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Catalogue of the Library of Rev Thomas Prince, Former Pastor of Old
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Bibliometrics, Citation And Citation Analysis. Chapter 3: Bibliometrics, Citation and Citation Analysis. Dr. Ranganathan S. R. (1969) coined the Letter, term 'Librametry' and presented his concept in ASLIB conference held at Leamington Spa. He used the term to include statistical approaches to study library and its services. However, the practice of critiquing examples, using quantitative method to Pastor's Essays measure information sources were made even before Dr.
Ranganathan but under different terms or without any particular term but 'Statistical Analysis' was in common use before the term Librametry. Cole and Eales (1917) graphically mapped the literature and called this method of analysis as 'Statistical analysis'. Hulme (1923) studied the literature and called it 'statistical bibliography', but the terms were found to be clumsy as it could easily be mistaken. Later the term was coined as bibliometrics by Pritchard (1969). 3.2 Different Terminologies in Use:- Many attempts have been made to define the term bibliometrics and its analogous terms since the use of the term 'statistical bibliography' by Hulme (1923), and according to him 'the purpose of statistical bibliography is to throw light on the process of written communication and the nature and Insurer in Florida Essays, course of development of a discipline (in so far as this is displayed through written communication) by means of counting and analyzing its various facets of written communication'.
Raising (1962), in his article clearly defined the term statistical bibliography as 'the assembling and Essays, interpretation of statistics relating to tactics books and periodicals to demonstrate historical movements and to determine national and universal research, use of Pastor's Letter Essays, books and journal, and to ascertain in many local situations the general use of how many people follow, books and Pastor's Letter Essays, journals'. This definition is also treated as one of the classical definitions of bibliometrics. The term Bibliometrics was first coined by Pritchard (1969) in preference to existing terminology 'statistical bibliography' as he felt there is fair likelihood to misinterpret it as bibliometrical methods to books and articles examples, other media of communication'. According to Fairthorne (1969), statistical bibliography was 'Quantitative treatment of properties of recorded discourse and behaviour appertaining to Pastor's Letter it'. British Standard Glossary (1976) of documentation explained the term bibliometrics as 'the study of use of documents and patterns of process, encoding process of:, publication in which mathematical and statistical methods have been applied' which is basically similar to Pritchard's original definition of bibliometrics.
Hawkins (1977), in his on-line bibliometrics study interpreted bibliometrics term as 'The quantitative analysis of the Letter, bibliographic features of a body of literature'. Nicholas and Ritchie (1978), in Changing, their books entitled 'Literature on Bibliometrics' opined that bibliometrics provided information about the structure of knowledge and how it is communicated? They further added that bibliometrics studies fall mainly into two broad groups, describing characteristics or features of a literature (descriptive studies) and those examining the relationship formed between the components of literature (behavioural studies). More recently Plotter (1981) had defined bibliometrics as 'the study and Essays, measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of in the process, encoding process, written communication and their authorship'. Schrader (1981), has also tried to define the term in a more simplified manner and Essays, stated that bibliometrics is 'the scientific study of recorded discourse.' Broadus (1987b) presented a historical overview of various definitions of bibliometrics and proposed an alternative definition for bibliometrics. According to him, bibliometrics is the quantitative study of Insurer Bad Faith in Florida, physically published units or of bibliographic units or of surrogates of either. Letter. More explicitly Sengupta (1990), defines the term as 'organization, classification and quantitative evaluations along with their authorship by mathematical and statistical calculus'. A more elaborate concept of bibliometrics has been recently explained by Egghe (2000), as 'development and application of mathematical models and techniques to all aspects of communications.' From these definitions it is concluded that statistical bibliography is replaced by bibliometrics and it means study of measurement of the Changing Times, publication patterns of all forms of written communication and their authorship by Pastor's Letter Essays means of using citation studies. 3.3 What is Bibliometrics? The term 'bibliometrics' was first used by Pritchard (1969) in his article 'Statistical Bibliography or Bibliometrics' published in the 'Journal of Documentation'. Articles Examples. 'Biblio' means book and Pastor's Essays, 'Metric' means a scale or measure. Bibliometric means application of statistical studies in library and information science.
According to Pritchard (1969), bibliometrics is Essay defined as 'the application of mathematics and statistical methods to books and other media of communication.' Potter (1981) defines bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication pattern of all forms of written communication and their author'. In Bibliometrics and Librametry as an area in which studies 'information process and Pastor's, information handling in how many people, libraries and information canters by quantitatively analyzing the characteristics and Pastor's, behaviour of documents, library staff, and library users.' The study of bibliometrics and Librametry include bibliometric distribution, citation analysis, library use studies, etc. It is in the communication process, is the process also a quantitative study of literatures as reflected in bibliographies. Pastor's. Bibliometrics is the use of quantitative analysis and statistics to describe patterns of publication within a given field or body of literature. Bibliometrics is tactics a set of methods to quantitatively analyze scientific and technological literature (Bellis 2009). The commonly used bibliometric methods are citation analysis and content analysis. Content analysis or textual analysis is a methodology used in the social sciences for studying the content of Pastor's Essays, communication. Taoism. Earl Babbie (2010) defines it as the study of recorded human communications, such as books, websites, paintings and laws.
According to Farooq Joubish (2011), content analysis is considered a scholarly methodology in the humanities by Essays which texts are studied as to authorship, authenticity, or meaning. Later subject includes were philology, hermeneutics, and critiquing examples, semiotics. Lasswell (1951, p.525 ) formulated the Pastor's, core questions of content analysis and stated that 'Who says what, to whom, why, to what extent and with what effect? Ole Holsti (1969) offers a broad definition of content analysis as any technique for making inferences by objectively and systematically identifying specified characteristics of messages. Kimberly (2002) offers a six-part definition of content analysis:Content analysis is a summarizing, quantitative analysis of Times Essay, messages that relies on the scientific method (including attention to objectivity, inter subjectivity, a priori design, reliability, validity, generalisability, replicability, and Letter Essays, hypothesis testing) and in the communication process, is not limited as to the types of variables that may be measured or the context in which the messages are created or presented. Garfield (1983) and Richard (2010) defined citation analysis as 'the examination of the frequency, patterns, and graphs of citations in articles and books'. Content analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links to other works or other researchers.
Citation analysis is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics. Martyn (1976), defined citation analysis as, 'Analysis of the citations or references or both which forms of part of the Essays, scholarly publication.' According to Baughman (1974), 'Citation study is a systematic enquiry into the structural properties of the literature of the subject' he explains that the structure of literature is of a good quality. Bibliometric method is most often used in the field of library and information science; as well it has an equal applicability in other areas also. Communication Process, Is The Of:. In fact, in many research fields use of bibliometric methods is carried out to explore the impact of their field, the impact of a set of researchers, or the Essays, impact of a particular paper etc. Bibliometrics are now used in quantitative research assessment exercises of academic output (Henderson et al 2009). The UK government is Insurer Bad Faith in Florida Essays considering using bibliometrics as a possible auxiliary tool in its Research Excellence Framework, a process which may assess the quality of the research output of UK universities and on the basis of the assessment results, allocate research funding (http://www.ref.ac.uk/) Bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. Citation analysis, which involves examining an item's referring documents, is used in Essays, searching for materials and analyzing their merit. Citation indices, such as Institute for Scientific Information's Web of Science, allow users to search forward in time from a known article to more recent publications which cite the known item.
Today citation analysis tools are easily available to in the is the process compute various impact measures for scholars based on data from citation indices. These have various applications, from the Letter Essays, identification of expert referees to review papers and Insurer Bad Faith, grant proposals, to providing transparent data in support of academic merit review, tenure, and promotion decisions. Nicholas (1978) in his article 'Literature and Bibliometrics' explained the importance of citation analysis and its applications in Pastor's Letter, LIS. He pointed out that information scientists and Changing, librarians use citation analysis to quantitatively assess the core journal titles and watershed publications(less used or border lined publications) in particular disciplines; interrelationships between authors from different institutions and schools of thought; and related data about the academia. Some more pragmatic applications of this information includes the planning of retrospective bibliographies, finding the age of material used in a discipline (Half life) , and comparison between use of recent publications versus older ones, comparing the coverage of secondary services which can help publishers gauge their achievements and Essays, competition, and can aid librarians in evaluating the effectiveness of their stock. Follow. There are also some limitations to the value of citation data. They are often incomplete or biased; data has been largely collected manually (which is expensive), though citation indexes can also be used; incorrect citing of sources occurs continually; thus, further investigation is Pastor's Essays required to truly understand the rationale behind citing to allow it to be confidently applied. Thus it is revealed that bibliometric method is very useful to analyze the impact of literature in any subject areas and in LIS it is useful to decide the process, encoding, policies for different activities like acquisition, organization, stacking, introduction of new service, ranking of Pastor's Letter Essays, periodicals, half life of literature in any subject discipline formatting and collection development policies and related policies etc. 3.4 Laws of Bibliometrics:- The three most commonly used laws in bibliometrics are.
1) Bradford's Law of Scatter: - which describes how the literature of a subject area is distributed in its journals and which forms the basis for calculating how many journals contain a certain percentage of published articles? 2) Lotka's Law of Scientific Productivity: - A formula for measuring / predicting the vietcong, productivity of scientific researchers. 3) Zipf's Law of Word Occurrence: - which describes the frequency of the appearance of certain words or more specifically, suggests that people are more likely to select and use familiar rather than unfamiliar words. Among all these three laws, Bradford's Law is more useful to LIS professionals and related to citation analysis. 3.4.1 Bradford's Law of Scatter:- Bradford (1934), pointed out that if scientific journals are arranged in order of decreasing productivity of articles on Letter Essays a given subject, they may be divided into articles a nucleus of Pastor's Essays, periodicals more particularly devoted to the subject and several groups and zones containing the same number of debate example, articles as the nucleus when the number of periodicals in the nucleus and succeeding zones will be 1: n: n2.
Bradford's Law states that journals in Pastor's Letter Essays, a single field can be divided into three parts, each containing the same number of articles: * A core of journals on the subject, relatively few in number, that produces approximately one-third of all the articles; * A second zone, containing the same number of articles as the first, but a greater number of journals, and. * A third zone, containing the same number of articles as the second, but a still greater number of journals. The mathematical relationship of the examples, number of journals core to the first zone is a constant n and to the second zone the relationship is n. Bradford expressed this relationship as 1 : n : n. Bradford formulated his law after studying a bibliography of geophysics, covering 326 journals in the field. He discovered that 9 journals contained 429 articles, 59 contained 499 articles, and 258 contained 404 articles. So it took 9 journals to contribute one-third of the articles, 5 times of 9, or 45, to produce the next third, and 5 times 5 times 9, or 225, to produce the last third.
Bradford's Law serves as a general guideline to Pastor's Essays librarians in determining the number of Bad Faith, core journals in any given field. Bradford's Law is not statistically accurate, but it is still commonly used as a general rule of thumb. 3.4.2 What is Citation:- Citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source (not always the original source). More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression (e.g.
Newell84) embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an Letter Essays entry in the bibliographic references section of the debate, work for Letter, the purpose of tactics, acknowledging the relevance of the works of others to the topic of discussion at the spot where the citation appears. Pastor's Letter Essays. Generally the combination of Insurer Bad Faith in Florida, both the Essays, in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not). A prime purpose of a citation is intellectual honesty to attribute prior or unoriginal work and ideas to the correct sources and to vietcong allow the reader to determine independently whether the referenced material supports the Pastor's Letter Essays, author's argument in the claimed way. 3.4.3 What is Reference:- Reference is derived from Middle English referren, from Middle French rfrer, from Latin referre, to carry back, formed from the prefix re- and ferre, to bear. A large number of words derived from this root, including referee, reference, referendum, all retaining the basic meaning of the original Latin as a point, place or source of origin. A referee is the provider of this source of origin, and Times, a referent is the Letter, possessor of the source of origin, whether it is knowledge, matter or energy. Because of its meaning, the word reference is used in every sphere of human knowledge, adopting shades of meaning particular to the contexts in which it is used.
References can take on many forms, including: a thought, a sensory perception that is audible (onomatopoeia), visual (text), olfactory, or tactile, emotional state, relationship with other, space-time coordinate, symbolic or alpha-numeric, a physical object or an energy projection; but, other concrete and abstract contexts exist as methods of defining references within the scope of the various fields that require an origin, point of departure, or an original form. This includes methods that intentionally hide the reference from some observers, as in cryptography. Citations are measured to find the different use patterns like author, chronology, geography, subject, forms etc in LIS. An essential part of research papers, particularly in science is the list of Insurer, references indicating towards prior publications. Ziman (1968) has rightly indicated 'a scientific paper does not stand alone; it is embedded in the literature of the subject'. Pastor's Letter Essays. Similarly Nann (1976) defines 'A reference is the acknowledgement that one document gives to another; a citation is the acknowledgement that one document receives from another'. Malin (1968) says 'A citation implies a relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and example, a part or the whole of the citing document.' From these statements of stalwarts it is very clear that citation has an Essays importance while publishing scientific or research communications. It is must to cite the author from which data is used.
The research activity built on citing papers and using previous knowledge. The use of how many taoism, citation and its study reveals many concepts useful for developing libraries properly. Citation analysis is the area of bibliometrics which deals with the study of their relationships which might be useful for bridging research. Weinstock (1974) identified reasons for citing and quoting references in Letter, research study as under. 1. Giving homage to pioneers. 2. Giving credit for related works (Homage to how many follow taoism Press.)
3. Identifying methodology, equipment etc. 4. Providing background reading. 5. Correcting one's own work. 6. Correcting the work of others. 7. Criticizing previous work and adding quality and Pastor's Letter, innovation. 8. Substantiating claims.
9. Alerting to forthcoming work. 10. Providing leads to poorly disseminated or poorly indexed or uncited work. 11. Authenticating data and classes of fact-physical constants etc. 12. Identifying original publications in vietcong, which an idea or concept was discussed. 13. Identifying original publication or other work describing a concept or term (e.g.HODGKIN'S Disease Pareto's Law, Friedel-Crafts reaction etc.) 14. Disclaiming work or ideas of others. Pastor's Letter. (Negative Claims)
15. Disputing priority claims of others. (Negative Homage) Apart from these points references appended in the research study is valid indicator of its significance. The facts stated in the research needs to be supported by earlier citations (studies) and there is always a relation between citing theses or book or an article indicating similarity of the research. 3.4.4 Importance of Citations:- Ziman (1968), Price (1968), Narin (1976), Marin (1968) had opened that citations plays an important role in introduction example, research. Father they added that scientific paper or scientific research does not go alone, but it is embedded in the subject of literature, as a reference (citation) which is acknowledgement for Essays, the use of information by the another author who cites in his writing. The relation of cited and citing document stating 'a citation implies relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and a part or the whole of the introduction, citing document.' Citation analysis is the area dealing with the bibliometrics and deals with study of relationship of cited and citing document and such studies are essential to track the scholarly development in Letter Essays, any subject field. 3.5 Citation Analysis:- When one author cites another author, a relationship is is the process established.
Citation analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links. Many different links can be ascertained, such as links between authors, between scholarly works, between journals, between fields, or even between countries. Citations both from and to a certain document may be studied. One very common use of citation analysis is to determine the impact of a single author on a given field by counting the number of times the author has been cited by others. Pastor's Essays. One possible drawback of this approach is that authors may be citing the single author in a negative context (saying that the author doesn't know what s/he's talking about (Osareh 1996).
3.5.1 Co-citation Coupling:- Co-citation coupling is a method used to Insurer in Florida establish a subject similarity between two documents. Letter. If papers A and B are both cited by paper C, they may be said to be related to Times one another, even though they don't directly cite each other. If papers A and B are both cited by many other papers, they have a stronger relationship. The more papers they are cited by, the stronger their relationship is. 3.5.2 Bibliographic Coupling:-
Bibliographic coupling operates on a similar principle, but in a way it is the Pastor's Letter Essays, mirror image of in Florida Essays, co-citation coupling. Letter. Bibliographic coupling links two papers that cite the same articles, so that if papers A and B both cite paper C, they may be said to be related, even though they don't directly cite each other. Is The. The more papers they both cite, the stronger their relationship is. 3.6 Reasons to conduct Bibliometric Studies:- Historically bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. The bibliometric research uses various methods of citation analysis in order to establish relationships between authors or their work. The Bibliometric studies are conducted to identify the peers, social change and the core journal, etc. Letter Essays. indexing and Thesaurus, research, formulating search strategies in case of in Florida Essays, automated system, comparative assessment of the secondary services, Bibliographic control, preparation of retrospective bibliographic and library Management.
Collection development includes planning, implementation and evaluation of collections (Baughman, 1977): Planning is to map information needs, to develop aims and make decisions about priorities. Knowledge about the structure of a subject field and about the information resources used in the field is Pastor's Letter needed for tactics, planning the collection. Bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, bibliographic coupling, co-word analysis and Pastor's, co-citation analysis can be used to map the knowledge structure and critiquing examples, the use of literature. Implementation of the collection includes library routines, communication and information provision. A working indexing language, which reflects the modern terminology, is needed to organise the collection. Letter. Knowledge about the important themes in a field gives a base for developing the terminology. These themes are based on the knowledge structure received by example bibliometric methods. Collection Evaluation is analysis and assessment of the collection according to its aim and functions. Different bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, analysis of the scattering of Pastor's Essays, articles to journals and analysis of the process, encoding is the, obsolescence of literature are used for this purpose.
Application of bibliometric research identified by Wallace (1989), indicated that the use is for developing libraries. - Improving the bibliographic control of literature. - Identifying a core literature especially journals. - Classifying a literature. - Tracing the spread of ideas and growth of a literature. - Improving the Pastor's Essays, efficiency of information handling services. - Predicting publishing trends and needs. - Describing patterns of in the encoding is the process, book use by patrons. - Developing and Essays, evaluating library collections. 3.7 Strengths of debate introduction example, Bibliometrics as a Research Approach:- Bibliometric studies are useful and have a quantitative base.
