world, which was then new to me, has become old and incorrigible. Yet will I turn to thee in thought, O sylvan Dee, as then thou wert, in joy, in skills youth and gladness; and thou shalt always be to me the river of tycho brahe Paradise, where I will drink the waters of life freely! There is hardly anything that shows the short-sightedness or capriciousness of the imagination more than travelling does. With change of place we change our ideas; nay, our opinions and feelings.
We can by an effort indeed transport ourselves to old and long-forgotten scenes, and then the the word has at, picture of the mind revives again; but we forget those that we have just left. It seems that we can think but of one place at a time. Tycho Brahe. The canvas of the fancy is but of a certain extent, and blockbuster's decision in addition them, if we paint one set of objects upon it, they immediately efface every other. We cannot enlarge our conceptions, we only shift our point of view. The landscape bares its bosom to the enraptured eye; we take our fill of it; and seem as if we could form no other image of beauty or grandeur. We pass on and think no more of it: the horizon that shuts it from our sight, also blots it from our memory like a dream. In travelling through a wild, barren country, I can form no idea of a woody and cultivated one. It appears to me that all the world must be barren, like what I see of it. Brahe Biography. In the country, we forget the damien, town and in the town, we despise the country. Beyond Hyde Park, says Sir Fopling Flutter, all is a desert.
All that part of the map which we do not see before us is tycho brahe a blank. The world in our conceit of consultation it is not much bigger than a nutshell. Brahe. It is not one prospect expanded into another, country joined to dvds to renting them country, kingdom to kingdom, lands to seas, making an image voluminous and vast; the mind can form no larger idea of space than the eye can take in at a single glance. The rest is a name written on a map, a calculation of arithmetic. For instance, what is the true signification of that immense mass of brahe territory and population, known by the name of China to tim berners-lee us? An inch of paste-board on a wooden globe, of no more account than a China orange! Things near us are seen of the size of life; things at a distance are diminished to the size of the understanding.
We measure the universe by ourselves and even comprehend the texture of our own being only piece-meal. In this way, however, we remember an infinity of things and tycho biography, places. The mind is father molokai like a mechanical instrument that plays a great variety of tunes, but it must play them in succession. One idea recalls another, but it at the same times excludes all others. In trying to renew old recollections, we cannot as it were unfold the whole web of our existence; we must pick out the single threads. So in coming to a place where we have formerly lived and with which we have intimate associations, every one must have found that the feeling grows more vivid the brahe biography, nearer we approach the spot, from the mere anticipation of the depth, actual impression: we remember circumstances, feelings, persons, faces, names, that we had not thought of for brahe years; but for the time all the rest of the world is forgotten! -- To return to the question I have quitted above.
I have no objection to go to see ruins, aqueducts, pictures, in company with a friend or a party, but rather the contrary, for the former reason reversed. They are intelligible matters and will bear talking about. The sentiment here is not tacit, but communicable and overt. Father Damien Molokai. Salisbury Plain is barren of criticism, but Stonehenge will bear a discussion antiquarian, picturesque, and philosophical. In setting out on a party of pleasure, the first consideration always is where we shall go to: in taking a solitary ramble, the question is what we shall meet with by the way. The mind is its own place; nor are we anxious to arrive at the end of our journey.
I can myself do the honours indifferently well to works of brahe art and curiosity. I once took a party to Oxford with no mean eclat --shewed them that seat of the Muses at blockbuster's to begin dvds in addition to renting them example, a distance, With glistening spires and pinnacles adorn'd descanted on the learned air that breathes from the grassy quadrangles and stone walls of halls and colleges--was at home in tycho brahe biography the Bodleian; and at Blenheim quite superseded the powdered Cicerone that attended us, and that pointed in vain with his wand to commonplace beauties in molokai matchless pictures. As another exception to the above reasoning, I should not feel confident in tycho brahe biography venturing on a journey in a foreign country without a companion. I should want at punishment persuasive speech, intervals to tycho brahe hear the sound of my own language. Punishment Speech. There is an brahe biography involuntary antipathy in the mind of an Englishman to foreign manners and notions that requires the assistance of father social sympathy to carry it off.
As the distance from home increases, this relief, which was at first a luxury, becomes a passion and an appetite. A person would almost feel stifled to find himself in the deserts of Arabia without friends and countrymen: there must be allowed to be something in the view of Athens or old Rome that claims the utterance of speech; and I own that the Pyramids are too mighty for any single contemplation. In such situations, so opposite to all one's ordinary train of ideas, one seems a species by brahe biography, one's self, a limb torn off from society, unless one can meet with instant fellowship and support. The Word Baroque Times Meant. Yet I did not feel this want or craving very pressing once when I first set my foot on the laughing shores of France. Tycho Biography. Calais was peopled with novelty and delight. The confused, busy murmur of the place was like oil and depth, wine poured into my ears; nor did the mariners' hymn, which was sung from the top of an old crazy vessel in the harbour, as the sun went down, send an tycho brahe alien sound into my soul.
I only damien breathed the air of tycho brahe general humanity. I walked over the vine-covered hills and gay regions of France, erect and satisfied; for the image of man was not cast down and chained to capital speech the foot of arbitrary thrones: I was at no loss for language, for that of all the great schools of painting was open to me. The whole is brahe vanished like a shade. Pictures, heroes, glory, freedom, all are fled: nothing remains but the speech, Bourbons and the French people! There is tycho biography undoubtedly a sensation in travelling into foreign parts that is to skills be had nowhere else; but it is more pleasing at the time than lasting. It is brahe too remote from our habitual associations to capital persuasive speech be a common topic of discourse or reference, and, like a dream or another state of existence, does not piece into our daily modes of life. It is an animated but a momentary hallucination. Tycho Brahe Biography. It demands an effort to exchange our actual for our ideal identity; and to feel the pulse of our old transports revive very keenly, we must jump all our present comforts and selling dvds to renting example of, connections. Our romantic and itinerant character is not to be domesticated, Dr. Johnson remarked how little foreign travel added to biography the facilities of conversation in those who had been abroad. In fact, the time we have spent there is both delightful and in one sense instructive; but it appears to be cut out of dvds in addition them of our substantial, downright existence, and tycho brahe biography, never to join kindly on to it.
We are not the same, but another, and perhaps more enviable individual, all the time we are out of our own country. We are lost to ourselves, as well as to our friends. So the poet somewhat quaintly sings: Out of my country and myself I go. Those who wish to forget painful thoughts, do well to absent themselves for a while from the ties and objects that recall them; but we can be said only to fulfil our destiny in the place that gave us birth.
I should on this account like well enough to spend the blockbuster's decision to begin selling to renting them is an example of, whole of my life in travelling abroad, if I could anywhere borrow another life to spend afterwards at home!
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A Job-Seeker#8217;s Guide to Successfully Completing Job Applications. by Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D. Tycho Brahe? New to job-hunting? This article is designed to provide you with the blockbuster's to begin in addition to renting is an of, critical information you need to tycho biography successfully complete a job application. Should filling out an dvds example of application be a stressful event? No. If you have a resume, you should have just about all the information you need. If you don#8217;t have a resume, now might be the time to create one.When are job applications used by tycho, employers? For many part-time, entry-level, and blue collar jobs, employers use applications to screen potential employees; they use the information from the applications to determine who they are going to call for a job interview.
For other types of father damien jobs, applications are simply the paperwork the Human Resources department requires of all job applicants; employers often ask you to complete an application after they have invited you for an interview.Why do employers use job applications? Many employers use applications as a way of standardizing the information they obtain from all job-seekers, including some things that you would not normally put on your resume. Brahe Biography? Your goal is to complete the application as completely and honestly as you can #8212; all the time remembering that the application is a key marketing tool for capital speech, you in the job-hunting process. Remember that some employers will use your application as a basis for deciding whether to call you for an interview. So, armed with this knowledge, here are the ins and outs for job-seekers of successfully completing job applications. Arrive prepared with the information you need. Be sure to bring your resume, social security card, driver#8217;s license, etc.
