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AQA A2 Biology Synoptic Essay Titles Someone help?! Watch. Was just wondering if there is ellen fien a set number of Taxes: Distributional Effects Essays, possible essay titles for the june exam? Or do they make a new one up every year? totally stressing about fien, this exam already! span Follow 1 follower 0 badges Send a private message to pet planet uk HELPIMSTUCK. • How the ellen structure of cells is globalisation definition related to fien their function. • The structure and Taxes: Distributional Essays functions of ellen fien, carbohydrates. Distributional Essays. • How bacteria affect human lives. • The biological importance of water. • The ways in which different species of organisms differ from ellen, each other. • Describe how the globalisation sociology structures of ellen, different polymers are related to their. Pet Planet Uk. • Why offspring produced by the same parents are different in appearance. Ellen. • The importance of analysis, hydrogen bonds in ellen fien living organisms. • The movement of pet planet uk, substances within living organisms. Ellen. • How the structure of proteins is Disorder related to their functions. • The process of osmosis and ellen fien its importance to living organisms. • Energy transfers which take place inside living organisms.
• Inorganic ions include those of sodium, phosphorus and dialogue analysis hydrogen. Fien. Describe how these and sociology other inorganic ions are used in living organisms. Ellen. We have a brilliant team of more than 60 Support Team members looking after discussions on The Student Room, helping to make it a fun, safe and useful place to on death hang out. Fien. 0 new posts Suggested Extra-curricular Activities To Develop Soft Skills Started by: AmmarTa Forum: Career sectors and globalisation sociology graduate employment Replies: 0 Last post: 1 minute ago Personal statement problem: I never had extra-cullicular activities or a job. Ellen. Started by: Caeri Forum: Personal Statement Advice Replies: 7 Last post: 1 minute ago Simultaneous equation and globalisation definition graphs Started by: FuryBall Forum: Maths Replies: 1 Last post: 1 minute ago St.
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Free Online Strategy Innovation Training | businessballs.com. Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and tools - how to ellen write a business plan, techniques for writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and why is, sales plans. Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Table of contents. 1. business plans and marketing strategy. business plans and marketing strategy. free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and tools - how to ellen fien write a business plan, techniques for pet planet uk, writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and sales plans. Here are tips, examples, techniques, tools and a process for writing business plans to produce effective results. This free online guide explains how to write a marketing or business strategy, a basic business plan, and a sales plan, using free templates, tools and examples, such as SWOT Analysis, PEST Analysis, the 'Ansoff Matrix' and the 'Boston Matrix'. Separately the marketing guide offers more specific explanation and ellen fien, theories and tools for marketing strategy and marketing planning, including techniques and tips for advertising, public relations (PR), press and media publicity, sales enquiry lead generation, advertising copy-writing, internet and website marketing, etc.
The sales training guide offers detailed theories and methods about on death, sales planning and selling, extending to cold calling and negotiation skills and techniques, especially relating to selling. Sometimes people use the term business plan when they are referring to a project. It may or may not be appropriate to use the term 'business planning' for a project. Some projects are very substantial and ellen, equate to Taxes: an autonomous (independent) business activity, in ellen fien, which case a business plan is pet planet uk, entirely appropriate. Other projects are smaller, perhaps limited to internal change or development, and fien, are less likely to require a conventional business plan, and are quite adequately planned and managed via project management methods. Business planning terminology can be confusing because much of it is Autism Spectrum Disorder, used very loosely, and ellen, can mean different things.
Here is Autism Essay, a way to understand it better: Terminology in business planning is fien, often used very loosely. When people talk and Spectrum, write about business planning different terms may mean the ellen fien same thing, and a single term can mean different things. The term 'business planning' itself covers all sorts of different plans within a business, or potentially within a non-commercial organization. The words 'strategy' and 'strategic' arise often in Distributional, the subject of buisness planning, although there is no actual difference between a 'business plan' and a 'strategic business plan'.
Every business plan is arguably 'strategic'. Everyone involved in planning arguably adopts a 'strategic' approach. Most businesses and plans are primarily driven or determined by market needs and aims . This increasingly applies to many non-commercial activities (government services, education, health, charities, etc), whose planning processes may also be described as 'business planning', even though such organizations may not be businesses in ellen fien, the way we normally imagine. Autism Disorder? In such non-commercial organizations, 'business planning' might instead be called 'organizational planning', or 'operational planning', or 'annual planning' or simply 'planning'. Essentially all these terms mean the same, and increasingly the tendency is for 'business planning' to become a generic (general) term to refer to them. I should clarify that finance is ellen, of course a major and unavoidable aspect of why is the resurrection so important, business and organizational activities, but in terms of planning, finance is fien, a limiting or enabling factor; finance is a means to an end, or a restriction; finance in itself is globalisation, not a basis for ellen, growth or strategy. Definition? Markets/customers, product/service development, and sales, provide the fien only true basis for businesses to define direction, development, growth, etc., and thereby business strategy and planning.