The method helps analysis status and Essays, strength is critiquing in: ' Methods are objective and repeatable. ' Results have a wide range of potential practical value. ' Does not require human subject interaction. ' High reliability in data that are collected unobtrusively, from the published record, and can be easily replicated by others. 3.7.1 Limitations of bibliometrics as a research approach:- Following few limitations of the study are observed by. Results are only valid to Pastor's Essays extent that citations are assumed to represent significant link between citing and cited documents. ' Technical issues related to data obtained from citation indexes and bibliographies. ' Variations and misspelling of author names, authors with same name, incomplete coverage of non-English publications.
3.8 Application of Bradford's Law in Bad Faith in Florida, Library and Information Science Research:- Bradford's law is used to solve problems in journal collection management as well as resource development in any libraries. The basic concept is to conduct Bradford analyses of journals i.e. to sort the journals in Bradford zones and thus identify which belong to the core and which does not. Any Bradford analysis involves three steps. 1. Identify many or all items (usually articles) published in this field; 2. List the sources (usually journals) that publish the articles (or items) in rank order beginning with the source that produces the most items;
3. While retaining the order of the sources, divide this list into groups (or zones) so that the number of Letter Essays, items produced by each group of sources is about the same. The 'most obvious potentials' of Bradford analyses are: ' Defining the core. ' The law of diminishing returns. ' Calculation of cost based on various coverage. ' Setting priorities among journals. Bradford's law is used to solve practical problems related to information seeking and Times, retrieval. An automatic option for Pastor's Essays, sorting the output from online searches of journal literature, which he argued would help online users. 'Computerized sorting of hits by the journals in which they appear, and then of journals, high to examples low, by the number of hits appearing in each'. Special libraries and information officers make good use of data generated using bibliometric techniques in selecting and maintaining collections of the Pastor's Letter Essays, most needed serials. Bradford's law, Lotka's law, Zipf's law, and citation analysis have contributed to the effective operation of special libraries' From the various studies it is analysed major thrust areas of critiquing examples, research in Library and Pastor's Essays, Information Science are using application of tactics, bibliometrics and the reasons are: 1. Identify the Letter, quantum and structure literature on a specific subject during a particular period.
2. Examine the growth literature output in a subject during a period of time. 3. Identify the source and critiquing examples, country-wise distribution of research literature in a particular subject. 4. Pastor's Letter. Compare and measure the vietcong tactics, growth rate of literature on a particular subject in various countries. 5. Analyze the authorship pattern of literature on a particular subject published from various countries. 6. Analyze the degree of single versus multiple author publication and Letter Essays, study the trend in authorship pattern. 7. Apply Lotka's authorship productivity concepts on vietcong the frequency distribution of authorship productivity. 8. Track the development of research literature on a particular subject and its language of publication during the period of coverage and Letter, analyze the trend in the language of how many people follow taoism, publication.
9. Study the language of the publication in the context of quantum of pages. 10. Study the frequency distribution of applications in the context of country-wise breakdown. 11. Pastor's Letter. Analyze quantitatively the annual literature output on a specific subject. 12. Identify the variety of research publication on a particular subject. 13. Analyze the trend among the process, process of:, various types of publication. The recent developments and methods used and Pastor's Letter, developed the techniques: 3.8.1 The impact factor:-
The impact factor, often abbreviated as IF, is a measure reflecting the average number of Essay, citations to articles published in science and social science journals. It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. Letter. In case of journals with higher impact factors deemed to be more important than those of tactics, lower ones. The impact factor was devised by Pastor's Letter Eugene Garfield, the process, is the process, founder of the Essays, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), now part of vietcong, Thomson Reuters. Impact factors are calculated yearly for those journals that are indexed in Pastor's, Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports and listed in . In a given year, the impact factor of example, a journal is the Pastor's, average number of citations received per paper published in that journal during the two preceding years.[ For example, if a journal has an impact factor of 3 in 2008, then its papers published in 2006 and debate, 2007 received 3 citations each on average in 2008.
The 2008 impact factor of a journal would be calculated as follows, 2008 impact factors are actually published in 2009; they cannot be calculated until all of the 2008 publications have been processed by Pastor's the indexing agency. A = the example, number of times articles published in 2006 and 2007 were cited by indexed journals during 2008. B = the total number of citable items published by that journal in 2006 and 2007. (Citable items are usually articles, reviews, proceedings, or notes; not editorials or Letters-to-the-Editor.) 2008 impact factor = A/B. If is used by many libraries as a tool for Letter, selecting Journals for subscription, similarly researcher try to critiquing contribute in using it journals for credits. New journals, which are indexed from their first published issue, will receive an impact factor after two years of indexing; in this case, the citations to the year prior to Volume 1, and the number of Essays, articles published in the year prior to Volume 1 are known zero values. Journals that are indexed starting with a volume other than the first volume will not get an impact factor until they have been indexed for three years. Annuals and other irregular publications sometimes publish no items in a particular year, affecting the count. The impact factor relates to a specific time period; it is possible to calculate it for any desired period, and the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) also includes a 5-year impact factor.
The JCR shows rankings of journals by impact factor, by discipline such as organic chemistry or psychiatry. The terminology used later and becomes popular is Infometrics which covers: The h-index is an index that attempts to measure both the productivity and Essay, impact of the published work of a scientist or scholar. The index is based on the set of the scientist's most cited papers and Pastor's, the number of citations that they have received in other publications. The index can also be applied to the productivity and impact of a group of scientists, such as a department or university or country. The index was suggested by Jorge E. Hirsch, a physicist, as a tool for determining theoretical physicists' relative quality and is sometimes called the Hirsch index or Hirsch number. The h-index can be manually determined using citation databases or using automatic tools.
Subscription-based databases such as Scopus and the Web of Knowledge provide automated calculators. Harzing's (2011) Publish or Perish program calculates the h-index based on debate Google Scholar entries. In July 2011 Google trialed a tool which allows a limited number of Pastor's Letter, scholars to vietcong keep track of their own citations and also produces a h-index and Pastor's Letter Essays, an i10-index (Google Scholar Blog, 2011), the I10 index indicates the number of academic papers an author has written that have at least ten citations from others. It was introduced in July 2011 by Google as part of Insurer Essays, their work on Pastor's Google scholar. A search engine dedicated to academic and related papers. Each database is likely to produce a study different h for the same scholar, because of different coverage: Google Scholar has more citations than Scopus and Web of Science but the smaller citation collections tend to be more accurate. In addition, specific databases, such as the Stanford Physics Information Retrieval System (SPIRES) can automatically calculate h-index for researchers working in High Energy Physics. Infometrics is the study of Changing Times Essay, quantitative aspects of information. This includes the production, dissemination and use of all forms of information, regardless of its form or origin. As such, infometrics encompasses the fields of. ' Scientometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of science; ' Webometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of the World Wide Web; ' Cybermetrics, which is similar to webometrics, but broadens its definition to include electronic resources; ' Bibliometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of Pastor's Letter Essays, recorded information.
Scientometrics and webometrics are the latest methods. Scientometrics covers quantitative fashion of the development of science and of the mechanism of in the communication process, encoding process, scientific research. ' Emphasizes investigations in which the development of science and Pastor's Letter, of the mechanism of scientific research is studied by means of (statistical) mathematical methods. ' Publishes original studies, short communications, preliminary reports, review papers, letters to debate example the editor and book reviews on Letter Essays scientometrics. ' Includes the Journal of Research Communication Studies. Scientometrics is concerned with the quantitative features and debate example, characteristics of science and scientific research. Emphasis is Pastor's Letter Essays placed on investigations in which the development and mechanism of science are studied by statistical mathematical methods.
The journal publishes original studies, short communications, and preliminary reports, and review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on critiquing articles scientometrics. Due to Pastor's Essays its fully interdisciplinary character, the Changing Times, journal is Letter indispensable to research workers and research administrators. It provides valuable assistance to librarians and documentalists in central scientific agencies, ministries, research institutes and laboratories. Scientometrics includes the Journal of Research Communication Studies. Consequently its aims and scope cover that of the latter, namely, to bring the results of such investigations together in introduction, one place. Bibliometrics and scientometrics are two closely related approaches to measuring scientific publications and science in general, respectively. In practice, much of the work that falls under this header involves various types of citation analysis, which looks at how scholars cite one another in publications. This data can show quite a bit about networks of scholars and scholarly communication, links between scholars, and the development of areas of knowledge over time.
Bibliometrics are also one of the Pastor's Letter, key ways of measuring the impact of vietcong tactics, scholarly publications. Pastor's Essays. If an article is published in a journal with a high impact factor, which is determined in critiquing articles, part by the number of citations to articles within a particular journal, this raises the publishing profile of the author. The number of Letter, citations to articles examples that article over time is also a key measure of the productivity and the impact of that scholar. Letter. These techniques are very well developed for traditional citations among journal articles, but are much less clear for new types of outputs, including data sets, websites, and digitized collections. For items such as these, when researchers have used the materials to support their publications, they often don't have clear methods available to them to critiquing articles cite the material. Many of the style guides do not have clear guidance for how to cite a database, for instance, or whether to cite a digitized resource in Pastor's, a way to identify its digital location, or that cites the original item, whether or not the researcher actually consulted it.
3.9.2 Webometrics (Cyber metrics):- The concept of webometrics is in the based on bibliometrics, because like the bibliometrics study, one can measure the different quantitative aspect of the web in Pastor's Essays, webometrics study. Secondly it is based on Infometrics. The Infometrics study is process of: such type of study, which measures the quantitative aspect of any type of information and Pastor's Essays, through webometrics study one can get the information about web (web site). That's why the above phrase is used. The science of webometrics (also Cyber metrics) tries to measure the World Wide Web to how many follow taoism get knowledge about the number and types of hyperlinks, structure of the World Wide Web and usage patterns. Letter Essays. According to Bjrneborn and Ingwersen (2004), the definition of webometrics is the study of the quantitative aspects of the construction and example, use of information resources, structures and technologies on the Web drawing on bibliometric and Infometrics approaches. The term webometrics was first coined by Almind and Ingwersen (1997).
A second definition of webometrics has also been introduced as the study of web-based content with primarily quantitative methods for social science research goals using techniques that are not specific to one field of study (Thelwall, 2009), which emphasizes the development of applied methods for use in the wider social sciences. The purpose of this alternative definition was to help and publicize appropriate methods outside the information science discipline rather than to replace the original definition within information science. Similar scientific fields are bibliometrics, infometrics, scientometrics, virtual ethnography, and web mining. Letter Essays. One relatively straightforward measure is the Web Impact Factor (WIF) introduced by Ingwersen (1998). Bad Faith Essays. The WIF measure may be defined as the number of web pages in a web site receiving links from other web sites, divided by the number of web pages published in the site that are accessible to the crawler.
However the use of WIF has been disregarded due to the mathematical artifacts derived from power law distributions of Pastor's Letter, these variables. Other similar indicators using size of the critiquing articles, institution instead of Letter Essays, number of web pages have been proved more useful. There is one electronic journal, Cyber metrics published since 1997 by examples the Spanish National Research Council that is Pastor's Essays devoted entirely to this discipline. Cyber metrics is a branch of knowledge which employs mathematical and statistical techniques of Changing Times Essay, quantity web sites or their components and concepts, measure their growth, stability, propagation, and use examines the authenticity of content, establish laws governing these factors, studies the efficiency of cyber information services and systems, services and products and assesses the impact of cyber age on society. Citations in Pastor's, scholarly works are used to establish links to other works. It is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics and studies reference to and from documents Gooden (2001). How Many People Follow. The benefit of bibliometrics and citation analysis is Pastor's Essays expressed by Van Raan (2003), which is critiquing reinforced by the studies (Lal and Panda, 1996, Aksnes 2006) that have used this method of research enquiry to evaluate a library collection. Citation analysis reveals interesting information about knowledge producers in terms their information seeking behaviour and usage of Pastor's Letter, various information sources.
It can highlight the familiarity, awareness and process, encoding, usage of knowledge producers regarding the Letter Essays, online and print information sources. Citation analysis examines the frequency, patterns and graphs of citations in articles and books (Garfield, 1983). This chapter satisfy the objective set for the study i.e. 'To study the significance of citations as well as citation study and bibliometrics'. This chapter elaborates the detailed study of citations, reference, need of citation study and laws etc. ' Aksnes, D.W. (2006), Citation rates and perceptions of debate example, scientific contribution. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 57(2), p.169-185. ' Bellis, De Nicola (2009). Bibliometrics and citation analysis: from the Science citation index to Cybermetrics.
Scarecrow Press, p.417. ISBN 0-8108-6713-3. Located at http://books.google.com/books/about/Bibliometrics_and_citation_analysis.html?id=ma4YjaKyM9cC accessed on 23.08.2011. ' Bhughman J C (1974), A structural analysis of the literature of sociology, Library Quarterly, Vol. 44 (Oct), p.293-308. ' Birger Hjrland and Jeppe Nicolaisen 'Bradford's Law of Scattering: Ambiguities in the Concept of Subject Royal School of Library and Information Science, Birketinget 6, DK-2300 Copenhagen S., Denmark @db.dk. ' Bradford, S.C.
Sources of Essays, information on specific subjects. People Follow. Engineering, 1934, 137 (3550), p.85-86. ' British Standards Institution. British standards of documentation terms. Essays. BSI; London; 1976, p.7. ' Broadus R N (1987a), early approaches to examples bibliometrics, journal of the American society for information science, 38, p.127-129.
' Cole, F J and Eales Nellie B (1917), the history of comparative anatomy: a statistical analysis of the literature, Science Progress (11), p.578-596. ' Earl Babbie (2010), the practice of social research, 10th edition, Wadsworth, Thomson Learning Inc., ISBN 0-534-62029-9. ' Egghe L (2000), Lectures Potter, W G (1981) Introduction to Bibliometrics. Library Trends Vol 30, p.5. ' Egghe L (2000).
A heuristic study of the first-citation distribution. Scientometrics 48(3), p.345-359. ' Fairthorne, R. A. (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions (Bradford-Zipf-Mandelbrot) for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319'343. ' Fairthrone R A (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319. ' Farooq Joubish and Ashraf Khurram (2011), outlook on some concepts in the curriculum of social studies, World Applied Science Journal 12(9), p.1374-1377. Letter Essays. ISSN 1818-4952. ' Garfield, E (1974), Citation Indexing: Its theory and application in science, Technology and Humanities, New York, Wiley, ' Garfield, E. (1983). Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Times, Science, Technology and Humanities.
Philadelphia: ISI Press. Retrieved November 4, 2011 from Located at http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/ci/contents.pdf. Letter Essays. accessed on 12.04.2011. ' Garfield, E.(1983) Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in debate introduction, Science, Technology and Humanities Philadelphia's Press. ' Gooden, A.M. (2001). Citation analysis of chemistry doctoral dissertations: An Ohio State University case study.
Retrieved October 13, 2008 Located at http://www.istl.org/01-fall/refereed.html accessed on 27.12.2011. ' Google scholar blog (2011), Google scholar citations open to Pastor's Letter all, Google. Located at http//en.wikipedia.ogr/wiki/I10-index accessed on 03.09.2011. ' Hawkins D T (1977), Unconventional uses of on-line information retrieval system on line British metric studies. Journal of American society for information science, 28(1), p.13-18. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Insurer in Florida Essays, Fernstrom, K. (2009). The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. Pastor's. (2009).
The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Higher Education Funding Council for tactics, England, Located at http://www.hefce.ac.uk/Research/ref/. and http://www.ref.ac.uk/ accessed on 12th May 2012. ' Hjreppe, P (1982), Supplement to Letter Essays bibliography bibliometrics and citation indexing, 4, p.241-273. ' Hjreppe, R (1980), a bibliography of bibliometrics an dictation indexing and communication encoding is the process, analysis, Royal institute of Technology library, Stockholm, Sweden. Pastor's Essays. Located at http://www.gslis.utexas.edu/ palmquis/courses/biblio.html#Laws and http://www.netugc.com/librametric-bibliometric-scientometrics-informetrics accessed on 25.08.2012.
' Hulme, E.W. (1923), Statistical Bibliography in Relation to the Growth of Modern Civilization, Grafton, London. p9. ' Kannappanavar, B U (1991), Citation analysis of the doctoral dissertation in vietcong, library and Letter, information science accepted by the universities in Karnataka, Karnataka University, Dharwad, p. 88. (Ph. Times. D Thesis) ' Lal, A., Panda, S (1996). Research in plant pathology: A bibliometric analysis. Library Science with a Slant to Documentation and Information Studies, 33(3), p.135-147. ' Lasswell Harold (1951), the analysis of political behavior: An empirical approach, Rautledge, London, p.525. ' Lotka A J (1926), the frequency distribution of scientific productivity, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol. 16 (12), p.317-323. ' Malin M V (1968), the science citation index: A new concept in Indexing, Library trends, Vol.
16, p. Pastor's Letter Essays. 376. ' Martin, M U (1968), Science citation index: A new concept in indexing, Library Trends, Vol. 16, p.376. ' Martyn L A (1976), Use studies in library planning, Library Trends 24(30). ' Nann F et al (1976), Evaluative bibliometrics: The use of publications and citation analysis in in Florida Essays, the evaluation of scientific activity, cherry Hill, N J, Computer Horizon Inc, p.334-337. ' Narin, Francis and et.
Al. (1976), evaluative bibliometrics: the use of publication and citation analysis in Pastor's Letter Essays, the evaluation of scientific activity, Cherry Hill, New Jercy, Computer Horizon Inc. p.334-337. ' Neuendorf, Kimberly A. (2002), the Content Analysis Guidebook Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978), Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.28-29. ' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978). Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.12-28. ' Ole R. Holsti (1969(, Content Analysis for the Social Sciences and Humanities. Changing Times Essay. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
' Potter W G (1981), Introduction to bibliometrics, Library Trends, Vol. 30, p.5. ' Pritchard A (1969), Statistical bibliography an interim bibliography, New Western Polytechnic school of Librarianship, London. ' Pritchard A (1969), statistical bibliography; an interim bibliography, North-western polytechnic, school of Librarianship, p.60. ' Pritchard, A and Witting, G R (1960), Bibliometrics: A bibliography and index (1874-1959), Aaih Books, Westford, ' Raising L (1962), Statistical bibliography in the health sciences, Bulletin the medical library Association, 50, p.450-461. ' Ranganathan S. R. (1969) Librametry and its scope. DRTC Seminar (7) paper DA Bangalore: DRTC, ISI and Sarada Ranganathan Endowment of Library Science. Reprinted in : JISSI : The International Journal of Scientometrics and Infometrics; Vol.1, No.1 (1995), p.15-21. (ISSN-0971-6696) ' Rubin, Richard (2010). Foundations of library and information science (3rd ed.). New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers. ISBN 978-1-55570-690-6.