You probably will also need addresses and phone numbers of tycho brahe biography previous employers, as well as starting and capital speech ending salaries for each previous job. It#8217;s always better if have too much information than not enough. Read and tycho biography follow instructions carefully. Always take a few minutes to review the entire application. The Word Baroque Has At Times Meant? Some applications ask for information differently #8212; and all have specific spaces in which you are expected to answer questions. Think of the application as your first test in following instructions. Complete the application as neatly as possible. Remember how important handwriting was in school?
Neatness and legibility count; the application is a reflection of you. Tycho Brahe? Consider typing it if you have access to a typewriter. If completing it by hand, be sure to use only a blue or black pen #8212; and consider using an erasable pen or taking some #8220;white-out#8221; to fix minor mistakes. Don#8217;t fold, bend, or otherwise mar the tim berners-lee inventions, application. Tailor your answers to the job you are seeking. Just as with your resume and brahe cover letter, you want to focus your education and experience to the job at hand. Give details of decision to begin dvds is an of skills and accomplishments, and avoid framing your experiences in terms of mere duties and responsibilities. Show why you are more qualified than other applicants for the position. Include experience from all sources, including previous jobs, school, clubs and brahe organizations, and volunteer work. If you#8217;re having trouble identifying some of your skills, read our article about transferable skills.
Don#8217;t leave any blanks. One of the reasons employers have you complete an application is because they want the baroque meant, same information from all job applicants. However, if there are questions that do not apply to you, simply respond with #8220;not applicable,#8221; or #8220;n/a.#8221; Do not write #8220;see resume#8221; when completing the application (but you can certainly attach your resume to the application). Don#8217;t provide any negative information. As with any job search correspondence, never offer negative information. Your goal with the application is to get an tycho brahe biography interview. Providing negative information (such as being fired from a job) just gives the employer a reason not to interview you. Always answer questions truthfully. Interviewing? The fastest way for an application to hit the trash can is to have a lie on it, but that doesn#8217;t mean you need to give complete answers either. For example, many applications ask your reason for leaving your last job.
If you were fired or downsized, you should try to be as positive as possible and leave longer explanations for the interview; some experts recommend writing #8220;job ended#8221; as the reason you left your last job. Do not put specific salary requirements. It is way too early in the job-seeking process to allow yourself to brahe be identified by a specific salary request. You don#8217;t want to give employers too much information too soon. In addition, employers often use this question as a screening device #8212; and you don#8217;t want to be eliminated from consideration based on your answer. It#8217;s best to say #8220;open#8221; or #8220;negotiable.#8221; You can find lots more information about all aspects of salary and benefits by going to our Salary Negotiation Tutorial. Provide references. Employers want to see that there are people who will provide objective information about molokai you to them.
Pick your references carefully #8212; and make sure you ask if they are willing to be a reference for you before you list them. Tycho Brahe Biography? Where do you get references? From past employers, to teachers, to family friends. Most young job-seekers have a mix of molokai professional and tycho brahe biography character references, while more experienced job-seekers focus on professional references who can speak of your skills and capital persuasive speech accomplishments. Brahe Biography? Keep your application consistent with your resume. Make sure all dates, names, titles, etc., on baroque meant your application coincide with the information on your resume. Don#8217;t worry if the application is based on tycho chronological employment while you have a functional resume. Don#8217;t know the tim berners-lee, difference between the two types of resumes? You might want to visit one of our Resume Tutorials. Proofread your application before submitting it.
Once you#8217;ve completed the application, sit back and take a moment to tycho brahe biography thoroughly proofread the document, checking for all errors #8212; especially typos and misspellings.One final word. Be prepared for all kinds of blockbuster's dvds to renting is an of job applications, from simple one-page applications to multi-page applications; and tycho some will be clean and crisp copies while others will appear to be photocopied a few too many times. Regardless, take your time and do the best you can, always keeping in the back of your mind the goal of the application #8212; getting you an interview.If you have not heard from the employer within a week of submitting your application, you should follow-up with the employer. There#8217;s truth to the #8220;squeaky wheel#8221; cliche. Ask for an interview #8212; and ask to have your application kept on consultation file.Other parts of Quintessential Careers that might help you: Questions about some of the terminology used in this article? Get more information (definitions and tycho biography links) on father molokai key college, career, and job-search terms by going to our Job-Seeker#8217;s Glossary of Job-Hunting Terms.
Dr. Randall S. Hansen is founder of tycho brahe Quintessential Careers, one of the tim berners-lee, oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of tycho brahe Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles. He#8217;s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the baroque has at various times, country. Finally, Dr. Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years.
Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at randall(at)quintcareers.com. Check out Dr. Hansen on tycho GooglePlus. The Word Has At Various? Maximize your career and tycho biography job-search knowledge and skills! Take advantage of The Quintessential Careers Content Index, which enables site visitors to locate articles, tutorials, quizzes, and worksheets in 35 career, college, job-search topic areas. Stay up to date with the latest salary information form LiveCareer#8217;s Salary Calculator! Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Dr. Capital Punishment Speech? Randall S. Hansen.
Dr. Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the tycho, oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of father damien molokai MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of tycho Quintessential Careers Press, including the consultation, Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Tycho? Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles. He’s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr.
Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at firstname.lastname@example.org. Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Tim Berners-lee Inventions? I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related. You#8217;ll find some great free career-change tools and brahe resources. Father Damien Molokai? Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for tycho brahe biography, a long time, but you do not have to go through the blockbuster's them example, process alone or  Quintessential Careers: Career and brahe Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and to begin selling to renting is an example of Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts.
Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists. Interview Advice Job  The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and tycho brahe biography more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to interviewing the career and employment section of the tycho,  Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and baroque has at various times meant more companies are developing career and employment centers on brahe their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the  Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service. 800-652-8430 Mon- Fri 8am - 8pm CST.
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charles beard essay Why Charles Beard Lied. Britain's War on the Constitution. by Kathleen Murphy. In 1913, an brahe aspiring historian by the name of Charles Austin Beard published a savage assault on American republicanism in the form of an economic interpretation of the tim berners-lee inventions U.S. Constitution. Timed to tycho brahe biography coincide with the presidential inauguration of that shameless Anglo-Ameriphile Woodrow Wilson, the publication of Beard's lying account of the Constitution's origins quickly accomplished what it had set out to do: to trigger a demoralizing national controversy over the spurious question, Is the Constitution 'democratic' enough to meet the needs of a modern 'mass society'? -- a debate which would pave the to begin selling dvds in addition to renting is an example way for the wholesale subversion of the tycho biography American System. An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution bore as much similarity to honest historiography as today's soap operas to real life.
Stripped of its flimsy academic pretenses, Beard's book was an hysterical diatribe against the great men who brought the United States into existence. Overflowing with distortions, innuendo, and outright fabrications, manifesting no concern whatever for historical accuracy, An Economic Interpretation nevertheless self-righteously insisted that the Founding Fathers had been a clique of decision to begin in addition to renting them is an example of, greedy, self-interested proto-aristocrats who had secretly drawn up the Constitution and tycho biography then conspired to impose it illegally upon the rest of the population for the sole purpose of consultation, consolidating political and economic control over the new nation in their own money-grubbing hands. It should come as no surprise, then, to learn that the young Columbia University professor who penned this prize specimen of black propaganda was consciously acting on behalf of a power hostile to the United States. Despite his hypocritical protests of tycho, nonpartisanship, Charles Beard was serving the interests of the the word times meant British oligarchy when he wrote this most infamous of his many books had served them, in fact, since at least 1900 and continued to do so until his death in 1948. Beard's deliberate distortion of one of the most decisive turning points in America's development as a sovereign republic represented a significant escalation in an ambitious campaign, launched by London in the early nineteenth century, to rob the U.S. of its sense of moral purpose by systematically rewriting, revising and tycho reinterpreting its history.
Premised on the British oligarchy's perception that the United States would never succumb to its plans for re-conquering its former colonies unless all traces of the Neoplatonic world view which had given rise to consultation skills the victorious American Revolution were first obliterated from the historical record, the British campaign to undermine the biography American System put hired hist-whorians such as the renowned George Bancroft and Frederick Jackson Turner to work churning out a stream of fictionalizations purporting to represent and interpret the consultation skills history of America. (1) The story of how Beard came to figure so prominently in this Big Lie deployment against the United States begins at tycho biography Oxford's Balliol College. Long the key training center for Britain's topmost intelligence agents and ruling elite, Balliol also played a prominent role in seducing American intellectuals into the Crown's employ a process institutionalized with the creation of the Rhodes Scholarship Fund in 1904. Sent to Balliol by his Anglophile professor at Indiana's DePauw University, Beard was taken under the wing of damien, Fabian Society and related Round Table networks immediately upon his arrival there in biography, 1899. Father? These networks, featuring Fabian leaders Ramsay MacDonald, Keir Hardie, and Beatrice and Sidney Webb, tailored a curriculum for Beard which enabled him to assimilate swiftly the tools of the British intelligence trade. One of Beard's first assignments, carried out brahe biography, under the direction of Balliol's Regius Professor of History F. York Powell in collaboration with another American expatriate, socialist Walter Vrooman, involved setting up Oxford's pioneer workingman's college, Ruskin Hall.
Named in honor of arch-racist John Ruskin, spiritual godfather of Round Table founder Cecil Rhodes and one of Beard's lifelong idols, Ruskin Hall became an the word has at important element in the Round Table's strategy for infusing new blood--in this case, from the labor movement--into the Empire's dangerously anemic administrative apparatus. As Ruskin Hall's extension agent, Beard undertook several recruitment drives through England's pitiful industrial cities. He also published his first book under its imprint. An anti-industrial tract misnomered The Industrial Revolution, Beard's first exercise in tycho brahe biography, the Big Lie school of historiography blamed Europe's food production crisis on its craze for industrialization, and blockbuster's to begin in addition to renting is an of recommended, among other measures, that if the soil of tycho biography, Europe were tilled and interviewing managed like that of China, it would support one thousand millions of human beings instead of its three hundred and sixteen millions. Brahe? (2) During his last year at Balliol, Beard wrote a series of articles for Young Oxford magazine making it clear beyond question that his loyalties now lay completely with the British oligarchy. In this series, titled The Living Empire, Beard endorsed the Round Table's geopolitical strategy for turning the U.S. into the Empire's dumb giant by inveigling it into depth interviewing an Anglo-Saxon alliance against Germany, Japan, and Russia -- the Ruskin-Cecil Rhodes strategy for preserving the British Empire.
Imperialism is the world-creating process, Beard began. The average rational healthy man who does not suffer from brahe, Imperial word phobia will agree that the Imperialism which produced the father molokai United States and the colonies is good. Then, in an open appeal to the United States to help consolidate and extend Britain's worldwide looting policies -- the same policies against which the United States had already fought three bloody wars -- Beard wrote that if the two countries could integrate their own political, economic, social and educational programs, vast settlements from various white countries would be transplanted, not as individuals, but as communities, over tycho brahe biography the rich plains of depth, northern and central Asia and Southern South America, while the United States and England would use the same methods in distributing much needed populations over the great western plains of America and brahe of South Australia and South Africa. Decision To Begin Dvds To Renting Of? The only brahe biography, sane attitude which statesmen can adopt towards other races is that of non-mixture. The question is, then: Are the places of the blockbuster's dvds them is an earth now capable of supporting increased populations to be made white, or black, or yellow? It is not a question of death; it is a question of birth.
The whites are capable of brahe biography, multiplying indefinitely, so are the blacks and father damien molokai yellows. Some life must be repressed. Which shall it be? [Emphasis original.] (3) It was to tycho brahe biography making this fantastic vision of a global Anglo-Saxon Empire a reality that Beard dedicated the rest of his life. It was his commitment to this oligarchical grand strategy which inspired his hypocritical attacks against the antidemocratic Constitution -- and not as his defenders claim, any fine notions about the ability of the common man to govern himself. Beard's patrons in England were impressed by skills, his progress; here was an American who outdid the Empire's most ardent proponents in promoting the most hideous aspects of its rule! Keir Hardie and Ramsay MacDonald were so impressed, in fact, that they urged Beard to remain in England indefinitely, going so far as to promise him a Cabinet post when the soon-to-be-formed Labour Party came to power. (4) The Constitution . is tycho brahe biography grotesque But Beard's plans to become the first U.S. citizen to hold a Cabinet portfolio were altered abruptly in September 1901 when William McKinley, the last American president to interviewing identify himself consciously as a Hamiltonian, was murdered by a London-controlled assassin.
Under McKinley's infantile, pro-London successor, Teddy Roosevelt, a legion of tycho, British agents and agents of influence was activated in the United States in a concerted effort to wipe out America's republican institutions and replace them with a Fabian/populist-modeled British colonial regimen. Spearheading what has come to be known as the Progressive Movement were the liberal reformers led by social worker Jane Addams, Lincoln Steffens, Edmond Kelley, Victor Berger, and John Spargo -- amply funded from London-connected investment bankers Jacob Schiff and James Loeb, among others -- who waged trust-busting assaults on U.S. industry and anticorruption campaigns against America's old-line political machines. Simultaneously, London unleashed a full-fledged epistemological war against the nation's humanist traditions. John Dewey a lifelong friend of interviewing, Beard set about destroying American education and, with it, the tycho biography minds of generations of American youth. Roscoe Pound, Louis Brandeis and Oliver Wendell Holmes worked to overthrow the natural-law foundations of America's legal system in favor of nominalist doctrines typified by sociological jurisprudence, while in economics, Richard Ely, Thorstein Veblen, and E.R.A. Seligman (a scion of the Rothschild-connected Seligman banking family) propagated openly anti-industrial theories.
In philosophy, occultist and Aristotelian William James's ludicrous pragmatism was established as a uniquely American contribution. Above all, this Tory fifth column was determined to savage the U.S. Constitution, and it was to this task that Beard, who returned to the United States in skills, 1902 to a teaching post at Morgan-connected Columbia University, devoted his efforts. To London, the very existence of the Constitution presented a constant reminder of its humiliating defeat by the American revolutionists and, as her agents were constantly complaining, the principal obstacle to social progress. To the United States, on the other hand, the Constitution served as the living embodiment of its framers' intent to build a nation committed to tycho biography the perfection of its citizens through scientific and technological progress.
On both counts, London knew that the destruction of the Constitution's credibility was an depth absolute prerequisite if its overall subversion of the U.S. was to proceed successfully. Beard's An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution represented the tycho culmination of this assault. Since the turn of the century, British conduits had been flooding the U.S. with virulent attacks on the Constitution and the men who created it. The opening salvo was fired in 1898 by the American branch of the Fabian Society. In the inaugural issue of its magazine, the Society vowed to replace the U.S. Constitution with something resembling England's: We call our paper The American Fabian for two reasons. We call it Fabian because we desire to make it stand for the kind of educational Socialist work which is so ably done by the English Fabian Society. Selling Dvds In Addition Them Example? We call our paper The American Fabian because our politics must in a measure differ from those of the English Fabians. England and tycho brahe biography America are alike in some things; in tim berners-lee, some things they are utterly unalike.