Accessed at http://books.google.com/books?id=Pk1TSAAACAAJ accessed on 09.02.2012. ' Von Sara Ungern-Sternberg Applications in teaching bibliometrics, PhD, Senior lecturer, Abo Akademi University, Department of Library and Information Science, FINLAND. ' Schrader, Alvin M. Pastor's Letter. (1981) Teaching Bibliometrics, Library Trends 30, p.151-172. ' Sengupta I N (1990), Bibliometrics and its application in information science and libraries, Atlantic, New Delhi, p.256. ' Swapna Kumar Patra and Prakash Chand (2006), 'Library and Information science Research in India: a Bibliometric Study' Annals of Library and Information Studies, Vol 53, December, p.219-223.
' Van Raan, A.F.J. (2003). The use of bibliometric analysis in research performance assessment and monitoring of interdisciplinary scientific developments. Technikfolgenabschatzung, Theories und Praxis/ Technology Assessment- Theory and Practice, 12(1), p.20-29. ' Weinstock M (1974), Citation Index, Encyclopedia of library and information science, Vol.5, New York, Dekker, p.19. ' Ziman John M (1968), Public knowledge: An essay concerning the Insurer Bad Faith in Florida Essays, social dimension of science, Cambridge, Cambridge university press, p.58. ' Zipf, G. K. (1949) 'Human Behavior and Pastor's Essays, the Principle of Least Effort' Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley Publishing co, p.34. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS. Chapter/ Section Description Pages.
4.1 Introduction 104. 4.2 LIS Education : Global Overview 104. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India 105. 4.4 Historical Development 107. 4.5 Present Scenario of LIS Education in India 108. 4.6 Objectives of tactics, Library and Pastor's Letter, Information Science Education 109. 4.7 Levels of Education 110. 4.8 First Course of Library Science in tactics, India (Certificate, Diploma and Training Courses) 112. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma Courses 113. 4.10 Degree Courses 114.
4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC) 114. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS 115. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in India 115. 4.14 Specialization 116. 4.15 Syllabus 116.
4.16 ICT as an Integral Part 116. 4,17 Practical Exposure 117. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research 117. 4.19 LIS Research in India 117. 4.20 LIS Research: Global Overview 119. 4.21 Research Trend in Indian Universities 128. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS. Higher education in each country has its own unique form of system and varies from Pastor's Letter Essays streams or branches of knowledge. Insurer Bad Faith In Florida. Higher education is imparted by universities and in colleges having equal facilities.
Academics in higher education plays an important role in Pastor's Letter, making the society strong as stated different policies are adopted in different countries similarly LIS is a specific subject discipline which support in all educational branches through library systems. Schools of library science provide useful professional education universally and people follow taoism, develop library and information professionals to manage the libraries efficiently. The LIS schools have more emphasis towards developing technical and managerial skills through the LIS education. Following paragraphs briefly narrated the status of LIS education. 4.2 LIS Education: Global Overview: Tsuji et al (2006), pointed out it in his study that the main theme in LIS education Japan was developed qualified librarians (Shisho) and assistant librarians (Shisho-ho) for public libraries and as well as qualified teacher librarian (shisho-kyouyu) for school libraries.
There is Pastor's Letter Essays no formal education system for academic and special libraries. In education field life line learning, library management, information reference service, information retrieval, library organization, copy right, information literacy etc. were more focused. Wilson (2012), in his article 'Fifty years of LIS education' in USA and conducted a survey of Insurer in Florida Essays, research productivity and LIS educators during the period 1959-2008. Pastor's Essays. Author narrated the progress of LIS education in USA and stated that prior to 1960s practicing librarians were teaching LIS education according to syllabus and examination conducted by library associations and similar status was also in Australia and Library Association Australia (now Australia library and information association (ALIA) was taking care of the education system.. Latter LIS education moved to Insurer in Florida Essays higher education institute since 1980. Chu (2006) in Pastor's, his paper 'Curricula of LIS programs in Times Essay, the USA: A content analysis' in which the syllabi was reviewed by author from 45 ALA accredited LIS master programs in Essays, USA.
This study brought to the notice that more elective courses offered in LIS education in USA, while number of Changing Essay, core requirement is reduced to few. Author has also pointed that 10% of the Pastor's, LIS courses in USA are designed in such a way to deal will emerging subject and latest development in the field of LIS. Thus subjects covered in the syllabus deals with knowledge organization, reference and information sources services, management, research in LIS, ICT, collection development, information use etc. As indicated by author in USA education system is giving more emphasis on elective subject like ICT, librarianship, resources and services, technical services etc. to manage latest situation. Tactics. Now LIS courses clusters were introduced, which covers: - Information seeking behaviour. - Digital publishing etc. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India:- LIS education in India is completing a century of its existence during the period progress have been achieved in developing LIS education to tune with current practices. Radhakrishanan Commission, Kothari Commission, National Knowledge Commission, UGC, NAAC put more efforts in education sector including LIS by establishing advisory commission for libraries, national policy for library etc. Curriculum Development Commission (CDC) continues grading and upgraded of LIS education in India.
The progress from certificate courses to research level through regular and distance mode took leading developing education in India (Joshi, 2010). There has been enormous growth in education and Letter Essays, higher education around the globe. Every country worth its name and has developed a system of education and Insurer Bad Faith in Florida, infrastructure to educate its people, and India is no exception. There has been a fast growth in institution of higher education since the dawn of twentieth century and more particularly, after India attained independence in 1947. Essays. The new India started its development program to achieve the new educational, cultural and economic objectives at the national level. Such developments at in the communication process, encoding these institutions contributed to the development of more libraries, which in turn had to accept new responsibilities to meet society's changing needs and demands. Libraries are recognized to play an important role in education, scientific research and social-economic development of a country. This envisages the need for professionally qualified personnel to manage and run the libraries and information centres effectively and efficiently.
In order to feed the growing number of Letter Essays, libraries, more trained library professionals were needed. Debate Introduction Example. For this purpose, library science departments started springing up, and library science developed into a distinct field of Pastor's Letter, specialization with its own normative principles, theories, techniques, and practices that were deemed sufficient to meet the growing dimensions of library services. Handling of articles examples, recorded knowledge in Letter Essays, modern libraries has given birth to the functional aspects of collecting, organizing and promoting the use of reading materials relevant to how many follow the users through information transfer activities. These activities, no doubt, assist in defining the spectrum of studies for librarianship. The basic tenet of Pastor's Letter, LIS education is to provide balanced training, integrating theory with practical exercises, and to cover all aspects of professional work with equal emphasis embracing new frontier of librarianship. Debate Introduction. LIS education aims at providing trained manpower to manage different types of libraries, information and documentation centres which, over a period of time have undergone changes in terms of needs, functions, types and range of services offered as well as tools and techniques being used when offering the services. Pastor's. Research in communication process, encoding of:, library and information science in Pastor's Letter Essays, India is not deep rooted.
In the vietcong tactics, beginning it was in the form of a trial and error method. It was Padamashree S R Ranganathan (1889-1972) father of library science who lifted trail librarianship to Pastor's Letter the level of a science with the critiquing articles, formulation of laws of Essays, library science, and establishment library schools and research centres. He even graded them as normative principles, fundamental laws, canons, principles and postulates. Ranganathan cut new grounds and blazed new practices in library and information science initially by in the communication process, is the solo research. This is evidence from the published literature that Ranganathan era's is characterized by a period of intellectual contribution to the library and information science, particularly library classification.
The root of the library and information science research in India were off shoots from the Letter Essays, country first LIS intellectual workshop (i.e., Department of Library and Information Science, University of Delhi) instituted by Dr S R Ranganathan a day of library science profession in India in 1946. The first research degree in articles, the library and information science in the country and even in the commonwealth countries was awarded by the University of Delhi in 1957 to D B Krishna Rao for his thesis 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Essays, Agriculture' under the supervision of Dr. S R Ranganathan. 4.4 Historical Development:- The modern period in the history of education for librarianship began in the mid-1800s as librarians around the tactics, world recognized that systematic education and training were required so that proper order could be brought to the collections that had been growing in Letter, all libraries. The need for professionally qualified personnel to manage these libraries effectively and efficiently was duly recognized during the first half of the process, is the process, present and consequently, the library education programme had been started at Essays several places much before Independence. The history of the education of library science in India may be traced far back as the year of 1911 with the in Florida, starting of a short term training programme in Essays, library science in the Baroda State, under the patronage of Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad of Baroda, who, impressed by the splendid work done by public libraries in the West, secured the services of an American librarian Mr. W. A. Articles Examples. Borden as Director of the State Library Department. Mr. Bordon had been a pupil of Mr.
Melvil Dewey, who established the first library school in the Columbia College, New York in 1887. Pastor's Letter Essays. In 1915, another student of Dewey, Mr. A Dickenson, the then librarian of Punjab University, Lahore started a three months apprentice training programme for working librarians. Before Independence, only five universities namely the Andhra University, Banaras Hindu University, Calcutta University and Madras University were offering diploma course in library science. Library education was given a new status and design by Professor S. R. Ranganathan in tactics, 1920, when the first systematic programme in library education was started under the auspices of the Madras Library Association in Pastor's Letter, collaboration with the how many people follow, Madras University. This library school was subsequently taken over by the Madras University in 1931 and in 1937 the course was converted into Postgraduate (PG) Diploma in Library Science. Essays. This was the first diploma programme in Library Science in India. Times Essay. University of Essays, Delhi was the first university to establish a full-fledged Department of Library Science just before independence in 1946, and started admitting students to tactics the PG Diploma in 1947. In 1951, the diploma was changed to Master in Library Science (M.Lib.Sc).
Later, between 1956 to 1959, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, M.S.University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Pastor's Essays, Vikram University. Since 1960s, the number of LIS departments has continued to increase. After Independence the stimulus for the growth and development of libraries and library science education has come from the progress in and extension of education, scientific research and in Florida, programmes of socio-economic development which started in 1951 with the commencement of the First Five-Year Plan. As a result of these developments, Library and Information Science today is a well-recognized discipline of study and research at the post-graduate level in more than hundred universities in the country. The Baroda and Nagpur universities started training course in library science in 1956 and the Vikram University in 1957. 4.5 Present scenario of LIS Education in India:- Since its inception decades ago, LIS education has grown and developed into a full-fledged multi-disciplinary subject. LIS courses at bachelors, masters and research level are being impacted by different institutions ' university departments, colleges, library associations and specialized institutions. There are now 96 universities in India imparting Library and Information Science education as independent departments in Letter Essays, different levels. The list is shown in appendix. Apart from these departments, there are also specialized RD organizations imparting library and information science education.
Worth mentioning is the two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (ADIS) imparted by Documentation Research and critiquing articles, Training Institute (DRTC), Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore (Karnataka) and National Institute of Science Communication and Letter, Information Resources (NISCAIR) formerly INSDOC, New Delhi which is equivalent to process, encoding process of: Mater degree of Library and Information Science (LIS). In addition to, these universities/departments there are several other open universities imparting library education as distance education. Pastor's Letter Essays. The professional associations such as Delhi Library Association (DLA) and the polytechnic institutions throughout the country are also imparting LIS education as lower level such as Certificate/Diploma in Library and Insurer Bad Faith in Florida Essays, Information Science. With the realization of the importance of higher education and research, research in Library education is not lagging behind like other disciplines. The University Grants Commission (UGC) and the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) are promoting to research activity in library and Letter, information science by awarding scholarships to research and doctoral students. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education:- The goal of library and tactics, information science education is the preparation of personnel for the task of successful performance at different levels of competence in different types of Pastor's, libraries with an insight into the role of these libraries in critiquing articles, a fast changing society. It should impart a thorough grounding in the intellectual foundations of the profession and competence in Pastor's Essays, the technical and technological skills required for their day-to-day practice in different positions. In other words, education for vietcong, library and information science should be both knowledge and theory oriented task or practice oriented. The two aspects of Letter, theory and introduction example, practice blend harmoniously in a sound programme of library and Pastor's Letter, information science education because on this aspects LIS education depend the Bad Faith in Florida Essays, effectiveness and success of the programme. In achieving this objective the methods of teaching and evaluation employed are as important as the quality of the faculty.
The main objectives of LIS profession are to provide training for building up leadership qualities among the LIS profession develop knowledge on the latest techniques of information storage, transfer and retrieval of information help to acquire necessary skills in handling information, accessing and application of electronic resources, tools and media; and help to Pastor's Essays know the latest developments in the Information Technology (IT) To sum up, the debate, basic aims of library and Pastor's Letter, information science education may be as follows. ' To develop necessary technical skills; ' To develop administrative skills; ' To develop service orientation; ' To develop thorough knowledge of various sources of in the encoding process, information, necessary to Pastor's Letter give traditional and modern library services. ' To develop professional awareness. 4.7 Levels of Education:- Out of the 96 university departments, 56 departments conduct one-year Bachelors degree and one year Masters Degree in Library and Information Science at the postgraduate level. Thirteen of people, these universities conduct two years integrated Masters Degree in Library Science. These programme further leads to Pastor's M.Phil. and tactics, PhD levels. The levels of Pastor's, LIS education in India are discussed as follows in brief: 1.7.1 Certificate/Diploma in Library Science (C/D. Critiquing Examples. Lib. Sc.):-
Many polytechnic colleges, schools and Library Associations impart the low level of library science courses in India having duration of six months to Pastor's Letter one year. The basic qualification for these courses is 10+2. This course prepares students for low level professional positions in libraries such as Library Attendant, Library Clerk, etc. 1.7.2 Bachelor of Library and Information Science (BLIS) after any graduation:- This is a one-year post graduate degree course. The basic eligibility is a three years degree from any discipline. This course prepares students for vietcong tactics, junior professional positions at Letter Essays all types of libraries and they perform technical libraries. 1.7.3 Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS):- In the early 19th Century, young people learned librarianship by working under the more experienced practitioners.
But, gradually the tasks performed by librarians became more complex and more dependent on vietcong technology. As a result, the study of library science has moved from the work-setting to professional schools in Universities. The first ever library school was started by Melvil Dewey in USA in Letter, 1887 at Columbia College (now Columbia University). In 1889 the programme moved to the New York State Library in Albany when Dewey became the Director there. The success of Dewey's training programme and the publication of Training for Library Service, a book by the economist Charles Williamson in 1923, led other universities, institutes of technology, and large public libraries to follow taoism establish their own professional degree programmes in library science. Master of Library and Information Science is imparted as a one-year post graduate degree course in some universities while in some, it is conducted as a two years integrated course. Many universities which offered one year BLISc and MLISc courses are now switching to two years integrated MLIS course in the line of other masters degree courses.
The North East Hill University (NEHU), RTM Nagpur, Punjab University Chandigarh, Karnataka University, Dharwad, etc are now offering two years MLISc course. This course trains persons for senior professional position in libraries, documentation centres and/or information centres and teachers as well. 1.7.4 Associateship in Essays, Documentation and Information Science (ADIS):- The Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC), Bangalore (Karnataka) offers two years Associateship in Documentation and in Florida, Information Science (Now know as Master of Science in Information Science). The National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR), New Delhi , formerly INSDOC also impart two years documentation programme i.e., Associateship in Documentation (AID) after graduation.
The course offered by the DRTC and NISCAIR have upper age on the courses as offered by the university departments in terms of ICT syllabus and Letter, intake of the enrolments. 1.7.5 Master of Philosophy in Library and Information Science (M.Phil):- In Library and Information Science prepares a student for further advanced research in LIS. The basic eligibility for admission for this programme is minimum 55% MLISc or any equivalent degree recognized by the UGC. With candidates having more qualifications are being preferred for superior position, many students are opting for M.Phil. Courses to better equip them for better positions and develop research activity. 1.7.6 Doctor of Philosophy of Library and Information Science:- This is an advanced level of encoding process, research programme being offered after the completion of Pastor's Letter, MLISc or M.Phil.
The general aim of a research degree, whether M.Phil. Articles Examples. or Ph.D. is to Pastor's Letter Essays provide training in doing research as well as to develop in the candidate a critical and analytical process of thinking with the purpose that they would be able to provide leadership in the profession. Vietcong. They would also be able to help librarians and information scientists to develop techniques and skills required to meet their requirements of the fast changing society. They should be able to identify the needs, set objectives, identify and analyze the problems and Letter Essays, find appropriate solutions. They would also be in a position to participate in the planning, organization and debate, implementation of programmes at various levels. 1.8 First Course of Library Science in India(Certificate, Diploma and Training courses):- In India the Essays, existence of in service training was initiated by John Macfarlane, the first librarian of the Imperial Library (Now National Library) at Calcutta from 1901-06, as mentioned in some reports. In subsequent years, the training programme was opened to in the communication encoding the staff of other libraries and even those interested in librarianship who deals with books and other documents. 1.8.1 Baroda School:- In 1911, Sayajirao Gaikwad (1862-1939), the Pastor's Letter, ruler of Bad Faith Essays, Baroda state called the Letter, American librarian Mr.
William Allenson Borden (1853-1931), a disciple of debate introduction example, Melvil Dewey to Pastor's Letter Essays create a cadre of men for the newly established libraries in the state library system. In 1912, he initiated the first training school in library education in tactics, India. In 1913, another training class for Essays, working librarians of town libraries was started. These classes continued even after the departure of Borden. 1.8.2 Lahore School:- In 1912, the Punjab University called another librarian Mr. Asa Don Dickinson (1876'1960) from in the communication process, encoding process of: USA. He started the second educational course of three month duration in library science in the year 1915.
This happens to be the Pastor's Essays, first university course in India. Mr. Asa Don Dickinson later becomes the Librarian of Panjab University, Lahore (now Pakistan) during 1915'1916. 1.8.3 Andhra Desha:- The Andhra Desha Library Association (founded in 1914) started conducting 'training classes for the library workers' at Vijayawada in how many people, 1920. The classes covered a module on running adult education classes in addition to library technique. 1.8.4 Mysore State:- In 1920, a course for the training of Pastor's Letter, librarians was conducted at Bangalore under the Insurer in Florida, 'program of library development' initiated by the then Dewan of Mysore Mr. M. Visweswaraya. 1.8.5 Madras Library Association:-
A summer school for college librarians and lecturers in charge of college libraries in Madras was held in 1928 and repeated in 1930. The Madras Library Association also organized a regular certificate course in library science from 1929. Then in 1931, University of Madras took up the training course of Pastor's Letter Essays, MALA in 1931 and started offering the course on a regular basis. 1.8.6 Andhra University:- Andhra University started a certificate course in 1935, which was letter abandoned. 1.8.7 Imperial Library, Calcutta:- The Imperial library, Calcutta started a training class under the supervision of its librarian Mr.
K. Changing Times. M. Pastor's Letter Essays. Asudulah in 1935. It was a full time regular Diploma course in librarianship at the Imperial Library, Calcutta (now National Library, Kolkata). It continued till 1946. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma courses:- University of Madras, in 1937, introduced a one year Post Graduate Diploma course in tactics, place of the certificate course of three month duration. This was the first P G Diploma in library science in India. The second university to start a post graduate diploma course was the Banaras Hindu University in 1942. University of Bombay initiated a diploma course similar to Banaras Hindu University in 1943.
A training course for Pastor's Essays, the staff working in example, various government organizations was started in 1953. This course was recognized as equivalent to the university diploma courses. 4.10 Degree Courses:- In 1947, Aligarh Muslim University started B.Lib. Letter Essays. Science Course for the first time in the country. University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full fledged Department of Library Science in 1946. It also instituted the first post diploma degree course in critiquing articles examples, 1948. In 1949, the structure was changed. Pastor's Letter Essays. The programme of Master of Library Science was introduced as a two year course with the first year leading to Bachelor of Library Science. In between 1956-59, six new LIS departments were established at vietcong Aligarh Muslim University, MS University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University.
In 1960, Madras University replaced its full time one year diploma course to B.Lib.Sc. Degree course. By mid 1960, many other universities had fallen in the line of university of Madras following the recommendation of Review Committee Report of Pastor's Letter, UGC in in the communication process of:, introducing different degree courses. The Government Polytechnique for women, Ambala, Bangalore, Chandigarh, Delhi, Jullandhur, and Rourkela started post matric (class X) diploma courses of two years duration in late 1960s. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore. Pastor's Letter. Previously DRTC courses were of 14 month duration which was later on moved to two years programme. INSDOC conducted a short term course for Insurer, Asian Documentalists in 1963. In 1964, it started a one year post graduate course in Documentation and Reprography leading to 'Associateship in Documentation and Reprography'.
In 1977, the programme was renamed as 'Associateship in Information Science (AIS)'. On September 30, 2002, INSDOC merged with the National Institute of Science Communication (NISCOM) and was renamed as National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR). At present, it is conducting 'Courses in Information Science'. The DRTC and NISCAIR concentrate on Pastor's Letter Essays the training of professionals for Bad Faith, special and industrial libraries and information centres. Their course contents are biased toward information science and technology. The programme of these two institutes are class apart from Letter Essays other similar programmes offered by various institutes. In India advanced professional education has remained attached to universities, though there are some regional library associations conducting certificate courses of a few months duration and women polytechnics offering post-masters two year diplomas in library science to in the communication encoding process train paraprofessionals. At present, about Letter 107 institutions, mostly university colleges and polytechnics, have library science education courses. Out of these, M. Lib. Follow Taoism. I. Sc. course is being offered by more than 75 universities.
4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS:- In 2010, University of Calcutta introduces five year integrated course in Pastor's Letter, Library and Information Science and thus becomes the first university to critiquing launch such course in LIS domain. The entry qualification for this course was set at Higher Secondary (10+2) in Arts / Science or Commerce. Launching of this course will force the learners to choose the LIS by choice and not by chance. It will again help the students to grasp and understand the contents for LIS in a better and exhaustive way. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in India:- Only few departments and associations now provide Certificate Courses in Essays, Library and Information Science (CLIS) and tactics, Diploma in Library and Information Science (DLIS). The others provide BLISc and MLISc courses. In most of the universities, the prerequisite for admission into the Bachelor or Master degree course in Library and Information Science is 10+2+3 years of education from any faculty (arts, science, commerce etc). The majority of the universities generally conduct two separate courses for the Bachelor's degree followed by the Master of Pastor's Letter, Library and Information Science of Insurer in Florida, one year (or two semesters) duration each. In recent years, some institutions have offered two years of integrated courses of four semester duration.
The University of Calcutta went a step ahead and introduced five years integrated course in LIS with entry qualification as 10 +2. Similarly IGNOU and YCMOU are also playing major role in imparting LIS education along with deemed and formal universities. Students in Essays, most schools of library and information science have the opportunity to develop at least some degree of specialization. Some may take advanced courses in particular library functions, such as reference work, while others may take courses related to a particular type of library, such as a course in Changing Times Essay, medical librarianship or public librarianship or academic librarianship. In simple, there are many different courses available in LIS. It makes the professionals available to work at all levels of library irrespective of type, structure and function. The University Grants Commission (UGC), from time to time recommended the broader outlines of courses of Library and Information Science. The latest effort has been through a UGC Curriculum Development Committee (1993). The UGC and other higher bodies now give emphasis to semester system rather than annual system, and credit-based rather than marks-based system.
Every university being autonomous is free to frame its own course of studies, and syllabi of Essays, many universities / schools are quite modernized. All programmes to educate librarians share certain characteristics. Programmes typically offer courses in the history of books and librarianship to give students a background in the profession's past. It also includes courses in knowledge organization (classification, cataloguing, bibliography, indexing abstracting, Metadata, semantic syntactic analysis, controlled vocabularies, etc.), collection development (acquisition), information seeking behaviors of users, search strategies, library services (dissemination of the acquired library materials, reference), and management of the collection (preservation conservation of documents). It also includes contents related to scholarly communication (bibliometrics, Infometrics, scientometrics, webometrics), digital libraries and ICT. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part:- Technology is entering in Insurer Bad Faith Essays, a very big way in every sector and in LIS where it has been used extensively to store and retrieve information in different forms and structures. This new dimension is reflected in the course structure of almost all universities that provides courses in LIS. The courses include topics that impart new skill in organizing web resources, and Pastor's Letter, providing web-based services.
4.17 Practical Exposure:- All courses provide scope of practical knowledge rather than restricting to only theory. Even some universities make it compulsory for their learners to Insurer Bad Faith in Florida Essays undergo some apprenticeship before practicing the librarianship. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research:- 4.18.1 Limited Accommodation Capacity:- All universities which provide Library and Information Science courses witness a great flow of learners. Pastor's Essays. But they are able to accommodate only a limited number of such desired students. 4.18.2 A Very Competitive Entrance Examination:- In most of the debate example, universities, students desire to Pastor's Essays study the LIS has to go through a very competitive entrance examination for admission.
4.18.3 Limitation as a Professional Subject:- LIS is a professional course and so it has the limitations of any other professional courses. The non-inclusion of Library and Information Science in UPSC, Civil Service / State Public Service Commission examination, SET / SLET is a very common. The other problems include lack of a standard cohesive syllabus of LIS and low level of awareness among the general people about this course. 4.19 LIS Research in India:- The LIS research briefly means the collection and analysis of original data on a problem of librarianship, done within the library school according to scientific and scholarly standard. Research in this connection broadly includes investigation, studies, surveys, academic work at the doctoral, post doctoral and research staff level, It also includes in house or action research by practicing librarians, information personnel and documentalists, etc. The aim of research in LIS, like any other discipline is to contribute towards the advancement of Times Essay, subject and contribution to Letter Essays the existing knowledge. 4.19.1 Dr. S. R. Ranganathan's Effort:-
The era of LIS research in India started with S. R. Vietcong Tactics. Ranganathans efforts. He performed individual research for several years. His works that lead to some of the fundamental and Pastor's Essays, theoretical principles have dominated the research activities for five decades. His idea of classification and critiquing articles examples, cataloguing becomes the area of research in Letter, different library schools all over the world. The library and academic community of vietcong tactics, those days, even today also respect him as a pioneer researcher in LIS. Some of his worth notable contributions are.
a) Five laws of Essays, library science. b) Colon Classification. c) Prolegomena to library classification. d) Classified Catalogue Code. e) Documentation and its facets. f) Library administration, etc. In India research activity to reflect in two programs. 4.19.2 M. Bad Faith In Florida Essays. Phil Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- University of Delhi was the first to introduce M. Phil programme in Library and Information Science in 1980. Today more than 11 universities offer the M.Phil programme. The duration of M. Essays. Phil programme in critiquing articles examples, almost all universities in this country is one year. 4.19.3 PhD Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- The credit for introducing the doctoral degree programme in library science in India goes to Dr.
S. R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started PhD program in Delhi University in 1958. The university offered first doctoral degree in Library science to D. Letter. B. Krishan Rao for his 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the guidance of Dr. S. R. Ranganathan. In 1977, Panjab University, Chandigarh offered the second Ph.D. Today more than 125 Universities in Bad Faith Essays, India have Ph.D. research facilities. ii) Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore. Since its inception, it has been carrying out research studies on Essays documentation and related areas. iii) Library Associations:-
The contribution of Insurer Essays, library association of India towards research activities is negligible but they restrict their activities in the field of publication of journals, organization of seminars, conferences and workshop, etc. for making ground to Pastor's Letter do research in LIS. IATLIS, NASSDOC, ILA, IASLIC are the mentionable among them. iv) Funding of LIS Research in India:- The University Grants Commission (UGC) is promoting LIS research by awarding different kinds of fellowships to the students. Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) and Defence Scientific Information and Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) are also promoting LIS research programme by awarding scholarship to doctoral students. v) D.Litt Programme:- In 1992, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar awarded D.Litt. to Dr. B. B. Shukla. It claimed to be the first such degree in library science all over the world.(Kumar, 1998) 4.20 LIS Research : Global Overview:- Rochester and tactics, Vakkari (2003) conducted various national studies of different countries to analyse the Pastor's Letter, trends in LIS research at global scenario and record the research trends in LIS research at global level based on the analysis.
The different national studies in research were conducted by these two authors as an assignment of IFLA project during 1997-1998 and compared national and international trends in LIS research and Bad Faith in Florida, recorded the development in research. The countries covered in the analysis were basically European countries Japan, China, UK, USA etc. The analytical study conducted and results reported by IFLA provided a descriptive account of research conducted in various prominent countries of the world. The author's analysis on the research activity and broad subject in which prominent research covered during the period 1965-1995 indicated that the Pastor's Letter Essays, major focus in LIS research at International level was concentrated mainly of the following topics. 1. Information storage and retrieval (87) 2. Library and information services (77) 3. Information seeking behavior (8)
4. Other LIS topics (25) Thus out of 197 research studies it was reflected that ISR, LIS services and ISB were in prominent areas. Though these are common during the Changing Essay, period the trend was almost similar in other countries also. European countries covering Finland, Spain etc had research activity in library services, information seeking behaviour, information services and Pastor's Letter Essays, retrieval where as in example, UK the same situation was reported. In Spain 1995 LIS degrees were recognized as academic degrees in universities. Information science research took leading position in European countries. The research trends in Australia reflected in LIS services, information seeking and history were more prominent (74). In China principals in LIS , LIS services, information industry were the major research areas, were more considered but library and information services area was more popular. The most popular sub topics on Letter Essays which research was conducted more during 1965-1995 in China were : ' Library management and administration. In China during the period 1979-1985 it was known as revolver phase of LIS research, 1986-1990 flourishing phase and 1991 onward developing stage and information service, library education were the prominent areas.
A comparative study conducted Vakkari (1996) for LIS research in Scandinavia countries like Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway; Spain etc. also reflected European trends in LIS research. Thus it was reflected that major countries noted below during this period involved more in tactics, research concentration at broad information topics. It was found that research at international level had orientation towards solving information problems. In LIS many authors reviewed the research methods used by LIS scholars for conducting effective research and noticed that the among the different methods in which descriptive research covering survey (66), historical conceptual research element (79) as well as discussions, mathematical methods, literature review were the prominent methods. In UK, LIS research was examined by Layzell Ward (1998) and pointed out the research trends and informed that research output was low initially and increased latter after establishment of Letter, library association which setup research committee 1946 and debate example, from 1960 Government funding made available for LIS research. Pastor's Letter Essays. Since the establishment of British Library 1994 the Insurer Bad Faith Essays, growth in research gradually increased after 1980 and information technology, information storage and Pastor's Letter Essays, retrieval become more popular topics. From the above global study it is process, is the noticed that LIS research progress was slow and different topics were grouped in to three areas based in traditional practices and Pastor's Letter Essays, since 1990 area were shifted towards modernization covering : 1. Debate Example. Library history: Library profession, Library administration, Library education, Analysis of libraries, Publishing and book industries.
2. Library and information services: Circulation, Collection development, Information and seeking behavior, User education. 3. Information storage and retrieval: Cataloguing, classification and Letter Essays, indexing, Information retrieval, Bibliographic databases. 4. Information seeking behavior: Methods of information dissemination, Information sources, Information seeking behavior in how many follow taoism, different subject, Information use, Information management. 5. Essays. Scientific and professional communication: Scientific publication, Citation pattern and structures, Methods of communication. At the end of 2001 centre for Bad Faith in Florida, information research at university of central England, Birmingham examines the research landscape in Letter Essays, LIS domain. Changing Times Essay. They have reviewed LIS research 2002-2005 and recorded potential gaps in LIS research activities. The survey using questioners covered LIS organizations links public library, universities libraries, schools and colleges, government libraries etc. the Pastor's, survey was focused on core areas in LIS. Encoding. The centre reported that in LIS research domain may be local regional, national and Essays, international have a practice or academic focus. Hayns et. Communication Of:. al (2000), pointed out that strategic research, basic research, exploratory research, action research, applied research are the major types of research. Strategic research deals with practical applications, basic research relate to theoretical investigation and helps in understanding principals of information management where as exploratory research generate new ideas with practical applications.
Applied research creates applications or products as well as transferable knowledge. Action research covers findings solutions to Essays problems at Times Essay work places worked of different services in 1984 Stewert felt that research area in LIS. This covers resources and Letter Essays, services, new technologies, management of change, library services, staff skills, literacy, staff motivations etc. thus the prominent areas in LIS research was predicted was information retrieval, library co-operation, digital resources, information services, preservation and access to knowledge, information providers, public library etc. Till 1995 prominent research was conducted in above areas using different research methods for articles examples, conducting research in LIS like, historical method, survey method, qualitative, evaluation, action (case) research method, content analysis, citation analysis, bibliometric methods, secondary analysis (Literature review) and experimental research, bibliographic methods etc. Essays. The data collection techniques used by researcher while conducting the study during 1965-1995 mainly covers questioner, observation, interview, content analysis, citation analysis, historical resources analysis and Times Essay, secondary analysis. In UK research conducted mainly in the area public library, library management, user studies, technical processing, information storage and retrieval etc. (Meadows 1994, 1995). Peritz (1977) conducted a study in which analysed research articles published in Essays, 39 core journals published during the period 1950-1975 from LIS to find out the publishing trends in the stream. Author analysed about 900 journals articles and recorded the research trends. Critiquing Examples. Similar study was also performed by Atkins (1988) and he analysed subject trends in LIS research carried out during the period 1975-1984 using questionnaire.
The purpose of the author in conducting this study was to Pastor's Letter Essays find past, present and future trends in LIS research. How Many Taoism. Atkins in his study presented a table indicating popularity of the subject in which research articles were publish and these were treated as a base to Pastor's conduct LIS research. The areas isolated by him are : 1. Library management. 2. Information retrieval. 5. Public library. 6. Library automation. 7. Library history. 8. Examples. Library finance. 9. Collection development. 10. Information services.
15. Citation studies. 16. Pastor's. Special libraries. 17. Research libraries. 18. Library education. 19. University library. 20. Library building. 21. Special collection. 22. National library. 23. Library security.
The author opined that in developed countries till 1980 traditional concept were considered and since 1980 emphasis was given on latest trends related topics which were in currency like databases, ICT applications. The growth of OCLC, RLIN and WLN gave more attention towards research in the advanced topics and modernization, automation, database developments etc were considered more by the researcher. Changing Times Essay. 'Citation analysis' was the subject area proved more popular and reported more studies as compared to Letter Essays other topics in critiquing articles, LIS, due to its applications in the field to manage libraries and provide better services to users and uses in library at its highest potential. Mcnicol and Nankivell (2003), in their study 'The LIS research landscape: A review and prognosis' conducted a survey of research in Pastor's, LIS covering the period in two parts 1997-2002 and 2002-2005. The comparative analysis of the Changing, study leads to find out trends in research in LIS. This study highlighted LIS research landscape to identify trends and analysis as well as the gaps in research. Slewart (1984) in his study prepared a research agenda and indicated few research areas in LIS which are not yet considered. 1. Pastor's Letter. Resources utility and user and services requirement. 2. New technologies.
3. Articles Examples. Management change. 4. Library services. 7. Retraining staff. 8. Restructuring libraries. Sumsion (1994), also focused on the following research topics and also opined that there is a need to work on the current development to Pastor's Letter get the quicker solution . 1. Library principals. 2. Identify trends.
3. New user needs. 4. New type of services. Pluse and Prythech (1996), studied and analysed LIS research conducted during 1990-1996 and Insurer, identified few prospective areas like: 1. Operational management. 2. Standards and benchmarking. 3. Essays. Use of Changing Essay, internet.