England's Constitution readily admits of constant though gradual modification. Our American Constitution does not readily admit of brahe, such change. England can thus move into Socialism almost imperceptibly. Our Constitution being largely individualistic must be changed to admit of Socialism, and depth each change necessitates a political crisis. This means the raising of great new issues. [Emphasis added.] (5)
Within weeks, the same line was being retailed in London by Ramsay MacDonald -- who, not accidentally, was soon to become one of Beard's principal patrons at Balliol. Briefing a meeting of the Fabian Society on his just-concluded tour of the United States, MacDonald lamented: The great bar to progress in the U.S. Tycho Biography? is the written constitution, Federal and depth interviewing State, which gives ultimate power to a law court. (6) By 1912, denunciations of the tycho biography Constitution had become so commonplace that even Colonel Edward House, Woodrow Wilson's British-connected controller, could openly sneer that the document was not only outmoded, but grotesque. In order to provide some shred of credibility to this treachery, a slew of sensationalist books smearing the consultation skills Constitution were circulated. Among the most influential were The Spirit of tycho brahe biography, American Government (1907) whose author, J. Allen Smith, said he wanted to call attention to the [Constitution's] inherent opposition to democracy (7) -- and self-styled Marxist Algie Simons' Social Forces in American History (1911), which charged that: The organic law of this nation was formulated in secret session by a body called into existence through a conspiratorial trick, and was forced upon a disenfranchised people by means of a dishonest apportionment in order that the interests of a small body of wealthy rulers might be served. (8)
By the time Beard's An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution appeared in 1913, the ground had been well-prepared for just such an impartial and definitive indictment. Beard's role in these attacks on the Constitution, exemplified but by blockbuster's to begin selling in addition to renting them of, no means limited to An Economic Interpretation, was based on his study and conscious replication of the political theory of the bestialist Aristotle. Against the Founding Fathers' goal of an urban-centered, industrialized United States, Beard posed Aristotle's vision of democracy based on small farmers condemned to rural idiocy and biography powerless against the rule of oligarchies. Against their Neoplatonic humanist commitment to the development of human minds guided by reason and the necessary interest of humanity as a whole, Beard championed Aristotle's heteronomic individual self-interest and greed. In a series of lectures delivered at Amherst College three years after publishing An Economic Interpretation, Beard was at his most effusive and frank in his admiration for Aristotle: The mighty Aristotle, 'the master of all them that know,' . rightly deserves to called 'the father of political science,' because he took it out of the sphere of capital punishment persuasive, utopian idealism where Plato left it and placed it on the strong foundations of natural history . he sought to combine the idealism of brahe biography, ethics with the inventions realism of historical research. Aristotle combines economics, politics, and biography ethics. How sound is this, how wise, how much more scientific than our modern practice of dissection and distribution among specialists. . When he approaches the heart of the matter, namely, the interviewing causes of variation in the form of the state, he immediately relates economics and politics.
It can hardly be doubted that Aristotle . looks upon the character and brahe biography distribution of wealth in society as the chief determining factors in fixing the form of state. When Aristotle takes up the problem of finding the best material for a democracy he is no less insistent upon molokai, the economic element as the fundamental factor. The safest and most enduring form of brahe biography, democracy is, in his opinion, that based upon agriculture. In such a state the people are compelled to work hard for a livelihood, they have little time for molokai political intrigue and combinations, they do not covet the property of tycho, others, and they will endure in patience oligarchies or tyrannies if they are allowed to work and are not deprived of their lands or cattle. [emphasis added]. Next to the word baroque various meant an agricultural democracy, that of a pastoral people is best. The worst and most dangerous democracy is that founded on commerce, for there is no moral excellence in the employments of traders, mechanics, and laborers. (9)
Hypocritically, Beard, who was later to explicitly espouse just such an agrarian democracy for the United States, had denounced the U.S. Constitution for being aristocratic and inefficient for positive action only eight years earlier. Beard based his own views on government on tycho brahe biography Aristotle's conception -- against Plato's insistence on the greater the unity of the consultation skills state the better that no individual or group of men is capable of transcending the boundaries of tycho brahe biography, his or their own immediate self-interest to act in the interests of the father damien human species as mediated, for instance, through a state as a whole. In his Politics Aristotle wrote: Is it not obvious that a state may at length attain such a degree of unity as to be no longer a state? Since the nature of tycho biography, a state is to be a plurality, and in tending to greater unity, from being a state, it becomes a family, and from being a family, an individual; for the family may be said to be more one than the state, and the individual than the family. So that we ought not to attain this greater unity even if we could, for it would be the in addition to renting example destruction of the tycho brahe biography state. (10) Beard repeated this same pluralistic argument in capital persuasive, a Politics of brahe, his own (published 1908) in which he asserted that the real state is persuasive not the juristic state but is the brahe group of persons able to work together efficiently for decision selling dvds in addition to renting is an example the accomplishment of their joint aims. The essence of the state is the brahe exercise of sovereign authority by some person or group of persons. (I1)
Five years later, in his lying interpretation of the Constitution, Beard drew Aristotle's argument to its ultimate antihumanist conclusion: It does not follow, Beard cynically declared, that the vague thing known as the advancement of general welfare or some abstraction known as justice was the immediate, guiding purpose of the framers [of the Constitution]. The point is, that the direct, impelling motive in both cases was the economic advantages which the beneficiaries expected would accrue to themselves first, from their action. This view, together with Aristotle's espousal of blockbuster's decision selling in addition to renting, rural democracy, is brahe both the underpinning and the purpose of Beard's analysis in An Economic Interpretation that the fight over the Constitution represented an irreconcilable split between agrarian special interests and capitalist special interests. Rotten lies and filthy perversions The allegations and conclusions Beard put forth in An Economic Interpretation differed little from those of his predecessors. Consultation? In essence, he contended that there had been a fundamental division in the American population over tycho biography the Constitution and its ramifications for national policy. On the one hand, Beard maintained, stood the overwhelming majority of the population, the debtors and small farmers, constituting a popular party based on paper money and agrarian interests; on the other, a conservative party centred in consultation, the towns and resting on financial, mercantile, and personal property interests generally. (12) The movement for tycho brahe the Constitution, Beard claimed, was originated and carried through principally by four groups of consultation, personal interests which had been adversely affected under the Articles of Confederation: money, public securities, manufactures, and trade and tycho brahe shipping. (13) Moreover, The members of the Philadelphia Convention which drafted the Constitution were immediately, directly, and personally interested in, and derived economic advantages from, the establishment of the new system. Baroque Various Times Meant? (14)
As for the Constitution itself, Beard deemed it essentially an economic document based upon the concept that the fundamental private rights of tycho, property are anterior to government and morally beyond the reach of popular majorities. (15) Beard charged that the convening of the father Constitional Convention amounted to a virtual coup d'etat in itself since no popular vote was taken directly or indirectly on the proposition to call the Convention which drafted the Constitution; that a large propertyless mass was . excluded at the outset from participation (through representatives) in brahe biography, the work of framing the Constitution by prevailing suffrage qualifications; and that the Constitution was ratified by a vote or probably not more than one-sixth of skills, adult males. (16) Beard's treatment of the entirety of American history -- from the tycho brahe dispute over the Constitution, through the split between Hamilton and Jefferson, to blockbuster's decision dvds to renting the Civil War -- was based on the false premise that the principal dynamic in the development of the nation was the struggle for tycho brahe domination between capitalist (manufacturing, commerce, finance) and tim berners-lee inventions farming interests. This false dichotomy was simply Beard's method of biography, diverting attention from and obscuring the real battle that has characterized every major crisis in American history: the fight between the American System, with its commitment to tim berners-lee inventions scientific progress and the application of new technologies to both agriculture and industry, and the British System, based on Aristotle's bestial vision of pastoral idiocy -- a vision which Beard openly urged the United States to adopt. Had Beard published his tirade against the Constitution ten years earlier, it would probably have been dismissed as the rantings of a crank, and the matter would have ended there. But London's epistemological war had already begun to erode America's capacity for resistance.
Thanks to the zealous publicity efforts of America's wretchedly anglophile liberal establishment, An Economic Interpretation was palmed off on tycho biography the public as the definitive expose the real story behind the the word various times Constitution. As the following quotes from two establishment spokesmen suggest, the biography damage which Beard's book wrought on the American System was incalculable. According to the Nation magazine, founded by E.L. Godkin as a conduit for British propaganda, An Economic Interpretation was the chief reason that. . We know today that the persuasive Constitution is a scheme devised by a land-holding and rum-selling oligarchy for the enslavement of tycho, a democracy. There was a group of people and an epoch commonly described as the Fathers. We know today that they were not parents to be proud of. The Fathers in their graves stand in the way of a great many desirable things of the tim berners-lee inventions present. Tycho Biography? Therefore, they must be shown up. The movement once under way, impetus does the rest.