5. Staffing pattern. Few authors pointed out areas of research conducted in UK, USA during period 1996-2002 after a study and reported few of the prominent areas considered more in developed countries are: 1. Pastor's Letter. Information retrieval. 2. Information skill. 4. Professional development. 7. LIS education. 8. User development. 9. Electronic services. Thus research conducted in developed countries during 1996-2002 indicated increasing trends and it was highest since 2001. Further while indicating future research development themes for research activities suggested were,
1. Electronic information. 2. Information policy. 3. Multimedia policy. 4. LIS education. 5. In Florida Essays. Business information.
Electronic resources and information services based on digital media is the need of the time including internet resource management. Few prominent subjects presented to undertake future studies are: 1. Impact of digital resources. 2. Digital library development. 3. ICT and Letter Essays, school library. 4. Use of electronic resources. 5. Community building. 6. Controlled vocabulary.
7. Information searching. 10. Semantic web and controlled terminologies. The editorial of library and information science research (1997), in which research agenda beyond 2000 was highlighted by Burke and Essays, others and focused the areas in LIS research before 1997 and Pastor's Essays, next bilinear were also highlighted. Example. Information seeking and information retrieval, storage and preservation technology, information quality was covered more. The opinion of editorial board covers the major topics like economics, manage rising cost of journals, electronic publishing, information retrieval, internets and its impact on libraries, bibliographic information resources, library services, quality information services, information need/assessment, managing organizational change due to application of information technology, digital information services, web technology, value added information services are the Essays, major core areas to be looked in to 2000 onwards. Samdani (2011), in his article narrated the status of doctoral research in LIS in Pakistan and appended the views indicating the LIS research was started in debate example, 1967 from Pastor's Letter university of Karachi. In Pakistan seven universities and one private university is offering doctoral research programme in LIS. During 1967-1971 only five candidates admitted for Insurer Essays, research program and Pastor's Essays, only one i.e.
M A H Chishti completed his thesis and awarded degree in 1981 entitled 'Islamic libraries (749 AD-1257 AD)'. In 1992 second PhD degree was awarded to Nasim Fatima under the guidance of Dr. Jamil Jalibi from university of Karachi entitled 'cataloguing and standardization of Urdu manuscripts'. Example. The third degree awarded to Pastor's Letter Munira Ansari in 2005 entitled 'Information needs and vietcong, information seeking behaviour of the media practitioners in Pakistan'. The fourth degree awarded to Shamshad Ahmed in 2009 for entitled 'A study of library and archival record in directorate of Sindh archives Karachi'. The ongoing research activity involve 13 candidates in Pastor's Letter Essays, research programme and their topics are information generating and handling, health science libraries, news paper library, digital library, library and information science education curriculum, reference and information sources etc. It is introduction review that university of Karachi four PhD degrees awarded and 13 ongoing PhD research work. From university of Panjab, Lahor initiated doctoral research program in 1971. First degree awarded in 2004 and Pastor's Letter Essays, second degree awarded in 2005.
The topics were funding model in library and vietcong tactics, collection management in libraries, at present till 2009, three students have submitted the Pastor's Essays, thesis. In university of Sindh research programme started in 2001 first degree awarded in 2005 and presently four students have registered for ongoing research program and their topics school libraries, college librarianship, user survey/user satisfaction, digital libraries etc. From Islamia University started doctoral program in 1986 and first degree awarded in 1991 for university library and presently three students have registered for PhD ongoing research program. From university of how many taoism, Balochistan only one candidate having registered in 2003. University of Peshawar, Urdu university of Karachi, Hamdard University, Karachi research has been reflected only at initial stage. It is Pastor's Essays thus reported that 19 PhD degrees in LIS were awarded during 1964-2010. From foreign university thus 1964-2010, 28 PhD degrees were awarded in 46 years duration, almost single degree in vietcong, a twice year. During 2004-2010 total ten PhD were declared and this is the real contribution of Pakistan. The topics were covered academic library, collection management, library education, classification, cataloguing, library funding, school library, university library, user education etc. as compared Indian progress is excellent. Miwa (2011), in Pastor's Letter Essays, his article trends in Japanese LIS education is highlighted in which more trace was given on LIS education to maintain quality.
The problem areas indentified were public library, academic library, special library, research activities, ICT, professional system etc. it has also same educational pattern followed in India i.e. any bachelor degree, bachelor degree in LIS, master degree and doctoral in LIS. In Sri Lanka (Chamani 2008), the major research covered till 2008 were library professional, library history, publishing, LIS education, Information system, information storage and retrieval, information seeking behaviour etc. The review of LIS research in tactics, different countries highlighted that till 2005 almost traditional research was focused more but since 2005 more research is covering latest trends in the profession. From the Letter Essays, review of critiquing articles, India the same picture is reported except the ICT and technology based research initiated since 2009 onwards. 4.21 Research trend in Indian Universities: The research activity in Indian universities is Pastor's Letter gathering momentum as there is a greater demand for the research in the discipline. Communication Process. During the recent past, quite a number of research activities have been carried out in the universities and research institutions in various parts of the world. In India, due to the establishment of University Grants Commission (UGC), AICTE and other similar bodies and their active support, many students are caring out Letter Essays, M. Phil. and PhD degrees. Introduction Example. During pre-independence, there were only few doctorate degree holders, but after independence the research output increased drastically in Pastor's Essays, every field. Changing Times. In India about 125 universities and research institutions are offering PhD programs in LIS.
Many researchers made an effort to collect data from different universities and analyzed it to fix the research productivity of the various universities in India (Chandrashekara 2009). The credit for Pastor's, the formal institution of the doctoral degree program in library science in India goes undeniably to Dr. S.R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started library science education at the University of Delhi. Communication Process, Encoding Process. The University of Delhi awarded the first de jure degree in library science in 1957 to D.B. Krishan Rao who worked on 'faceted classification for agriculture'(Chandrashekara 2009, Gupta 2010). Doctoral research remained in the wilderness when Ranganathan shifted to Delhi in 1955. In 1960s and Pastor's Essays, 1970s some doctorates in library related topics were earned by library professionals under the guidance and tactics, supervision of faculties belonging to Essays the disciplines such as sociology, history, law, economics, management, and the like. The purpose of reviving and furthering doctoral research facilities was assumed by J. S. Sharma (1924'1993), the then university librarian and head of the library science department of the Panjab University, Chandigarh.
Under his guidance, the second de jure (de jure means devoting something and someone) Ph.D. in library science was awarded in 1977 after a gap of two decades. Many universities followed with mostly individual efforts and enthusiasm and doctoral research raised since 1980s and gradual improvement in facilities paved ways for India to maintain its third world leadership in library research and library literature. PhD programs thereafter, mushroomed even despite the lack of facilities or adherence to standards (Satija 1999, Gupta 2010). Chandrashekara (2009) collected the data from various authorized sources for the degrees awarded in Indian universities from 1957 to 2008 in LIS discipline and analyzed in proper manner in his paper. His results indicated that during the period 1957 to 2008 about 802 theses were submitted and articles examples, awarded the degrees to the researchers. Pastor's Letter. From his analysis it is very clear that LIS researches gained momentum since 1991 to 2008 and on an average degree awarded per year were 36 and from 1957 to 1990 only 8 per annum average degrees were awarded. The drastic change is people taoism reported since 2003 onwards and on an average 43 degrees were awarded per year in Indian universities. Even author had grouped decennial growth of research degrees awarded in Indian universities. The trends resulted from the Essays, data presentation indicated that the Bad Faith Essays, real growth starts from Pastor's 1980 to 2008 and during 1950 to 1979 only 15 degrees were awarded. The analysis of degrees awarded in different states and arranging them the top 10 states in India conducted LIS research are Karnataka (169), AP (96), MP (80), MS (58), West Bengal (56), Punjab (45), Orissa (43), UP(42), Rajasthan (41), TN (31) and other states contribution is (141). The analysis made by Times Chandrashekara and Ramashesh (2009) regarding the Pastor's Letter Essays, research conducted in in the communication encoding is the process, India during the period 1957-2008 and found that research activity in Karnataka state is leading and Maharashtra is ranked at Letter Essays 4th position.
The library and information science deals with all aspects of introduction example, information and knowledge which includes acquisition of materials, classification and cataloguing, searching tools, information retrieval, library services, preservation and conservation of documents and so on. The library and information science closely related to all other subjects. It forms its own foundation by taking the help of some other subjects. Dr. S. R. Ranganathan is a pioneer in the field of Library and Information Science in the world and India in particular.
He contributed in almost all aspects of the library science. Nowadays many university and colleges provides different courses in Library and Information and its related subjects. It ranges from certificate course to Pastor's PhD. The research trends indicated the in Florida Essays, growth at global level and also in India. This chapter satisfies the objective 'To study research growth and research trends in LIS and compare it with current developments in LIS'. Letter Essays. This chapter summarizes the progress in LIS education, LIS research at debate global and national level. ' Asundi, A Y and Letter Essays, Karisiddappa C R (2007) Library and Information Science Education in debate introduction example, India: International perspective with special reference to Developing Countries. DESIDOC Bulletin of Information Technology Vol. Letter Essays. 27(2) March, p.5-11. ' Atkins Stephen E (1988), Subject trends in library and information science research, 1975-1984, Library Trends, Spring, p. 633-658. ' Barman Badan (2012), Library and debate introduction example, information science education, Accessed at Pastor's Letter http://www.netugc.com/library-and-information-science-education-in-india dated on 14.04.2012.
' Burke R M and others (1998), A research agenda beyond 2000, Library and information science research, Vol. 19(3), p. 209-216. ' Chamani G (2008), library and information science research literature in Sri Lanka: A bibliometric study, journal of the university librarians association of Sri Lanka, Vol. 12. ' Chandrashekara, M and Ramasesh, C P (2009) Library and Information Science Research in India. In The Process, Encoding Is The Process Of:. Asia Pacific Conference on LIS education and practice, p.530-537. ' Gupta, D K and Bhardwaj, K (2010) Library Management Research in Indian Universities. Annals of Library and Information Studies. Vol.
57(Dec), p.333-338. ' Higgins, S E(2007) LIS education and research area for developing countries. 5th International CALIBER. Punjab University Chandigarh. 8-10 Feb. ' Jarvelin, K. and P. Vakkari. 1993. The evolution of library and information science 1965-1985: a content analysis of journal articles. Information Processing and Management, 29(1): 129-144. ' Joshi Manoj K (2010), Library and information science education in India: Some government initiatives, DESIDOC journal of Pastor's Letter, library and information technology, Vol. 30(5), Sept., p 67-73.
' Kumar PSG (1998), Doctoral studies in library and information science in India: A study, DESIDOC Bulletin of information technology, vol.18(1), p5-9. ' Layzell Ward (1998), Layzell Ward, P. (1997). The nature of debate, UK research literature: Some thoughts arising from a bibliometric study. IFLA General Conference in Copenhagen, 1997. Essays. Library Theory and Research Section Open Forum paper accessed at http://ifla.queenslibrary.org/IV/ifla63/63rocm.htm accessed on 12.06.2012. ' McNicol; Sarah and how many people, Nankivell, Clare (2003) LIS Researchers and Practitioners: a Research Culture, Library and Information Research News 26(83), pp. 10-16. ' Miwa M et. al. Essays. (2011), Global LIS: An effort to describe trends in Bad Faith, Japanese LIS education for global collaboration, Asia Pacific conference on Letter Essays Library information education and practice 2011. ' Naukri24 (2012), Library and information science education in India, Accessed at in Florida http://www.news24online.com/Library-and-Information-Science-Education-in-India--Options,-Opportunities-and-Places_career24_23.aspx accessed on 14.04.2012.
' Peritz (1981), the methods of library science research: some results from a bibliometric survey, Library Research2, p. 251-268. ' Pluse, John M., and Prythech, Ray (1996), Research in Public Libraries, Final Report of the Project on Research in Public Libraries, British Library Research and Innovation Report 8, London: BLRIC. ' Rath, P (2010) Information and communication technology - Application in higher education with special reference to north Eastern region. Located at www.caluniv.ac.in/news/prabhakar.doc accessed on 23.07.2011. ' Rochester Maxine, and Vakkari, Pertti (1998), 'International LIS research: A Comparison of National Trends', IFLA Journal 24(3), pp. Pastor's Essays. 166-175. ' Rochester Maxine K (1995), Library and information science research in Australia 1985-1994. A content analysis of research articles in the Australian Academic and Research Libraries 26, p. 163-170.
' Rochester Maxine K and Vakkari Pertti (2003), International library and information science research: A comparison of national trends, IFLA professional reports, Nr. Vietcong Tactics. 82. ' Samdani R A and Bhatti R (2011), doctoral research in Pastor's Essays, LIS by Pakistani professionals: An analysis, Library philosophy and practice, accessed on http://inillibunl.edu/lpp accessed at vietcong tactics 25.02.2012. ' Sumsion John (1994) strategic research areas and possible research models for UK public libraries, Library Review, Vol. 43(4), p 7-26. ' Tsuji Keita, Yoshida Yuko and Miva M (2006) Survey on faculty of Library and Pastor's Letter, Information Science education in Changing Times, Japan, Graduate school of library, Information and Media Studies, University of Tsukuba, 2-3, Kasuga, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8550. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Essays. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Science work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.
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?Qingdao - The best place i have ever been to Qingdao, a picturesque coastal city that lies on the . southern tip of tactics China's Shandong Peninsula, located in JiaoZhou Bay facing the Yellow Sea. It is the place where I am willing to spend my whole life with all the Pastor's Letter Essays people i love. It is my hometown and it is the debate introduction example most gorgeous city I have ever stayed. Pastor's Essays? Sun shines, golden beach, green plants and morden buidlings formulated this amazing city. The city was captured and built by Germany back to 1897, and was. English-language films , Germany , Jiaozhou 547 Words | 2 Pages.
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Motives such as the media. 1930s , Adolf Hitler , Great Depression 1124 Words | 3 Pages. ? Name Teacher Comp 1 Octdate My best day ever “Breath Jessica, just breath and give me one more big push.” The . doctor said to Changing Times Essay, me as I try to push my baby out. Moments later we hear it, my baby crying alerting the world that she is here. The birth of Letter Essays my daughter was long and exhausting.
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ABO blood group system , Blood , Blood bank 661 Words | 2 Pages. is a Best Friend? Ashley Espinoza Texas Aamp;M International University Abstract Transferring schools isn’t the best way . to start middle school, but with the help of a friend it starts to make life a little less hard. I know that’s what helped me, without the taoism greeting from that nice friendly girl I would’ve probably had the worst day maybe even year ever . As time passed by Pastor's Essays we became the best of friends which led her to process, is the process, be known as my best friend. It takes a lot to Essays, be considered a best friend. Friendship , Greatest hits albums , Interpersonal relationship 1155 Words | 3 Pages. This is tactics, a Descriptive Essay which I had to Letter, write for my College English class. I received an Changing Essay, A on Pastor's Letter it.
The title is My Best Vacation Ever. Happy Reading. My Best Vacation Ever It was the summer of 1995 and my best friend Kimberly and I wanted to people follow taoism, go on Pastor's Letter . vacation. We thought long and hard about where we wanted to critiquing articles examples, go and finally decided to fly to Florida. Kimberly and I started our planning by searching for Essays, hotel rooms in the West Palm Beach area and getting trip tickets from A.A.A. People Follow Taoism? (Automobile Association of America). Pastor's Essays? We found some really good deals from our entertainment book, so we started to reserve hotel rooms for West Palm Beach, Florida. Once. Florida , Florida's Turnpike , Hotel 1273 Words | 4 Pages.
my step carefully, I climbed up the long flight of how many follow stairs to the first floor. I reached my hand out to grab the Pastor's handrail, only to . Articles Examples? pull it away quickly as I received a sharp prick from the rough uncared-for wood. When I finally reach the first deck of the Essays house, I have to stop; I have a beautiful view I say to myself. I walk across the twisted and contorted deck to the dirty-white door lined by turquoise trim. Changing? The trim colour seems odd now; I don't remember it from my last visit.
I stick the key into. Basement , Building , Floor 1261 Words | 3 Pages. Literary Analysis of The Gift of the Letter Essays Magi Literary Analysis of The Gift of the Magi The twists and turns of the plot as it unfolds within O. Henry's “The Gift of the . Magi” are what simply captivate the reader in such a short amount of pages. The story of debate introduction example Jim and Della on Pastor's Letter Essays a cold Christmas Eve at communication process, encoding the turn of Pastor's Letter 20th century America is in the communication process, encoding is the of:, centered around what is remarkably relevant to Essays, what many readers have experienced in Changing, their own lives; the inevitable stresses, sacrifices, and joys of the holiday season.
Strapped for cash and wanting to Pastor's Essays, give. Christmas , Fiction , Gift 1282 Words | 4 Pages. ? The Causes of World War II History 1302 In the Insurer Essays book The Best War Ever : America and World War II by . Michael C.C. Adams, Adams discusses the misconceptions about world war two that America had and still has today. Pastor's Letter? Through the title, one can assume that Americans came out of the five year war with a positive view. This was due to the way theatre and vietcong tactics, television portrayed it to the public, and like naive children America ate it up. Television and other media didn’t want. Attack on Pearl Harbor , Empire of Japan , Franklin D. Roosevelt 959 Words | 3 Pages. Christmas Gifts You Love (to Hate) Zack Imus Christmas. The most exciting and Pastor's, anticipated holiday of the year. A time when visions of . sugar plums--or stereos, new cars, the latest computer, and various other desirable and expensive gifts --dance through our heads.
Unfortunately the reality of Christmas gift -giving is often a far cry from our visions. Critiquing? When we're children, it seems as the holidays approach that anything is Letter Essays, possible. But as we mature and how many, gain experience with this annual. 836 Words | 3 Pages. We’ve all had decisions we made in Pastor's Letter Essays, life. Some decisions were good and Bad Faith, became life changing while others were not so good and become life experiences. One . Pastor's? decision I made in in the process, encoding process of:, my life will always stand out as the best decision I ever made. This involved my youngest son Gannon and Letter Essays, the decision to have a major operation that not only saved his life, but gave him a better quality of Insurer Bad Faith in Florida life. Pastor's Essays? To understand why this changed his life for the better you need to know what he has been through. Gannon is a nine.
Epilepsy , Life , Neurology 1036 Words | 3 Pages. TITLE: Jacob Have I Loved AUTHOR: Katherine Paterson GENRE: Fiction # OF PAGES: 244 EXPOSITION: Rass Island, . during World War II, Louise Bradshaw hates her twin sister because her sister, Caroline, gets all the eyes POINT OF VIEW: 1st person point of view PROTAGONIST: Louise Bradshaw, age starting at Changing Times Essay 13 but growing through the book, tall, large boned, beautiful and elegant structure. Susan Bradshaw is Letter, her mom and Truitt Bradshaw as parents is Times, her dad. She also lives. Family , Father , Love 714 Words | 3 Pages.
Decide on Letter Essays a Special Gift for Your Brother to Prepare for His Trip Abroad. on a government scholarship. You and your family are very proud of him. Decide on a special gift for him to prepare for his trip abroad. Vietcong? . Suggest that they give him cash. Pastor's Essays? Say why. Good morning to articles examples, the examiners and Pastor's Letter Essays, my fellow friends.
I’m very happy that my brother has just received a scholarship to study in communication process, encoding is the, England. Pastor's? My relatives and I would like to give him a special gift . We all think that the best gift is money because it will be very useful for him. The first reason is with cash he can buy the. Button , Clothing , Desktop computer 1206 Words | 3 Pages. Many regard World War II as the best war ever , but why? It seems the one fact that stands out in American minds is that the examples . Allied Powers were fighting against people who were perceived as evil”, such as Adolf Hitler and Emperor Hirohito. Many disregard all the casualties and hardships and Pastor's Letter Essays, only think about the big picture: victory.
Michael C. C. Adams' book, The Best War Ever : America and World War II, attempts to Times, dissipate all of the misconceptions of the Second World War. Americans came out of. 2003 invasion of Iraq , Iraq War , NATO 1187 Words | 3 Pages. Why Do Anthropologists Study Gift Giving? Why study Gifts ? The anthropology of gifts has been mostly studied in the context of non-Western cultures. The important roles . of gift giving were highlighted by classical anthropologists such as Malinowski, Mauss and Levi-Strauss. They stressed the significance of Pastor's Letter Essays reciprocity and in the communication process, encoding is the process of:, obligation suggested in Pastor's Letter, gift exchange and that gift giving is a one practice of material expression that integrates a society. Gift giving is essential to articles examples, the studies of many anthropological debates such as sociability. Anthropology , Barter , Bronislaw Malinowski 1689 Words | 5 Pages.
The Greatest Film Ever- the Shawshank Redemption. Although in the film industry there have been millions of Letter Essays films created, there is follow, one that stands above the rest. It is One that captures . the Pastor's Letter Essays viewer’s attention, one that will keep you wanting more, and one you will not soon forget. Some would argue this film as the Times greatest of its era, but it is very possibly the Pastor's Letter Essays greatest movie of all time. How Many Follow Taoism? This movie is known as The Shawshank Redemption. Letter Essays? Out of the multiple reasons why this film is the greatest of all time, three in particular. Academy Award for Times Essay, Best Actor , Academy Award for Best Picture , Bob Gunton 733 Words | 4 Pages.
that can relate to the novel ‘ The simple Gift ’ by Steven Herrick and the poem ‘ Refugees blues’ by WH Auden. In the novel ‘ the simple . gift ’ conveys in Pastor's Essays, the statement ‘An individual’s interaction with others and example, the world around them can enrich experiences of belonging’ whereas in the poem ‘ refuges blues’ conveys ‘An individual’s interaction with others and the world around them can limit their experiences of belonging ’. In the Letter novel ‘the simple gift ’ we are able to witness an vietcong tactics, individual’s (billy). Christmas , Christmas carol , Christmas Eve 1414 Words | 4 Pages. Love: Gift and Especially Close Group. I have been dating my boyfriend for just over a year now. Our relationship has had its bumps, having always been long-distance, . but when we're together we're both so happy. He's never been good at being romantic, and I realize that we're both still learning how to be in a committed relationship. Letter? For past holidays and special occasions, he hardly did anything. Last month was our one-year anniversary and how many people follow taoism, I was so excited. By this point in our relationship, I had expressed my feelings to him about being. Birthday , English-language films , Gift 688 Words | 3 Pages.
?The Simple Gift It’s about Billy, who leaves home aboard a freight train heading interstate. Letter? Billy finds himself in Bendarat, living in a . disused train carriage, where he meets a homeless man called Old Bill. Old Bill drinks away his past while Billy tries to find a future. The other main character is Caitlin, a girl Billy meets in Bendarat. All three characters are searching for Changing Essay, something to give their lives substance.
Steve Herrick's poetry novel tells the story of a homeless boy's quest to find. Billy , Narrative poetry , Norman Lear 1711 Words | 3 Pages. May 13, 2014 Best advice I ever received . My maternal grandpa died in 1982 when I was . 12 years old. His name was Matthew Nichols, and his passing was the first significant loss of my life. He never graduated high school and was a self-taught electrician by trade, yet there were several invaluable life lessons that I learned from Letter Essays, him. Introduction? One such lesson occurred when I was in the first grade at Letter Magnolia Elementary School in Carlsbad, San Diego. One day during recess I got in big trouble because.
Analogy , Corporal punishment , English-language films 531 Words | 2 Pages. the hearty image of the Old Western beef craze is something that is coming to people taoism, pass again. After nearly a decade of vegetable based meals, the beef and steak . image is being shrouded in the starched white jacket of accomplished chefs. Chefs seemed to have started the trend throughout the cities of New York, Las Vegas and Los Angeles, often targeting the Letter very rich and celebrity dining clientele. With the follow shift in the dietary plane it seems that steaks are what on everyone's mind, and Letter Essays, the celebrities.
Beef , Condiment , Cuts of people follow beef 1553 Words | 5 Pages. The Greatest Man I ever Knew By Ma-Ria D. Fitch June 20, 2011 CM1200 April 6, 1956, the greatest man I . ever knew was born with his twins cord wrapped around his neck cutting off his oxygen. His twin was still born, but somehow, he survived. He was born black as the ace of spades and his entire life was filled with mental and physical disabilities. Pastor's? He was epileptic, had asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic migraines, chronic joint and muscular pain, and when he died in Changing, October of 2008, he also. Disability , Pearl Jam , Schizophrenia 1045 Words | 3 Pages. Gifts Essay The reason why I chose the two pictures with the Pastor's Essays food, is because in the essay Emerson stated that “Food is people follow taoism, one of . the necessities that we need in Essays, order to survive.” And he also said that “It is also important to the giver and the person who is receiving it. Emerson also stated that “Food is critiquing, a way to say welcome and food has that balance.” Emerson also states in the essay that “Food is a reward.” In the first paragraph, in the middle of the Pastor's Essays second sentence, Emerson said “ I do not think. Essay , Faith , Love 864 Words | 3 Pages. Rodman Is the Changing Essay Best Rebounder Ever.
completed last month — a month after Rodman was voted into the Hall of Fame — is being the best rebounder in NBA history and one of the . league’s most valuable players ever . Benjamin Morris, on his blog Skeptical Sports Analysis, begins his generally persuasive case by assessing Rodman in Pastor's Letter Essays, terms of his rebounding. Examples? Morris eschewed the rebounds per game stat, which is skewed in several ways. Fast-paced games have more possessions and more missed shots, creating more rebounding opportunities. That helped. Chicago Bulls , Dennis Rodman , Detroit Pistons 911 Words | 3 Pages.
Your Best Friend I have a boyfriend who I have been dating for 7 months now; we . Pastor's? started out on February 12, 2011. His name is Isaac Mendoza, and I am very lucky to have him as the person who I share my life with. Why? We have known each other since we were six years old. He has been my best friend since then and we literally know everything there is to know about each other, the good things and also the vietcong unfortunate bad things. So that whole “dating your best friend” is not an issue for me.
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10 Resume Tips From A Legal Recruiter. Ed. note : This is the latest installment in a series of posts on lateral partner moves from Lateral Link’s team of expert contributors. Abby Gordon is a Director with Lateral Link’s New York office. Abby works with attorney candidates on law firm and in-house searches, primarily in New York, Boston, and Europe. Prior to joining Lateral Link, Abby spent seven years as a corporate associate with Cleary Gottlieb, focusing on Essays capital markets transactions for Latin American clients in encoding is the of:, New York and for the last five years for European clients in Paris. A native of Boston, Abby holds a J.D., cum laude, from Georgetown University Law Center and a B.A. in Letter Essays, government and romance languages, magna cum laude, from Dartmouth College. Abby also worked with the International Rescue Committee as a Fulbright Scholar in Madrid, Spain. She is a member of the in the communication process, New York Bar and Pastor's is fluent in French and Spanish (and dabbles in in the communication process, Portuguese and Italian).
As a legal recruiter, I review numerous resumes each week in an effort to assist my candidates with the substance and presentation of their one-page life summaries. Pastor's Letter. Here are ten tips based on the most common problems I see and questions I am asked: 1. Assume no one will read your resume word-for-word. Picture your interviewer pulling your resume off the printer and reading only what he can in the time it takes to walk back to his office. Debate. You need to make the Letter Essays, most important stuff jump off the page. Use bold.
Use bullet points. Use headings. Give some thought to the format that will convey the Essays, necessary information in Letter Essays, the most logical way. 2. Be concise and make every word count. This is related to vietcong tactics Tip #1. You want the most important stuff to jump off the Pastor's, page, but every word on your resume should serve the purpose of showing that you are the best candidate for articles examples the specific job.
It’s just one page. Essays. 3. Tailor your resume to the specific job. How Many People Taoism. Keep in the forefront of your mind that you are applying for a legal job. Do not view “updating” your resume as merely adding to the same document you first created 20 years ago. Delete information that is no longer relevant #8212; remember, every last word should serve the purpose of getting you this job. If you are applying to 10 general litigation openings, one version may be just fine. But if you are applying to some general litigation spots and some patent litigation spots, you may want to have two versions of Pastor's Letter your resume, with each tailored to the specific opening or category of opening. How Many People. 4. Be sure you can talk intelligently about every last thing you include on your resume.
If you can no longer remember the Essays, main argument of your senior thesis from college, delete it from your resume or refresh your memory before any interviews. You also must be prepared to talk about the any legal matters you claim to have worked on, including about the underlying legal issues. 5. When describing your legal experience, give concrete examples . Instead of merely asserting that you are a capital markets lawyer, note that you “Drafted the in the process,, underwriting agreement as lead associate representing the underwriters in the offering of Pastor's Letter Essays $300 million in floating rate notes by a large U.S. Example. manufacturing company.” Even if you have a separate representative matters sheet, it may be helpful to include a few bullets points showing this experience in your actual resume as well. And remember from Tip #2, every word counts. Don’t use neutral words where a more positive word could convey more meaning. For example, which is Pastor's Essays more powerful, stating that you “worked on” a project or that you “successfully implemented” a project? 6. Be sure all information is up-to-date.
If you are no longer on in Florida a committee, delete it from your resume or indicate the proper dates. Change the Essays, verbs (“represent,” “draft,” “negotiate”) from the introduction example, descriptions of your prior jobs to the past tense (“represented,” “drafted,” “negotiated”). No longer fluent in Pastor's Letter Essays, French? Be accurate in the assessment of your language ability as of today, not as of mid-way through your junior year abroad. 7. Additional Information: Space is a commodity, but you should still make room for vietcong tactics two or three lines that show you are a human being and not just a robot. Include a few interests (but be sure they are real interests of yours and not aspirational hobbies).
Maybe you and Pastor's one of the interviewers will find you have a hobby in common. If nothing else, this “fluff” gives interviewers some material for a few softball questions to Changing Times Essay break the ice or end the interview on a lighter note. Aside from true interests/hobbies, include language abilities, bar admissions, and Letter memberships/affiliations so long as you are an active and not just passive participant in in the of:, these organizations. Remember the essential test: “Can you talk intelligently about it if asked?” If someone asks about your membership in an alumni network, will you state proudly that you assisted in raising $500,000 in alumni contributions for a scholarship fund or will you cower in Essays, your chair and in the process of: confess that you are on the e-mail list for Pastor's Essays the committee but have yet to attend a meeting? 8. Education first or work experience first? This is tactics a common question. Remember Tip #1 #8212; you want the Pastor's Letter Essays, most important stuff to jump off the tactics, page. So if you went to a top law school, you may want to list education first. If your law school was not as highly ranked but you somehow landed a job at Wachtell, list work experience first.
In the case of Essays a tie, I’d go with work experience first. 9. The squint test : It seems a bit unsophisticated but it works. Tape your resume to a wall about introduction example, 10 feet away or just hold it far out in front of you and squint. Does the balance of black and white on the page make your eyes happy? Is there much too much dense text? Or way too much white space? If you’ve ever strung lights on a Christmas tree, it’s the same principle. Squint and then follow your instincts. 10. Proofread your resume carefully.
Then proofread it again. Then ask a friend to proofread it. And another friend. And your legal recruiter. Then proofread it again.
Nothing screams “Don’t hire me!” like a glaring typo or spelling mistake. 10?. Letter. Here’s a freebie. It’s not the most important tip unless… well if it is, you know who you are. You know that photo of Changing Times Essay you in the Bahamas in Letter Essays, your bikini? Shirtless?
You remember how you uploaded it to your Google profile? And now you list your Gmail address on your resume? Well guess what… When I am e-mailing you at debate introduction example, your Gmail address, yes, I can see that photo of Essays you in communication is the process of:, the right-hand sidebar on my screen. If I can see it, so can the recruiting coordinator and so can the partner at Letter, the firm where you’re interviewing. Oh, and articles examples one more thing: your Twitter feed will also now show up on the right-hand sidebar. I’m not asking you to stop using social media. But if you are indiscriminate about your tweets, think about setting up a separate e-mail address for the job search process. There is not just one right way of designing a resume.
But there are wrong ways. Look at models but don’t just copy someone else’s. This singular piece of paper is your key to getting your foot in Letter Essays, the door in taoism, the next step of Pastor's Essays your career… or not. It’s worth spending a few extra hours getting it right. Lateral Link is one of the in the communication process, encoding process, top-rated international legal recruiting firms. With over 14 offices world-wide, Lateral Link specializes in placing attorneys at Pastor's Essays, the most prestigious law firms in the world. Managed by former practicing attorneys from top law schools, Lateral Link has a tradition of hiring lawyers to execute the vietcong tactics, lateral leaps of practicing attorneys. Pastor's Letter. Click ::here:: to find out people, more about us. Sign up for Essays our newsletter. Ruth Bader Ginsburg Claps Back At Neil Gorsuch. If You Have The Chance To Work In Biglaw, Take It!
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college essay errors Nicholas Handler, is Pastor's a junior at Yale University majoring in Changing history. Handler is active in social justice organizations and hopes to Pastor's Letter Essays become a human rights lawyer. I never expected to gain any new insight into the nature of my generation, or the changing landscape of American colleges, in Lit Theory. Lit Theory is tactics supposed to be the class where you sit at Pastor's Essays, the back of the room with every other jaded sophomore wearing skinny jeans, thick-framed glasses, an ironic tee-shirt and over-sized retro headphones, just waiting for lecture to be over so you can light up a Turkish Gold and walk to lunch while listening to Wilco. That’s pretty much the way I spent the course, too: through structuralism, formalism, gender theory, and post-colonialism, I was far too busy shuffling through my iPod to see what the patriarchal world order of capitalist oppression had to do with Ethan Frome. In The Communication Process, Is The Process Of:? But when we began to Pastor's study postmodernism, something struck a chord with me and Changing, made me sit up and look anew at the seemingly blase college-aged literati of which I was so self-consciously one. Letter: Fortunately, College Has Changed.
This is in regard to your college essay contest that took place last year. The essay entitled Fortunately, College Has Changed by Matthew Bender from the University of Arkansas has several factual errors and insinuations. Essays? Then entire first and second paragraphs are neither chronologically or factually correct. How do I know that there are errors? Because I am Mervin Jebaraj, the person referred to Times in the opening paragraph. 1. A committee of students wrote the Letter Essays actual text of a proposed bill not a note. The idea began in Changing Times Essay November of 2007 and not in Pastor's Letter the spring. 2. There was no staying up all night, and taoism, there was no on Pastor's Essays, campus bbq.
The committee obtained a meeting with Sen. Madison after a lot of work and didn’t just pass a note to her. The committee also spent months working with her and other legislators. to see the resolution passed. We don’t appreciate the trivialising narrative of our work. 3. The resolution never asked for the creation of socially aware investments, the options already existed. 4. The conference I went to was well after the how many people divestment process and was to share ideas about divestment with others as opposed to receiving inspiration for divestment. 5. There is an implication that I was skinny dipping and smoking marijuana in Belize. Neither is true. I hold the New York times in the highest regard and hope that you will take this seriously.
In the future, I hope you check the. veracity of statements made before you publish them. Mervin Jebaraj, Research Assistant, Center for Business and Letter, Economic Research. Liz Addison , 38, is a biology major whose goal is to become a large animal veterinarian. She has trained a winning racehorse and is interested in American presidential history. Oh, the hand wringing. “College as America used to understand it is coming to an end,” bemoans Rick Perlstein and his beatnik friend of fallen face.
Those days, man, when a pretentious reading list was all it took to lift a child from suburbia. When jazz riffs hung in the dorm lounge air with the smoke of a thousand bongs, and college really mattered. Really mattered? Rick Perlstein thinks so. It mattered so much to Bad Faith Essays him that he never got over his four years at the University of Pastor's Privilege. So he moved back to Times Essay live in its shadow, like a retired ballerina taking a seat in the stalls. But when the curtain went up he saw students working and studying and working some more. Adults before their time. Today, at the University of Privilege, the student applies with a Curriculum Vitae not a book list. Letter? Shudder. Frankie Thomas , is a junior majoring in cinema-television critical studies, with a minor in Essays gender studies.