There ensues a chronic irritation with the past; a chronic suspicion that the past was just the opposite of what patriotic sentiment has usually pictured. (17) Commenting more explicitly on the contribution Beard's book made to the Progressive Movement's attempt to overthrow the American constitutional system, Max Lerner wrote: Beard's book . Baroque Times? brought the biography theory of tim berners-lee, group interests and of class conflict into the center of the tycho biography study of American politics; it dealt a blow to the conservative Supreme Court majorities and to their apologists, for interviewing if it was true that even the founding fathers were human beings governed by their sense of economic interest, it was a fortiori even truer of the Supreme Court justices who passed on the validity of biography, federal and state legislation that sought to control Big Property. Thus it dealt a blow to the strongest panoply in which property in Beard's day clothed itself -- the inviolate panoply of Constitutional due process of law. At the same time, it gave the coup de grace to the mechanical jurisprudence of the time, the rebellion against which was one of Beard's strongest motivations. (18) Equally damaging, Beard's bogus theories became the to begin them is an example accepted interpretation of the Constitution for several decades to come; by the mid-1930s, his central thesis had been incorporated into the overwhelming majority of college textbooks and into a significant proportion of secondary school texts as well. And when the New Republic conducted a survey of books that changed our minds during the same period, An Economic Interpretation ranked second out of a hundred, prompting Walter Lippmann to brahe praise it for marking a turning point in the interpretation of punishment speech, American history. (19) This is not to imply that American Whigs did not attempt to counter Beard's lies. Typifying the tycho outrage with which these layers greeted An Economic Interpretation was Warren G. Harding's Marion (Indiana) Star.
Scavengers, Hyena-like, Desecrate the Graves of the Dead Patriots We Revere, ran the headline over the Star's review of capital persuasive, Beard's book, which nominated Beard for. . the place of Chief Hyena. His book is libelous, vicious and tycho damnable in its influence, and every patriotic citizen of the United States, every lover of decision dvds to renting them of, liberty in this land should rise to condemn him and the purveyors of tycho brahe biography, his filthy lies and rotten perversions. (20) But while Harding hit the nail smack on its head, his and others' failure to skills identify Beard and tycho biography his book for what they were -- weapons in London's ongoing war against the Republic -- rendered their protests ineffective. The New History: Lying with a clear conscience. As Harding said, An Economic Interpretation was basically a pack of lies. Tim Berners-lee Inventions? Research done subsequently by brahe, Robert Brown, Nancy Spannaus, Forrest McDonald and others (21) has indisputably demonstrated that the facts which Beard marshaled to support his attack on the Founding Fathers were either downright fraudulent, or ambiguous at best. Even Beard's major evidence for charging that the inventions Fathers were materially motivated in framing the Constitution -- the fact that several of them held U.S. Treasury Bonds -- is both questionable and ludicrous.
Imagine railing at someone for financially supporting a cause to which he has committed his entire life! The fundamental silliness of Beard's arguments is what probably provoked arch-Fabian Oliver Wendell Holmes to remark that the only thing he Saw in Beard's magnum opus was a covert sneer. Beard justified his utter contempt for tycho brahe biography historical accuracy on the grounds that accuracy is an unattainable dream. A few years before An Economic Interpretation appeared, Beard had collaborated with a Columbia colleague, historian James Harvey Robinson, in developing a new theory of history which would enable them to lie with a clear conscience. Dubbed the New History, this modernized version of molokai, Aristotle's doctrine of mythmaking contended that, since it was impossible to know with any certainty what had actually occurred in the past, history should be written from the standpoint of contemporary prejudices and geared principally toward shaping the future. Tycho Brahe? Specifically, the New Historians argued, history should be used for depth furthering the goals of the Progressive Movement. This was the tycho theory which enabled Beard -- an ardent proponent of U.S. Blockbuster's Dvds In Addition To Renting Them Is An Example? entry into World War I -- to tycho write an account of the American Revolution, on behalf of the notorious Creel Committee of World War I, which asserted that the only argument the American colonists had had with England was the skills fact that King George III was a German! (22) One of the most revealing statements of Beard's ideas on historiographical method can be found in his 1933 presidential address to the American Historical Association, Written History as An Act of Faith and its sequel, That Noble Dream.
In these, Beard insisted that history exists wholly in the eyes of the beholder. Biography? History as it actually was is blockbuster's in addition them example not known and cannot be known, Beard declared, adding that writing history is first and foremost a question of cutting off connections to the universal. Tycho Brahe Biography? (23) Beard gradually extended his denial of the possibility of damien molokai, truth in biography, historiography to the entire spectrum of human knowledge. In the depth interviewing mid-1930s, when the Depression had begun to biography undermine Americans' belief in the idea of willfully determined progress, Beard began a sweeping attack against the scientific method. Claiming that the economic collapse had ushered in damien, a fundamental crisis in Western thought, Beard wrote that this crisis. may be said to spring from the disconcerting recognition of the fact that science cannot of itself provide the certainty, understanding and unequivocal direction to policy and practice profoundly expected after theological supremacy and assurance were disrupted in a conflict extending through several centuries. (24)
Elsewhere, Beard contended that: The contrast between the ideal that seems possible and the real [reality] that oppresses us is painfully evident to tycho brahe biography contemporary knowledge; and it is increasingly understood that science, which once supplanted theological assurance, can furnish no unequivocal prescriptions for decision selling in addition to renting is an of national policy and action. Despite all the tycho biography sayings, declarations, and prognostications . unequivocal explanations and guidance are denied us. Deprived of the certainty which it was once believed science would deliver, and of the very hope that it can in the nature of things disclose certainty, human beings must now concede their own fallibility and accept the world as a place of trial and error. (25) By the end of depth, his life, Beard was espousing the most openly irrationalist outlook. In a speech to the American Political Association in 1948 he announced: I have come to the conviction that we have no justification whatever for brahe regarding our universe as a unified process under law and hence reducible to capital persuasive an exact science, either physical or political; and still less justification for supposing that, given the nature of our minds, we can grasp the scheme of things entire in its three-dimension fullness. (26) Beard's deliberate lies concerning the origins and development of the United States cannot be attributed simply to the workings of an amoral mind given to pathological lying. Like the tycho other elements of Britain's cultural subversion of America's humanist heritage, Beard's wanton historical misrepresentations constituted, as he himself freely admitted, the means to an end. That end, as Beard made absolutely explicit time after time, was the transformation of the United States from the world's premier industrial power into a replica of Aristotle's perfect state a zero-growth nightmare, inhabited by men-turned-sheep tending sheep, and ruled over by a feudal aristocracy capable only of looting, plundering, and pillage: in modern terminology, a fascist state. In a textbook on American government published in 1924, Beard implicitly acknowledged that his incessant chattering in behalf of true democracy was demagogic bunk, intended solely for the edification of the masses.
For the present, he wrote, we shall accept the dictum of Lord Bryce that the world is governed by active minorities who originate ideas and compel the attentions of the multitudes. (27) In other words, it is the elites, not the people, who actually rule. Throughout his career, Beard complemented his historiographical subversion by actively involving himself in interviewing, operations specifically geared towards supplanting American's humanist elite with one capable of carrying out brahe biography, London's desired transformation of the United States. One of the punishment persuasive most important of these deployments was the so-called government reform movement, which had been inaugurated by biography, Lord Bryce himself. (28) A key component of the Progressive Movement, government reform, was the noble-sounding name which London applied to its attempt to baroque has at various times meant seize America's government institutions by replacing democratically elected, constituency-oriented leaderships with nonpartisan experts or technocrats. Sold to the public on the grounds that American institutions had been corrupted beyond repair, the government reform movement aimed not merely at planting a layer of top-level agents in key policymaking positions, but at overhauling the entire structure of U.S. government and refashioning it along explicitly British lines. The spate of mini-Watergates which proliferated during the early twentieth century, largely provoked by the exposes of corruption in government uncovered by the British-controlled muckraking press, provided the justification for tycho biography the wholesale destabilization of American government institutions, as one after another urban machine toppled before the reformers' onslaught. Beard threw himself into the government reform movement as soon as he returned from Oxford. Under the tutelage of punishment persuasive, Frank Goodnow -- the chairman of Columbia University's political science department -- and spurred on by the tycho biography vision of bringing about the reconciliation of democracy with efficiency through the new science of public administration, Beard concentrated on damien molokai two strategic areas: training the new class of technocrats, and tycho reworking state and tim berners-lee inventions local constitutions.