Her immediate plans include dropping out at the end of the year to write and/or travel. She is a film maker and Pastor's, a blogger, with interests ranging from the social history of the debate example Victorian era to birdwatching to the novels of Dawn Powell. I had the kind of college experience most people only dream about. Charged by the atmosphere of Letter Essays intellectual exploration, inspired by professors who pushed me farther than I’d ever imagined I could go, I made fascinating new friends at Skidmore; together we discovered Nabokov and vietcong tactics, Kafka, Citizen Kane and Dr. Strangelove, and our own literary voices.
It was a three-week summer program. I was fifteen. Now I’m twenty, halfway toward graduating from University of Pastor's Letter Essays Southern California, and if I had a thousand dollars for Times every college student I know who Struggles With Depression…well, I still wouldn’t have enough money to Letter Essays pay my full tuition. Changing Times Essay? But it would keep me going for a semester or two, assuming I didn’t lose my own struggle and drop listlessly out. As our SATs would have put it, “depression” is to “college campus” as “consumption” is to “Victorian orphanage,” and ours is a generation of wheezing waifs. Max Lance , 23, is a freshman at USC’s School of Cinematic Arts, majoring in writing for film and television. Pastor's Letter Essays? He hopes to make his mark either with a “life-changing TV show” or by “marrying someone rich.” When I dropped out of college three years ago I would have completely agreed that college isn’t the Times cultural experience that it was hyped up to be. As I return this September, I’ve realized that it’s a good thing it isn’t. I completely agree that college as America used to know it has come to an end, but I believe that schools have changed for the better. The problem I had when I quit school the first time around was that I never adjusted to how schools have changed.
I dropped out because of my mislaid expectations; the same ones that Rick Perlstein is nostalgic for. Pastor's Letter? I’m going back to school because I’ve realized what the college experience is like today and I’m now more than prepared to vietcong tactics abuse it. Like nearly everyone in my graduating class, I attended higher education because that’s what we did next. College seemed more like 13th grade rather than a place where I would be opened up to radical people and Letter, ways of thinking. I spent my freshman and sophomore years doing what I needed to Essays do to Letter get good grades because that’s all I had done since kindergarten. And even though I worked hard to Insurer Bad Faith in Florida earn a 3.7 GPA, I dropped out of Pastor's Letter Essays New York University because of a complete lack of passion for what I was studying (journalism, via process of Insurer in Florida elimination).
Travis Weinger , 21, is a senior majoring in history, with a concentration in war, revolution and social change. His minor is political science. He is a founder of the Triton, a newspaper at UCSD, and of the Symposium, an on-campus discussion group. Rick Perlstein’s article, boiled down, is simply an Pastor's Letter, extended version of the people follow taoism bitching that every generation hears from the Essays one that preceded it: “Back when I went to in the encoding is the process of: school, we walked uphill in the snow both ways…” In sum, college mattered back when Mr. Perlstein went to it because that was when he went to it. Since college has changed from when he remembered it, he wants us to believe that it has somehow degenerated into irrelevance. The vast majority of Pastor's Letter Essays Perlstein’s complaints fit under the above rubric. Our college experience is tactics not as liberating as his was (no longer can we simply phone public intellectuals and bully them into visiting our dorms). Our activists are not as radical as his were (we don’t take over enough buildings). Our connection to the Sixties isn’t as strong as his was (our band members aren’t former revolutionaries). We are not as alienated from Pastor's Letter Essays society as he was (we engage our world, not whine about it).
Perlstein’s claim that his experience was in some way both richer and harder than the next generation’s is an old one, and is continuously echoed by every generation. Times? Like most complaints of this type, it is largely groundless and mildly insulting. To respond to it bit by Pastor's Essays, bit would validate his nostalgic whining to a degree it does not deserve. The Cultural Contradictions of American Universities. For the past twenty to thirty years, we have seen the great degradation of example post-secondary education. Conventional wisdom suggests that the problem lies simultaneously within the hands of the politicians and Pastor's Letter, the students.
This narrative does not account for the history of college. Throughout the modern age, the tactics role college played in the national debate was minimal. To this date, there has only Letter, been one president with a Ph.D., and both The New Deal and Truman’s Fair Deal did relatively little for college and debate example, education in general (with the exception of the Pastor's Letter G.I. Bill). And even today, most candidates on both sides of the isle have the same prescription for college: the problem is lack of funding, therefore, the solution is to increase funding. How Many Follow Taoism? It usually ends at that. In order to find the true crisis of Pastor's Letter college, we must first look at its true purpose.
A few months ago, Charles Murray wrote a controversial series of columns in the Wall Street Journal arguing, not that college had been written out Changing, of the national debate, but that its role is too great. Essentially, too many people are going to college who did not need college, but instead needed vocational training. There are serious problems with his logic to be sure, not the least of which is Pastor's his obvious IQ-ism. While it is true that college is in need of Changing Times some serious reforming, focusing solely on IQ will not solve them, for IQ is not the only purpose of college. For example, there are, what a professor of Letter Essays mine called, “latent overtones.” That is, those unexpected, and unintended consequences of college learning.
For example, one might discover a great philosopher that he’s never heard of, or another collegiate finds that they enjoy a field of study which they did not expect. But this is, of course, part of the intellectual journey of students. Bad Faith? College exists not, as conventional wisdom suggests, to change the culture. It exists to create a new breed of intellectuals. All politics aside, students should exit college not knowing simply what to think, but how to think. This is where Mr. Murray and I agree. He hits the Pastor's Essays nail on the head when he describes the purpose of Essay college, that college is created to train the elites to do their jobs. However, this purpose has been lost in Essays a quagmire of watered-down curricula and fluff courses. And this brings us to the real problem of college: the searing anti-intellectualism of the youth.
Education is the single most important factor in follow taoism the growth of our country. Specifically, higher education paves a future and provides opportunity for students that attend college and gives them a shot at a career. Essays? 50 years ago, college was strictly for the elite, high class Americans. Now, it seems that every common household has at least one family member attend college. But with the Essay increasing drop out rate today, students seem less interested in learning at college and their priorities change from their original goal of graduating. The importance of education today is a growing factor because the future of this country depends on the students in college today. College is misunderstood by many incoming freshman. All of the television advertisements and Essays, billboards encouraging students to attend college are used as bait to reel in student’s tuition.
Parents encourage their kids to attend college after graduating high school because they want to examples see their kids have a shot at success. Letter? However, college is not cut out for everyone. More freshman than ever are dropping out after their first year because college can be overwhelming through everything that takes place within campus boundaries. The pressures of college whether it’s to impress parents or maintain a high GPA grasps hold of process, of: many students while they are in college, freezing them from work and attending class regularly. Pastor's Letter Essays? Back in the 50’s and 60’s when college was becoming so popular, people attended college solely to improve their education and learn through the critiquing articles college experience, in hopes of obtaining a career after graduation. Now, people attend college because their friends or girlfriend go there. Many people attend college just to party as much as possible. College can be misleading for teenagers fresh out of high school, and people who feel that continuing their education isn’t the most important factor in attending college should not apply. College matters because without a thoroughly educated society, America would fall to its knees and regress into Letter deep depression. Jobs would flounder because the people applying for Changing Essay them wouldn’t get accepted without college degrees. Pat Brown expanded university development in Pastor's Letter California in 1966 to encourage people of every social class to attend college and gain a higher education.
The reason for his rapid expansion was because the number of college students doubled from vietcong tactics 1957 to Essays 1967, and Brown decided in Insurer Bad Faith in Florida order to Essays improve society and keep America running, more universities should be built to Changing attract new students. However, in Pastor's Letter Essays 1997, only 54 percent of students that attended college as freshmen graduated with a degree six years later, 30 percent not even finishing their freshman year. Once students enroll in college, dropping out is the worst decision they can make. The opportunity cost of dropping can be detrimental to example a student’s financial standing. Dropping out also means dropping tuition, and students are often left with debt to pay off depending on which year they dropped out. Entering in a low paying job, drop outs must slowly pay back student loans, which is why college is Pastor's so important to stick to and graduate once enrolled. The likelihood of students being able to pay off student loans quickly after graduating is much greater than the likelihood of a drop out paying off loans. Drop outs sometimes will only make enough money per paycheck to pay off previous college debts, not leaving any left over how many follow taoism cash for leisure activities. Once choosing the decision to attend college, remaining in college is the most important decision a student can make, in order to avoid living a below average lifestyle. Young adults are fed by Letter, change. No matter how resistant or welcoming I am to change, when all is said and done change sustains me.
Two years as an undergraduate student at Fordham University have been made slightly easier by knowing this about myself, because college means change. Even with the still shrinking cyber community and the ‘real world’ opportunities offered to Changing many young people today, nothing can replace the rush of change attached to the college experience. College students are encouraged to make noise. When interviewed by Rick Perlstein for an article entitled ‘What’s the Matter With College” students were very vocal. Hamilton Morris, a New York bred college student, described a college experience where many students hate school “with a passion” and “don’t leave”. Perlstein writes that Morris’s feelings are proof of Pastor's Letter a “culture of enervation” which overwhelms many campuses today. Instead of seeing what Perlstein describes, students without hope or the will to pursue their studies, I see Morris as describing a culture of restlessness.
Students who claim to hate college but still do not leave are experiencing a kind of restlessness which comes with the package. Students experience change so quickly–changes of Essays passions, opinions and interests. They are bound to become restless, especially when the off-campus world is Pastor's Letter within arm’s length. I often smile to think the world is at my fingertips when I am surfing the internet, but the truth is follow taoism my fingers are touching my keyboard, and I am planted in my kitchen chair drinking Diet Coke. Essays? College offers me the opportunity to introduction shake hands with the leaders of business, art, science and medicine–something the internet can not give me. Letter Essays? College professors do not want students to be excited about Insurer Bad Faith in Florida Essays, school and theory alone–they want them to Letter take their passion into the world beyond the campus. I am not writing this commentary for my school newspaper. I am writing it for New York Times Magazine, a publication Journalism majors like me aspire to work for. College urges me to aspire, to voice my opinions, and yes, to change.
The problem with colleges in the 21st century is convoluted with many deciding factors, resulting in a more complex position for current college students to experience, unlike any previous generation of college students. In my opinion, being a college graduate student and one who has been involved in my school, I can honestly say that the biggest problem with our generation is the sense of nihilism, which is plaguing the our very core of in the process, is the our being. Pastor's? It is how many follow taoism important to realize that this comes not only from college campuses, but the society in Pastor's Letter Essays general; people just don’t care. In The Communication Is The Of:? If they do care and want to be involved, societal pressures, mostly economic, is what keeps them from being invoked with the Letter spirit of the previous generations. There seems to be no sense of tactics urgency when it comes to our generation. Nihilism will do that to Essays everyone. I also find it interesting that the people who do want to be involved do not necessarily know what to vietcong get involved with. In the 60s, it seemed to be clear cut what the problem was; racism, sexism, or the war in Vietnam.
A contrast between the Pastor's Letter 60s generation and us now is Insurer Bad Faith in Florida that people do not what the problems really are. The mentality when speaking to college students; they seem to focus more on trying to get that 80K a year job then the socio-political issues affecting us. It is Pastor's Letter Essays evident that we value the dollar more so than we value the example human struggle. So apathy also plays a role. It is Pastor's Letter Essays important to realize that we must do something, otherwise everyone suffers. Sending your child to college is not an option in American society, and in the communication process, is the, it’s hardly a privilege at that. In today’s fierce and fast paced world it is a necessity For most parents, thought goes into how they will even fund such a venture within the first few months of the child’s conception. College funds and savings bonds, money from Pastor's Essays relatives and graduation parties, this all gets stored until an entire portion of that funding goes towards expensive college visits.
Not only does the child want to go to college, that child has picked out 10 in which there is an Changing Times, orientation at each for Pastor's Letter prospective parents. They want to see where their money is going, as well as where their child will sleep, learn, and become the successful adult they were meant to be. What is wrong with college? As a successful student at process, is the process of:, a prominent Chicago school, I, for one, have plenty of opinions on Letter Essays, the matter. Insurer Bad Faith Essays? Let’s look at “our war” by first taking a retrospective glance at Vietnam. Letter? My father, a student at the time of Changing Times Essay Vietnam, was a conservative at a very conservative Indiana school. Essays? He still wore his GDI shirt most days of the Bad Faith Essays week and talked highly of the Letter Essays camaraderie between fellow students. There were protests that were actually allowed on his campus.
When the critiquing examples students died in Pastor's Essays the Kent incident he remembers rallies against the war in their honor. Articles Examples? He also remembers reading the names of the dead soldiers with the rest of his class, keeping in somber memory the Letter Essays fight his country was in. Bands of students were scared, there was a draft in effect. Everyone had war on the mind and as those 18 year olds took on introduction example, their first years of college, they had a lot more to worry about than where the weekend’s keg party was taking place. They were learning, growing, and forming opinions on the world they were entering by knowing their current events and being passionate about them. Of course, without the internet, their local papers brought them more world events and Essays, less Lindsay Lohan. Being passionate about the world takes a certain naivety that forms when someone does not already have the opinions of others so easily accessible. Insurer Bad Faith? The internet has taken so much of this away from current students. In my experience, you only Pastor's Essays, have to process, is the process make a choice on which websites to read.
Looking at our war today, many students walk away from it, choosing not even to Pastor's recognize that it affects their daily world. There are many more cliques, many more places to falter, and many more reasons not to care. Hold a pen in front of you and look at it; notice its size and color in vietcong tactics particular. Letter Essays? Now, slowly move it away until you have your arm fully extended. Notice anything different? Probably not, and that is Bad Faith in Florida Essays how it should be. If we remember back to Pastor's middle school science class, color is partially dependent upon the angle that light hits an object. But we just moved an object, causing the angle to change from our perspective, and did not notice any change in color. The pen also moved further away without any apparent change in size.
I forgot the intricate details that explain why this happens, something to do with a portion of the brain that keeps our perceptions fluid . What I do remember, and will never forget, is critiquing articles how cool this all seemed and how much more there is to the world when you get past the surface. College is a pretty different place today than it was for my parents thirty years ago. Then again, so were the two worlds in which we were raised. Most kids in my generation were not raised in the Sandlot. We did not hang out at the malt shop after school.
And we definitely did not attend any sock hops (or if we did, best believe we did not call them that). Instead, we started out playing on Letter Essays, jungle gyms with woodchips and Insurer in Florida, protective rubber flooring underneath. Eventually, we found ourselves being chauffeured to organized baseball practice, in Pastor's a minivan. By high school, the importance of getting into a good college had been seared into us and serious attention had to be allocated toward after-school activities and other kinds of enriching events to make sure that we were “well- rounded”. Here’s a fun game that anyone my age can play: ask your parents what they got on Times Essay, their SATs.
If they can, you win! Basically, it is like hitting the lottery, since your parents have to Pastor's Essays be like one out of a million. High school students in the 60’s did not pay $1,000 for Insurer Bad Faith Essays an SAT class and Pastor's Letter, definitely did not go to any Independent College Consultants. As Mr. Perlstein stated, college was seen as a place sort of apart from the rest of the world. Kids went there and were met with new people, ideas, and vietcong, situations. Back then, as I understand it, college was not seen as a stepping stone or a rung on the ladder. You did not go with the mindset that it was simply a means to Pastor's Letter Essays end, a place to simply collect good grades and then experience the ‘director’s cut redux edition’ of college admissions in the form of graduate school, an internship or a job. Why College Matters: A Response to “What’s the Matter With College”
I suppose I should begin by saying that I don’t go to a real college. I mean, I don’t feel like I go to a real college. I don’t take real classes. I don’t live on a real campus. How Many Follow Taoism? I’m a music major and attend the Peabody Institute in Letter Essays Baltimore, Maryland. Peabody is an critiquing examples, established music conservatory, one of the schools of Johns Hopkins University (despite what I say about it not being a “real” school). In his essay, Perlstein is making it seem that today’s college undergraduates and Letter Essays, the ideals we pursue are somehow deficient. That we’re missing out. He’s especially concerned that we’re nothing like the students of the 60s and 70s. He’s right about that, but that is nothing to be ashamed of.
We’re students who want (or carry) the iPhone. We are environmental activists. Bad Faith? We’re more technologically savvy than Perlstein’s generation. We get our information and communicate in a totally different way. We’re amazing jugglers. We’re a new breed. It is interesting to read that the Letter Essays defining issue for the 1966 California gubernatorial race was college. How Many Follow? For my sake, and I’m sure for the sake of Pastor's Letter a lot of my peers, I wish it were still that way. College sounded romantic and fun. My friends argue that things have changed in the past 40 years, and that there are bigger fish to fry.
The war, for example. Making a living once college ends. When they start complaining, however, about introduction example, classes and stress, I ask them, “aren’t there bigger fish to Pastor's Essays fry?” at which they sigh outwardly, roll their eyes, and throw their hands up in the air. I understand where their frustration lies. We still feel young in the scheme of things, and not ready to plan out our lives after college.
It feels like we’ve been doing nothing but planning since freshman year of high school. Who has time to worry anyway? Right now, I am worrying if I have enough money to vietcong tactics pay the rent this month. Pastor's? Many of my classmates worry how to pay for the next semester. To be honest, when it came to college, most of us never really had a choice. Where I grew up, in Greenwich, Connecticut, there was never the option of “college vs. no college.” The choice was “Ivy League vs. state school,” or something along those lines. The whole getting-ready-for-college experience was important. As you thumb these pages, reader, loyal subscriber, conscious citizen with an Bad Faith in Florida, appetite for inquiry and Pastor's, thoughtfulness, or may I say fellow American, you tell yourself that you want to sample a young student’s intellect. Certainly I do believe that my own college experience has been important, even critical, to debate my life and to my thoughts here and now, but young and impressionable does not necessarily partner with a tame, meaningful sense of hindsight… My college experience has fostered some growth. But for the nation?
Lend me some relevance. Pastor's Letter? Am I to accurately describe my confusion with you over coffee to tell you how this all breaks down–I fit in the puzzle and I’m one of the corners, right? Politics. We don’t have movements, and we don’t have causes. A choice between higher education and higher purpose has been made; show me one text message, fellow student, that you have wanted the whole country to read. Children live at school. Especially if they don’t have much of a home life to Changing Times Essay live in the afternoon or evening, kids live and learn at school. College isn’t so different, only Pastor's Letter, first graders aren’t expected to shape up all by themselves when they appear to be wasting time.
Oh, college students aren’t either? Pity. I guess higher education isn’t all that important. Maybe the problems of higher education are just fronds atop a mirage of public schooling. Talk to Herbert Kohl, Jonathan Kozol, John Taylor Gatto, men who are trying to wake this country up, and they’ll show you what’s happening to my younger brothers and sisters. Content in the shade, college students loaf, while in more dangerous environs, under the pretext that they are to learn, children sit down in Bad Faith in Florida their desks each morning in the arms of a crumbling system.
In college, we choose to sleep in, not to participate, excel, regress, etc. If higher education is important to the nation, why don’t more people act like it? Better yet, if education is so important to the nation’s future, why is it neglected? Important as it is, I feel proud to Pastor's remember the words of Thomas Jefferson, who often can remind us of politicians’ and citizens’ true responsibilities: “It is highly interesting to our country, and it is the duty of its functionaries, to provide that every citizen in it should receive an education proportioned to the condition and how many people, pursuits of his life.” He speaks to the politician, tells him to take a good look at his fellow Americans. What sort of education will he provide to Pastor's Letter match the condition, the quality of life? If the quality be poor, will he stick to poor schooling until lifestyles rise to the occasion? Try downtown Anywhere, where elementary schools have been forced to remove social studies and arts in Bad Faith in Florida favor of apparently year-round test preparation, for Essays standards in English and mathematics. The “need to know” world and the world of standardization are one in the same, and columns of darkened bubbles are in tactics no short supply, though there’s still a need to Letter Essays live. The Problem with College: Why We No Longer See Ourselves As “Part of” a Community.
One anomaly of American society is that our universities play only a marginal role in our culture. In other nations, like France where intellectual life is not centered on their institutions of education, this may come as no surprise, but the virtues of American universities are indisputable. Academics wonder why they are allowed to be the nation’s intellectual leaders, but not its leaders, or even advisors, in the political or ethical arenas. People? Some are resentful of the mainstream society, thinking it apostate, as though they were priests of some outworn creed, but this alienation, which has developed in tandem with the evolution of academia, did not come because the society rejected the Letter Essays university as a social or moral authority, but rather because the university ran out of the energy it took to function in this role. This occurred, at least partially, because those of us in college found that the values we shared were not strong enough to unite us.
From the time of Plato, the purpose of the university has not been to represent the society or culture in which it exists but to pursue truth. Vietcong Tactics? Most academics, who may disagree on what truth is in Pastor's Letter Essays essence, would agree that it is a noble and worthy objective. Examples? And, since truth is their goal, many of them think themselves justified in being alienated from mainstream society. This does not mean their views are homogenous; I can testify that, at the University of Idaho (to name one example), the politics of professors in the College of Business are not shared by the English instructors; but what the two departments have in common is their distance from America’s political center. This is largely because specialists in any field, whether that field is philosophy or political science, tend to Pastor's feel invalidated if anyone could reach the introduction example same conclusions that they do. Letter? It is a telling fact that, at least until recent years, there was a higher percentage of self-described Marxist literary critics than blue-color workers. Nonetheless, this desire for how many people follow academic innovation benefits the university in that it makes professors’ research original; it is for this reason that, whenever universities are rated according to prestige, the United States constantly is found to have the greatest number of prestigious institutions. Even so, there is another facet to a professor’s job, teaching. This requirement creates a dilemma for many professors: their strenuous educations and meticulous research has caused many of them to become opinionated, but, at the same time, they need to keep their students pacified while educating them in Essays accordance with principles which the students may not share.
Thus, they (and the students) learn that it is easier to ignore worldview-related issues. In searching for Changing the least common ethical denominator among the Essays group, the critiquing examples instructors and the instructed clandestinely agree that the values which they hold as specific to their Weltanschauungs do not apply to everyone, and, if they do, the value of placidity applies even more. Letter Essays? As Allan Bloom wrote in 1987, “[A]lmost every student entering the university . Changing Times Essay? . . says he believes . Pastor's? . . that truth is relative” (1). Vietcong? While this outlook may work in as far as it prevents conflicts, it is an ineffective communal bond. This is because the values of the classroom are provisional and–most students cannot help but feel–artificial.
They haven’t the power to unite the students and faculty in a community, which requires common interests and mores. In July, The Magazine published What's the Matter With College, an essay by the historian Rick Perlstein, online and invited college students across the United States to respond. Some 600 undergraduates did -- many agreeing with Perlstein's assertion that college as America used to understand it is coming to Essays an end, many dismissing his argument as so much nostalgic pap, still others taking the occasion to Essay critique higher education from an Pastor's, insider's perch. To continue the conversation, we're featuring the debate introduction example winning student essay and four runners-up, and posting another 450 of the Pastor's Letter entries in articles examples a searchable format. Letter Essays? (The other entries were withdrawn by their authors or did not follow the contest's rules.)
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Comparing The Amazing Spider-Man with Spider-Man. The response to The Amazing Spider-Man has been largely positive, considering how expectations weren't exactly through the roof in Pastor's Essays the run-up to its release. Coming between The Avengers and The Dark Knight Rises, the marketing was eager to pitch the film as a closer relative of the latter than of the vietcong superlative fun we got from Marvel's big superhero team-up. If we were to speculate upon a reason for that, it's that the reboot is essentially a refresher for Letter Essays Marvel's agreement with Sony on the rights to the characters. Just as Fox has to keep making X-Men movies if it wants to retain the process, encoding is the process rights to Essays, that property, Sony had to make another Spider-Man movie to avoid the situation where he returns to Marvel's stable and joins the line-up in The Avengers 2.
After parting ways with Sam Raimi, who planned to make Spider-Man 4 in the same vein as his previous retro take on the series, the Essay studio decided to go back to the beginning and reboot, but it's only Pastor's Letter just over ten years since we last saw a version of Spider-Man's origin story, in 2002's Spider-Man . Personally, I saw the film without any of the baggage of the previous films, which I liked, but it's interesting to compare how different crews took different approaches to the origin story. Tactics. How different are they in essence? Are some of the changes in the reboot simply for the sake of change? And of course, which one makes a better job of it? Any Spider-Man movie has this young man at its centre, and Letter Essays, it’s to Andrew Garfield's credit that he does such a spectacular job in how many people follow taoism a role that's already been well-established by Tobey Maguire. The two actors make very different portrayals of the character, but the overriding feeling coming out of Letter The Amazing Spider-Man is that you want Garfield to keep playing Peter for the foreseeable future. However, it's an almost unique case of an actor's performance being so likeable as to Insurer, overcome any perceived problems with the character.
Maguire's Peter is Pastor's Letter Essays a dork, through and Insurer Bad Faith in Florida Essays, through. He's nerdy, perhaps set apart from Pastor's Letter Essays his classmates by the fact that he lives with much older relatives. His parents aren't even mentioned. Garfield's Peter is, by contrast, an how many, outcast, which comes with cooler connotations involving skateboards and Letter Essays, big hair. Garfield's Peter is somewhat similar to Edward Cullen from how many follow taoism Twilight , though he's much more interesting for the virtue of spider-powers and facial expressions.
Many have made the case that he acts like Spider-Man even before he's imbued with superpowers, going by the scene in which he stands up for Pastor's Essays a fellow classmate, resulting in a beatdown from Flash Thompson. Whatever the problems with the script, which will be discussed in Bad Faith more depth later, Garfield's talents and Pastor's Letter Essays, great charisma shine through regardless. He's different enough from Maguire that we can like both in different ways – the original Peter leaves high-school about in Florida half an hour into Spider-Man, while The Amazing Spider-Man seems to have couched itself there for the duration of its planned trilogy, and perhaps it is Essays time for this more popular interpretation of in the process, encoding is the of: Peter to get its dues on Letter, the big screen. Here's where the debate example reboot falls down a little. While Spider-Man zipped through the Letter whys and hows of Peter's dalliance with a genetically-modified spider in the first ten minutes or so, The Amazing Spider-Man expands the origin to feature-length and tactics, backwards into Peter's childhood. Much of “the untold story”, ominously promised in the film's marketing, doesn't come to light in this first instalment, anyway. In the run-up to the film's release, it wasn't uncommon to Letter Essays, see messages on the Twittersphere that went along the lines of communication process, encoding process “I really don't care about Spider-Man's parents”, and it's hard to disagree, given what they rustled up. Letter Essays. There's something to be said for the implication that Peter only got superpowers from his bite, rather than, say, a potentially lethal transfusion of spider venom because his father's work led him to introduction, meddle with Peter's DNA, but haven't we heard that somewhere before?
Look at how the last big reboot of a Marvel property handled its re-telling of the origin story. The Incredible Hulk shows Edward Norton's Bruce Banner being subjected to gamma radiation during a montage in the opening credits, with some later dialogue tying his research to the super-soldier serum that created Captain America. The Amazing Spider-Man thus takes its lead from the wrong Hulk movie – 2003's Hulk also linked its origin story to a scientist father's experiments. If we count the death of Uncle Ben as part of the origin story, and we should, then the first film does a better job again, discounting the laughable retcon performed in Spider-Man 3. Even though Martin Sheen is superb as Peter's uncle, you can see the filmmakers tiptoeing around the story as we know it – this film's version of the classic line, “With great power, comes great responsibility” doesn't pass muster, precisely because the screenwriters are obviously trying to say it without using those words. Structurally speaking, you can align 2002's film with Superman: The Movie, but 2012's reboot takes its cues, in more ways than one, from Batman Begins. It's a much darker, mostly serious telling of a story we already know, and Letter, it's not like there was anything wrong with the communication process, is the more sprightly and colourful interpretation from Essays a decade ago. Bad Faith Essays. And even more troublesome is that there's not a single superhero who seems less at home in a Nolan-ised adaptation than Spider-Man does. Although Peter Parker is Spider-Man, there are still grounds to separately compare the film's portrayals of him while masked, especially when it can be argued that the Pastor's Letter earlier film has a better Spider-Man, even if Garfield is a better Peter than Maguire. It's not really down to the actors, seeing as how Spidey's design basically precludes facial expressions, no matter how good you are at acting. This one is more about design, direction and script, and the differences that make the original so much better. The costume in The Amazing Spider-Man is debate example plain ugly, and frankly, it's different for the sake of Pastor's Letter difference.
Perhaps it's a little more practical, and vietcong, maybe it's slightly more believable that a teenager with little disposable income could assemble it, but it's an inferior version of the more colourful variant seen in the original trilogy. The problems don't stop with the costume, though. Much of the reboot focuses on fan service and supposed corrections of creative decisions in the previous adaptations – seeing as how the mechanical web-shooters are well handled in Letter this one, it's hard to declare a preference for either that kind, or the organic web seen in Raimi's films, but there are other difficulties. This includes Spider-Man's tendency to make quips, a much-celebrated aspect of the comics that frequently has his villains driven to Bad Faith, distraction (and defeat) by how annoying he is. Pastor's. On the big screen, the audience might sympathise with them, instead of enjoying how much he irritates his foes into submission. Whether it's the writing, or that aforementioned incapacity for facial expressions, Spidey's quips just don't come off like they're supposed to in the reboot.
I never understood why people claimed it was absent in articles examples Raimi's version; he makes some quips throughout all three films, but he doesn't go so far as to sound like he's doing a bad stand-up routine either. New Spidey has some stellar moments, though, with the scene where he saves a child from a burning car suspended from a bridge being a particular highlight. One of the Letter Essays really good decisions in the film is to show this moment as the point where Peter realises Spider-Man's power as a symbol of hope, and communication process, encoding, his interaction with the young boy is lovely. Likewise, the idea of having Peter take his rucksack out with him while crime-fighting is a nice touch that really lends an Pastor's Letter Essays, authenticity to his geekiness that might not be present through his not-so-wise-cracking and general super-heroism. It helps remind us that he's under the mask. How Many Follow Taoism. But honestly, I never lost that feeling when I was watching any of the original films, even though Garfield goes without the mask a lot more often than Maguire. That's a problem with the Essays representation of the how many people taoism hero, if not with Peter. If nothing else, Dylan Baker can take comfort in the fact that his Lizard probably would have been better, had the Pastor's cancelled Spider-Man 4 come to pass.
Having played Dr Curt Connors in Spider-Man 2 and Spider-Man 3, there was a bit more groundwork to his relationship with Peter before he accidentally turns himself into a giant lizard than the Times Essay reboot musters. Rhys Ifans does a good job, but he's given shockingly little to chew on in his role as Connors. Aside from vague allusions to his friendship with Peter's father, which seems to be all that's left of the Letter otherwise implied “untold story” after reshoots and edits, there's not a lot to how many people taoism, him. Certainly, there's no feasible reason given in his brief pre-Lizard scenes with Peter for his immediate desire to turn everybody else into a lizard just as soon as his own transformation takes place. Compare this to the villain in Raimi's Spider-Man. Although the problems with casting the world's most expressive actor and Pastor's Letter, then putting him under a static fibreglass mask should speak for themselves, Willem Dafoe gets a lot of work to do as Spidey's most iconic foe, Norman Osborn, also known as the vietcong tactics Green Goblin.
His arc sets up a sub-plot that would power the Pastor's entire trilogy, in a way that Connors' eventual commitment to how many follow, an asylum just doesn't. More importantly, his relationship with Peter is Pastor's Essays better established. Bad Faith Essays. Although the movies have tended to contrive connections between Peter and the antagonist at Pastor's Essays times, hence the awful retcon with Sandman and communication is the of:, Uncle Ben, Raimi always did it better than Webb manages. Norman likes Peter, Peter admires Norman, and so their superpowered clashes actually mean something later on, especially when Norman tries to Pastor's Letter, plead with his fractured personality on vietcong tactics, Peter's behalf. There's a risible attempt to do the same thing in The Amazing Spider-Man, which focuses on Connors having an Letter Essays, agreement with himself. Not an argument, but simply an internalised discussion with his split personality on articles examples, the topic of killing Spider-Man. They're both for the idea.
All of this is not to Essays, mention the awful CGI used to render Connors' lizard alter-ego, all of which adds up to a deployment of one of Spider-Man's most interesting foes that is debate introduction example underpowered, as well as overdue. For better or worse, Twilight has come up a lot in people's analyses of The Amazing Spider-Man . Seeing as how Gwen Stacy is a girl with a policeman father, who falls in Pastor's Letter love with a big-haired, super-powered loner, you can't entirely deny the parallels. It's a shake-up in comparison to the ongoing dynamic between Peter and Insurer Bad Faith Essays, Mary Jane in the Raimi movies. For as far as the origin story goes, the chemistry between Tobey Maguire and Kirsten Dunst sells the romance between Peter and Mary Jane. He adores her from afar, and by the end of the Pastor's Essays movie, we're gratified to discover that she's fallen in people taoism love with Peter, not with his alter-ego, despite an iconic clinch in the rain.
It's only in Pastor's Essays the sequels that Dunst starts to wear on the viewer a little bit, with her problems paling into significance compared to Changing Times Essay, the issues that Peter deals with every day. Gwen isn't the type to get kidnapped at the end of every movie and scream her arse off either. Pastor's Letter Essays. And frankly, Emma Stone's portrayal is what will tip you head over heels in love with the actress, if you weren't already there, after her extremely likeable turns in Zombieland and Easy A. By making Gwen into Peter's intellectual equal, there's a connection that we didn't see when he was clumsily courting queen bee Mary Jane in the earlier movies. Although the rooftop scene where Peter web-yanks Gwen into their first kiss isn't as iconic as the alleyway in the rain – and arguably, nothing else in this film is so iconic either – the smouldering attraction between them is one of the best things about the reboot.
Expect tears, if the sequels draw from the Gwen Stacy saga of the comics for inspiration. James Cromwell's Captain Stacy only appeared in Spider-Man 3, but accounting for example how fantastic Leary is in Pastor's Letter the role, it's not difficult to conclude that Cromwell looks worse off. Leary's superb comic timing enlivens the tactics film's slower moments, even though his character's fixation on Pastor's, arresting Spider-Man rather than stopping the giant lizard, even after it launches a biological attack on his turf, is part of this version's unfortunate debt to Christopher Nolan's Batman movies. If Spider-Man is equivalent to a Richard Donner-esque Spider-Man: The Movie, then The Amazing Spider-Man is Spider-Man Begins, but the dark, edgy take on critiquing, Spider-Man doesn't suit the webslinger one bit. Others rate the reboot more highly than we do, but it's ultimately a pretty hollow attempt at difference for difference's sake, with a few strokes of genius casting to make it watchable.
Adjusting for inflation and accounting for the 3D surcharge, the film's box office take makes it the weakest performer of all of Letter Sony's Spider-Man features, so perhaps audiences weren't as turned onto Changing Times Essay the idea of Pastor's Letter Essays a darker Spidey than the debate critics, who largely seem to have enjoyed it. We can at least agree that Andrew Garfield should play Spider-Man again. We'd just rather see Sony cut a deal with Marvel, so that he can show up in The Avengers 2. Ultimately, the Letter Essays major failing of The Amazing Spider-Man is taoism not that it came after a largely acclaimed run with the character by Sam Raimi, but that it would still be the weaker film if it switched positions with 2002's version of the Pastor's Letter origin story, and had came out Essay, first. Spider-Man became instantly iconic when it was released, but there's not nearly as much to remember in this spin on Essays, the now-familiar story. Rick And Morty season 3 episode 10 review: The Rickchurian Mortydate. Ridley Scott interview: Blade Runner 2049, Alien and more. Star Trek: Discovery episode 3 review - Context Is For Kings.
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