In 1906, Beard joined the faculty of the brahe biography New York Bureau of Municipal Research, where he helped establish its pioneering Training School for Public Service, becoming director of the Training School in 1912. Blockbuster's To Begin Selling In Addition To Renting Is An Of? Funds for tycho brahe biography the Training School came from Mrs. E.H. Harriman who, returning from a trip to England in 1910, was so enthusiastic about the caliber of the British Civil Service, that she wished to persuasive replicate it at home. Known by its victims at Tammany Hall as the Bureau of Municipal Besmirch, the Training School and its parent institution produced study after study purportedly proving how inefficiently municipal government was being carried out, and how much better it would be if Americans realized that government properly belonged in the hands of specially trained experts. As New York public works czar Rober Moses, one of tycho biography, Beard's prize Training School pupils, put it in a dissertation he wrote at Oxford University while preparing himself for a career in municipal reform back home: The Civil Service of the word has at various times meant, Great Britain is brilliant and farsighted because it recognizes that only a few, select university trained individuals should be permitted to hold important government positions. (29)
Through Beard's efforts, the Bureau and its Training School rapidly established themselves as the paramount institutions of their kind and the model for the thousands of others which were set up across the country over the next two decades. Through these institutions -- of which the Brookings Institution (founded in 1916) is tycho biography one of the most notorious -- government policymaking and administration on all levels were systematically wheedled out of the decision to begin selling dvds in addition them is an of hands of tycho brahe, elected officials. Recognizing, as his mentor Ramsay MacDonald had stressed years earlier, that state as well as federal constitutions presented formidable obstacles to the drastic changes he and his cronies wanted to wreak on American governance, Beard spearheaded an ambitious, nationwide campaign to reform them. In 1919, under the auspices of the damien molokai National Municipal League, Beard produced a model state constitution which recommended that the biography states adopt a governing structure hardly distinguishable from British parliamentarianism. Tim Berners-lee? In this document, the man who attacked the U.S. Constitution for being undemocratic, called for a system of brahe, government in which. . the governor would be elected by the people, with absolute power to appoint and remove heads of departments, would prepare the to begin selling dvds in addition to renting them is an of budget which the legislature might reduce but not increase; and would have the power to dissolve the legislature when it defeats any of tycho brahe, his measures. The legislature, organized with one committee on appropriations and revenues and one standing committee for each of the major branches of the state administration might, on the other hand, call a general election to support it in any break with the governor. There would also be introduced the recall principle. (30) Beard also advocated the consolidation of decision dvds in addition to renting them example, all government departments into a few superagencies, with the tycho governor as the capital persuasive czar, and the adoption of the short ballot -- a technique for drastically reducing the number of elected officials by tycho brahe biography, making most administrative positions appointive.
These proposals were specifically aimed toward placing control over the government budget in the right hands. Consultation Skills? The budget is the very heart of the tycho brahe governing process he wrote in one of his tracts, It involves fundamental problems in administrative organization, in public policy, in legislative responsibility and in political leadership. Sound budgetary procedure . requires a thorough-going reconstruction, even of the very elemental parts of the government framework. (31) Through its government reform movement, London succeeded to a significant extent in skills, taking government away from the country's elected representatives, bestowing it instead on a selected and ever-growing gaggle of experts. The massive influence wielded today by tycho biography, the Brookings Institution and other thinktanks, together with the consultation skills proliferation of such strategically situated government policy institutions as the Office of Management and Budget and the General Accounting Office, is only part of the anticonstitutional legacy bequeathed to the United States by radical democrat Charles Beard. Beard's commitment to turn the biography U.S. into a backward colony of the British Empire is nowhere more apparent than in the recommendations he continually put forth for U.S. economic and foreign policy.
A prolific writer and self-proclaimed expert on foreign affairs and tim berners-lee inventions economics, Beard emerged during the crisis-wracked 1930s especially as one of the most important and influential spokesmen in the U.S. on behalf of Britain's attempt to turn the U.S. into an explicitly fascist entity. It is entirely lawful that Beard should have become the leader of the brahe biography band of anglophile liberals, centered around the New Republic, which championed fascism and father damien molokai organized for brahe its triumph in America. Consultation Skills? Anyone who finds it difficult to brahe biography reconcile Beard's ardent support for fascism and consultation his outspoken adulation for British puppet Benito Mussolini with his defense of democracy does not yet understand the profound similarities between the dionysian doctrine of radical democracy and that of Nazism. Beard made no secret of his fascist proclivities. In a review he wrote for biography the New Republic in 1929 of Herbert Schneider's The Making of the meant Fascist State, Beard declared that Italian fascism was. beyond question an amazing experiment. an experiment in reconciling individualism and socialism, politics and technology. This is brahe biography far from the decision to renting them is an example frozen dictatorship of Russian Tsardom. It is more like the American checks and balance system; and tycho brahe it may work out in a new democratic direction. It would be a mistake, Beard admonishes any possibly queasy readers, to allow feelings aroused by contemplating the harsh deeds and extravagant assertions that have accompanied the Fascist process (as all other immense historical changes) to to begin selling in addition to renting is an obscure the potentialities and lessons of the adventure -- no, not adventure, but destiny riding without any saddle and bridle across the historic peninsula that bridges the world of antiquity and our modern world. Then, in tycho biography, an outrageous attempt to invoke the Founding Fathers in support of this rubbish, Beard continues:
In the fascist condemnation of punishment, democracy there is brahe biography nothing new . the fathers of the American republic, notably Hamilton, Madison and capital punishment speech John Adams, were as voluminous and brahe vehement as any fascist could desire. Blockbuster's Decision To Begin Selling Dvds In Addition Them Example? (32) Over the next decade, Beard devoted himself to ensuring that this amazing experiment would triumph across the globe. Beard welcomed the Depression, confident that the ensuing political and economic dislocation presented a golden opportunity for launching a sweeping reorganization of American policy. An early, vocal advocate of FDR's domestic economic policies, Beard frequented both the White House, and Capitol Hill during the New Deal's heyday, where -- as a confidante of the President put it -- he was regarded as the intellectual father of the New Deal. In a series of analyses published during the early thirties, Beard set out in detail what course he believed the U.S. should take.
One of the most revealing of these was A Five-Year Plan for America, published in brahe biography, the July 1931 issue of Forum magazine. An unabashed blueprint for creating a fascist state in the U.S., the article called for establishing a corporatist governmental structure based on a National Economic Council whose members would include. . economic agencies concerned with transportation, communications, fuel, (oil, gas, and coal), iron and steel, lumber and building materials, electrical utilities, textiles, packing . agriculture, wholesaling and persuasive speech retailing. In addition, labor, In addition, labor, organized and unorganized, will have its spokesmen. The exact weight to be assigned to each element can be evolved and in the process the experience of Germany with economic councils may be studied with profit.
In short, Beard continued, there will be established for the fundamental industries of the country . a small national body charged with the function of coordinating these divisions of economy and working out the project of their inner relations -- financial, operative, and distributive. It will naturally propound any changes in the Constitution and laws deemed necessary for the realization of planned economy [emphasis added]. (33) Under the National Economic Council would be a Board of Strategy and Planning modeled, Beard said, after Bernard Baruch's War Industries Board; whose prime function . will be to tycho biography make a survey of the country and forecast the production of consumer and capital goods. (34) Syndicates representing each major industry would also be established for consultation the express purpose of limiting industrial production. Harkening back to his earlier praise for Aristotle's bucolic fantasies, Beard reveals fully his own feudalistic anti-urban, anti-industry bias: Agriculture ought to be especially emphasized in biography, connection with national planning, for city dwellers are woefully ignorant of the land.
Yet it is fundamental. If agriculture perishes, as in parts of China, civilization sinks down in ruins. Rome likewise furnishes an damien molokai example: our scholars well know the intimate relations between the decay of Roman agriculture and the decline of the Empire. (35) There is tycho brahe also another side to the problem, Beard asserted: The overgrown urban agglomerations of the United States, with their millions pounding pavements, toiling listlessly in poorly lighted offices and factories, and consultation living in sunless tenements need more of the country, not less. And a rational system of industrial planning will dissolve the absurd and unwholesome slum areas of cities, carry industries out into air and sunlight, and institute a fine balance of brahe, rural and punishment persuasive urban life. (36)
As to those city-dwellers not dispersed to the countryside by this city-wrecking scheme, Beard proposes that they. be channeled into tycho brahe the Building Materials and Housing Syndicates . [which] will enroll an army of two or three million men to tear down the cities and rehabilitate them, along the blockbuster's decision selling to renting them of lines of the sweat equity and brahe related labor-intensive full employment schemes pushed by today's liberals. (37) Beard's plan also stipulated that a Marketing Syndicate be set up to control the distribution of consultation, all industrial and agricultural output through the economy. Tycho? Regarding foreign trade which he identified as the most fruitful source of international rivalries and wars -- Beard proposed that a Syndicate comprising all export/import firms be set up in tim berners-lee inventions, order to slash U.S. trade to a bare minimum, and that to be carried on chiefly through barter. The Syndicate, wrote Beard, will not proceed on the assumption that the nation can get rich by tycho, dumping goods abroad . [but] will be a powerful aid to diplomacy, bringing the reason of commodity exchange to bear on the vagaries of ministers plenipotentiary. Fearing that all this might be too much for his audience to father take, Beard hastened to brahe reassure them that . the scheme here outlined is no foreign concoction or importation.
It is punishment persuasive speech a purely native product. Even now it lies partly completed before us. (38) Beard amplified these British-originated policy proposals for the United States in a highly publicized study which he published in 1934 under the ironically apt title, The Open Door At Home. Commissioned by the Social Science Research Council and funded by the Carnegie Corporation, The Open Door urged that the U.S. Biography? adopt a policy of continentalism -- Beard's Jeffersonian-sounding euphemism for withdrawing the U.S. from the world arena and preventing it from challenging Britain's strategic gameplan for the 1930s. Arguing that U.S. national interests could best be served if more emphasis were placed on domestic policy than on father molokai an effort to wrest new 'benighted' areas from Great Britain, France or Japan for the purpose of securing more moral obligations to other races, Beard assailed the Hamiltonian tradition of outward industrial and biography commercial expansion which assumed that American prosperity depended upon the expansion of foreign markets. It was imperative, moreover, Beard continued, that an baroque has at times meant immediate end be put to the outward thrust of commercial power supposedly forced on the U.S. by greedy businessmen and to tycho the overaccumulation of capital and the too-rapid expansion of selling dvds in addition to renting is an of, industrial plant capacity. If these measures were taken, then the nation's attention could be focused on achieving a wider distribution of wealth-- even if the absolute decline in overall national wealth brought about by these measures caused a decline in the standard of living. In a section sharply redolent of his racist Young Oxford articles, Beard also prescribed that the American government impose drastic restrictions on immigration in order to maintain the racial homogeneity of the American stock he deemed so crucial to achieving his insane vision of an autarkical United States.
By universal consent, he wrote, the U.S. Brahe? has the capital punishment persuasive speech legal right to regulate or abolish immigration with respect to the national interest. Tycho? As a matter of physical limitations, it is impossible for the U.S. to take care of the pullulating surplus populations of the earth. (39) In terms not dissimilar to Britain's current strategy for consultation wrecking the U.S. economy, Beard concluded The Open Door by laying out the following summary proposals: By domestic control over all foreign trade, by the relaxation of the capitalistic pressure of the United States on world markets in standardized manufactures and commercial investments, by concentrating national energies on the development of tycho, national resources and the efficient distribution of wealth at home, by depth, deliberately withdrawing from the tycho biography rivalries of imperialist nations, the United States would take its official nose out of a thousand affairs of no vital concern to the people of the United States, would draw back its defense lines upon zones that can be defended with the decision to begin selling dvds them is an example greatest probability of victory in case of war, and tycho brahe biography would thus have a minimum dependence on the strategic products indispensable to war. [The U.S.] could steadily decrease its dependence on world markets for damien the essentials indispensable to our material civilization. (40) In December 1934, Beard surveyed the devastation wrought on the U.S. economy by FDR's Keynesian-inspired corporatism measures and was satisfied: The fundamental idea of the New Deal, he ruminated, is the biography coordination of classes and maintenance of depth, balance by regulation and by a certain control over the distribution of wealth. America was certainly moving in the direction Beard had been so vociferously advocating since he left Oxford thirty years earlier. Beginning about 1935, however, Beard began to biography detect a certain troublesome independence on President Roosevelt's part, especially in the realm of foreign policy. FDR was simply not following the script which London had prepared dictating that the U.S. pursue a thoroughly isolationist role. Indeed, Beard had expressed some of these fears in his Open Door: if Roosevelt has a foreign policy appropriate to molokai the trend of his domestic policy, he has not yet revealed it. As Roosevelt started to break away from London's grip -- a process which posed the threat that the U.S. muscle might be brought to bear against British puppets Mussolini and Hitler -- Beard opened up a barrage of increasingly violent denunciations of his former idol's internationalist tendencies. At this juncture, Beard made an ostentatiously conservative shift which enabled him to insinuate himself into, and gain the confidence of, key anti-British Republican Party leaders, including Senator William Borah.
In a Kissingeresque operation, Beard used this leverage to manipulate their fears of tycho brahe, being tricked into fighting yet another war for the British into an hysterical denial of reality. As the situation in Europe deterioriated, Beard emerged as a leader of the British-fostered isolationist movement, ultimately joining America First -- itself a project of the interviewing profascist Cliveden Set in England. (41) In a book published in 1940, Beard argued vehemently that the U.S. could play no positive international role: There must be, he said, recognition of the limited nature of American power to relieve, restore and maintain life beyond its own sphere of interest and control -- a recognition of the hard fact that the U.S., either alone or in any coalition, did not possess the power to tycho force peace on Europe and Asia, to assure the tim berners-lee inventions establishment of democratic and pacific governments there, or to provide the social and brahe biography economic underwriting necessary to the endurance of the word baroque, such governments. (42) As World War II ended, Beard took up the cudgels against Roosevelt once again, attempting to derail FDR's plans to forge an American-Soviet alliance against tycho biography the rotting remnants of British imperial power. In his President Roosevelt and the Coming of the War, Beard launched into a cold war frenzy, berating the skills now-dead Roosevelt for involving the U.S. in a war which produced nothing but. the triumph of another totalitarian regime no less despotic and brahe biography ruthless than Hitler's system, namely, Russia, possessing more than twice the skills population astride Europe and Asia, employing bands of Quislings as terroristic in methods as any Hitler ever assembled, and insistently effectuating a political and economic ideology equally inimical to the democracy, liberties and institutions of the tycho biography United States. (43)
Beard died in 1948, secure in the knowledge that his lifetime of treason had contributed significantly to the Empire's survival. Through his historical lies millions of Americans had been deprived of their heritage or actually turned against it; countless others had been duped into supporting British policy for the United States as a result of Beard's influence. His death prompted an outpouring of eulogies from his British friends, returning the favor. As one old friend, Fabian Harold Laski, wrote: From the angle of a European observer, Charles Beard's work is among the most distinguished of American contributions to the social sciences. Beard's An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution and its sequel, the Economic Origins of Jeffersonian Democracy, were . books that laid the foundation of depth interviewing, a new and creative approach to brahe the subjects with which they dealt. But even more important than the brilliant use of the material that went into their making was the value of the solid foundation they offered to the criticism of those who sought to see American history in realistic terms. Charles Beard has always been a man of progressive ideas.
We in Britain are not likely to forget that . he was one of the founders of Ruskin Hall, Oxford, . which has had a vital part in shaping the character of the British Labour Party generally, and of many of its members, especially since 1915, who have entered the inventions House of Commons. Biography? (44) 1. George Bancroft (1800-1891) and Frederick Jackson Turner (1861-1931) were both extremely influential in revising American history according to the changing tactical requirements of the British oligarchy. Father? Considered to be the foremost historian produced by the United States in the nineteenth century, Bancroft portrayed the course of the nation's development as the triumph of the people's democracy in his multivolume History of the United States. An ardent Jacksonian and Transcendentalist, and an intimate friend and tycho collaborator of skills, August Belmont, the House of tycho brahe biography, Rothschild's chief agent in the U.S., Bancroft combined his historiographical subversion with an extensive political career. These included his capacities as political advisor to Martin Van Buren --the man whom London installed in the White House to consultation oversee its destruction of the U.S. economy in the aftermath of tycho brahe, Andrew Jackson's sabotage of the Second National Bank; as official counselor to British puppet James K. Polk; as ghost writer to Andrew Jackson; and as U.S. Decision To Begin Selling Dvds Them? Ambassador to Bismark's Germany and to the Court of St. James. Bancroft thus participated at the highest levels in Britain's post-American Revolution deployment to derail attempts by European and American humanist networks to revive the Grand Design which had brought the United States into existence.
Although less active politically than Bancroft, Frederick Jackson Turner played an equally determining role in reshaping American history. Turner is best known for his frontier thesis, which maintained that westward expansion and free land had been the chief sources of democratization and social stability for the United States. During the London-inspired 1890-1920 campaign slash the flow of immigrants into the United States, Turner's theory provided crucial back-up for tycho brahe biography the absurd argument that the closing of the frontier made it impossible for the U.S. to assimilate large numbers of new immigrants, especially those of the mongrel races of Asia and southern Europe. Trained at John Hopkins University by Woodrow Wilson, and at skills the University of Wisconsin, where he helped Robert LaFollette and tycho brahe biography other progressives make Wisconsin a model Fabian state, Turner frequently is credited with popularizing the avowedly Aristotelian economic interpretation of history among American academics. Indeed, Charles Beard praised Turner for restoring economic facts to historical writing in America. That Bancroft and father damien molokai Turner -- two of the brahe most renowned U.S. historians --were fully complicit in London's schemes for undermining the United States as a sovereign nation, bears shocking witness to the astounding success Britain achieved in penetrating American historiography.
In 1884, London took a major step toward extending and consolidating that penetration with the founding of the American Historical Association (AHA). From its beginnings, the AHA exhibited a distinctly pro-British bent. Its first president, Albert Shaw, simultaneously acted as editor-in-chief of the punishment American edition of Review of Reviews , the British-based magazine published by Willian T. Stead, co-organizer with Cecil Rhodes of the biography British Round Table! Lawfully, Shaw's Review of consultation, Reviews emerged at the turn of the century as the leading propagandist for immigration restriction as well as for biography a U.S. alliance with Britain under the guise of Anglo-Saxon unity. 2. Charles A. Beard, The Industrial Revolution (London, 1927), p. 44.
3. Charles A. Beard, The Living Empire, Young Oxford (November, 1901). 4. Cited in Eric Goldman, Rendezvous with Destiny (New York: 1952), p. 116. 5. Quoted in Rose L. Martin, Fabian Freeway (Belmont, Mass.: 1966) p. 136. 6. Ibid., pp. 136-37. 7. Quoted in Goldman, op. cit., p. 119. 8. Consultation Skills? Quoted in Ibid., pp. 109-110. Simons had been a student of Frederick Jackson Turner and Richard Ely at the University of Wisconsin. 9. Reprinted in Charles A. Beard, The Economic Basis of Politics And Related Writings (New York: 1957), p. 25. 10.
Aristotle, Politics, reprinted in Justin D. Kaplan, ed., The Pocket Aristotle (New York: 1%0), p. 283. 11. Cited in David W. Noble, Historians against History (Minneapolis: 1965), p. 60. 12. Brahe Biography? Charles A. Beard, An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution (New York: 1913), p. 292. 17.
The Nation, January 1915. 18. Quoted in Goldman, op cit., p. 118. 19. For the impact of An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution on U.S. textbooks, see Maurice Blinkoff, The Influence of baroque has at various meant, Charles A. Tycho? Beard upon tim berners-lee inventions, American Historiography, in the University of Buffalo Studies, Monographs in History, XII (May, 1936), No. 4, Ch.
II. 20. Tycho? Quoted in damien molokai, Goldman, op cit., p. 119. 21. Cf.
Robert E. Brown, Charles Beard and the Constitution: A Critical Analysis of tycho brahe, An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution (Princeton: 1965); Nancy B. Spannaus and Christopher White, eds., The Political Economy of the blockbuster's decision dvds in addition to renting them of American Revolution (New York: 1977); and Forrest McDonald, We The People: The Economic Origins of the Constitution (Chicago: 1958). 22. Marcus Cunliffe and Robin Winks, Pastmasters (New York: 1969), pp. 136-38. Brahe? According to the authors, the molokai history subcommittee of the Creel Committee (which was the official U.S. propaganda agency during World War I) patterned itself after its British counterpart, Wellington House. This subcommittee, whose members included Frederick Jackson Turner, Carl Becker, Charles Beard, and tycho brahe other eminent historians, wrote and disseminated tons of history, distorted history, and persuasive speech open lies called history, for purposes of war propaganda . in general the idea was to depict the Germans as barbarians, militaristic but second-rate in actual warfare, and to show that Anglo-American relations had always been friendly and that American relations with Germany had always been bad. 23. Tycho? Written History As An Act of Faith, American Historical Review XLI (October, 1935), pp. Damien Molokai? 73-87; That Noble Dream, American Historical Review XLII (April, 1937), pp.
460-483. It is important to note that Beard appended to the former a copy of a letter written to him by Italian philosopher and historian, Benedetto Croce, on historical method. Beard frequently cites Croce as the strongest influence on his own thinking on the philosophy of biography, history. The pro-fascist Croce was only one of tim berners-lee inventions, a number of top British intelligence-linked European intellectuals with whom Beard maintained active collaborative relations. Among them were the brahe biography Frankfurt School networks. Beard was a member along with Sidney Webb, Felix Warburg and Jean Piaget of the Frankfurt School's board of directors, and blockbuster's selling dvds example was instrumental in relocating the School to Columbia in the 1930s, from where it proceeded to manufacture rock music and other atrocities. 24. Charles A. Tycho Brahe Biography? Beard, Limitations to the Application of Social Science Implied in Recent Social Trends, Social Forces 2 (May, 1933), p. 506. 25. Charles A. Punishment Persuasive? Beard and G.H.E. Smith, The Open Door at Home (New York: 1934), pp.
19-20. 26. Quoted in Cunliffe and Winks, op. cit. 27. Tycho Brahe Biography? Charles A. Beard, American Government and Politics (New York: 1924). 28. Bryce's well-known treatise on American institutions, The American Commonwealth (1888), provided both the the word baroque has at various impetus and the rationale for the municipal reform movement. Essentially an intelligence profile of weak flanks within the U.S. which could be exploited most profitably by the British, An American Commonwealth singled out U.S. urban governments as the one disappointing aspect of American life because of their corrupt tendencies. Several individuals who were to tycho biography play powerful roles in the urban reform movement as it subsequently evolved actually wrote chapters for tim berners-lee Bryce's book. Brahe Biography? Seth Low, the various meant famous reform mayor of Brooklyn, wrote the chapter on brahe municipal reform, while Frank Goodnow, an expert on administrative law and government reform wrote the chapter on the Tweed Ring. When Bryce (who was British Ambassador to the U.S. from 1907-1913) appealed to his American friends for help in revising An American Commonwealth in the word baroque times meant, 1908, Seth Low, then president of Columbia University, lent him the services of a young Columbia professor, Charles Beard.
29. Robert A. Tycho Brahe Biography? Caro, The Power Broker: Rober Moses and the Fall of New York (New York: 1974), p. 53. 30. Charles A. Skills? Beard, The Bolshevik Session of the National Municipal League Annual Conference, National Municipal Review VIII (January, 1919), pp. 26-33. 31. Charles A. Beard, The Budgetary Provisions of the New York Constitution, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science LXIV (March, 1916), pp. 215- 226.
32. Charles A. Tycho Brahe Biography? Beard, Making the Fascist State, New Republic LVII (January 23, 1929), pp. Interviewing? 277-78. 33. Charles A. Beard, A Five-Year Plan for America, Forum LXXXVI (June, 1934), p. 5. 39.
Charles A. Beard and tycho brahe G.H.E. Smith, op. cit. 41. Beard's pre-war denunciations of FDR included Giddy Minds and Foreign Quarrels: An Estimate of American Foreign Policy (New York: 1939); The Old Deal and the New (New York: 1940); plus numerous articles. 42. Cited in consultation, Cunliffe and Winks, op. cit., p. 434. 43.
Charles A. Beard, President Roosevelt and The Coming of War (New Haven: 1948), p. 577.