Business planning always starts with or revisits the basic aim or need to on death provide products or services to customers - also called a market or 'market-place'. Consequently business plans tend first to look outwards, at a market, before they look inwards, at finance and production, etc. This means that most business plans are driven by ellen fien marketing, since marketing is the function which addresses market opportunity and socrates, need, and how to fulfil it. Marketing in this sense is also called 'marketing strategy' - or more broadly 'business strategy'. In many simple, small, and/or old traditional businesses, 'marketing' is often seen instead to be 'sales' or 'selling' (usually because in such businesses selling is the only marketing activity), in which case a 'sales plan' may be the main driver of ellen fien, strategy and the business plan. Many people use the words 'sales' or 'selling' and 'marketing' to mean the same thing - basically selling products or services to customers, in the broadest sense. In fact, marketing refers to much wider issues than sales and Effects Essays, selling. Marketing involves the strategic planning of a business (or other organizational provider) through to every aspect of customer engagement, including market reserach, product development, branding, advertising and promotion, methods of selling, customer service, and extending to the acquisition or development of new businesses. Sales or selling is an activity within marketing, referring to the methods and processes of communicating and agreeing and completing the transaction (sale) with the fien customer.
Given all this, it is hopefully easier to understand why, depending on a person's role or standpoint or the department in why is, which they work, 'business planning' may be referrred to in many and various ways, for example as 'sales planning', 'marketing planning', 'strategic planning', etc., and that all these terms might mean slightly different things, according to the situation. If there is a technically correct definition of 'business planning', then perhaps we can best say that 'business planning' refers to the plan of the overall organization, or to a unit or division within an organization with responsibility for a trade or profit. A business plan technically contains and reflects the individual plans for the different functions within the ellen fien whole operation, each of which may have its own detailed 'business plans', which might be called business plans, or more correctly departmental or functional plans according to their purpose, such as a marketing plan, sales plan, production plan, financial plan, etc. Additional help regarding terminology is offered by the business planning definitions below. Other definitions and definition sociology, explanations are offered in the business glossary, and in the shorter glossaries of the sales and fien, marketing sections. Terminology will be further explained to clarify meaning and avoid confusion throughout this article. Approached correctly, writing business plans and marketing strategy is usually simpler than first seems. Business planning may seem complex and daunting but mostly it is common sense. Marketing strategy - which often drives the aims and 'shape' of a business plan - is mostly common sense too.
Business plans, and the strategy which drives them, are based on melian, logic, or cause and effect : I want to achieve a certain result - so what will cause this to happen? Even the biggest business plan is effectly built on a collection of lots of causes and effects. A written business plan provides the fien narrative (explanation) of the numbers contained in a spreadsheet. When we see lots of Distributional, numbers in a computer spreadsheet we can forget this, but the numbers are merely a reflection of ellen fien, scale and socrates, detail, and of computerised calculations and fien, modelling, etc. In fact often when we are confronted with a complex planning spreadsheet containing thousands of definition, numbers, what we are actually being offered is a ready-made planning tool. In many cases, where business planning is a continuation of an ongoing situation, the most frightening spreadsheets can provide a very easy template for ellen, future plans, especially with a little help from on death a colleague in the acciounts department who understands how it all works. Ironically, a blank sheet of fien, paper - in other words a 'new business start-up' - is usually a much more challenging starting point. It is generally more difficult to write a business plan for a start-up business (a new business) than for an existing business.
This is because an existing business usually has computerised records of the globalisation definition results of past activities and fien, trading (usually called 'accounts'). Socrates On Death? Spreadsheets are usually available showing previous years plans and actual results, which can be used as a template on ellen, which new plans can easily be overlaid. Writing a new business plan for the continuation or development of such an existing situation obviously enables much of the definition sociology planning to be based on existing figures, ratios, statistics, etc. New business start-up situations by their nature tend to ellen fien have no previous results, so we often refer to this sort of planning as 'starting with a blank sheet of paper'. New business start-ups - especially if you are the why is so important owner or entrepreneur - present bigger planning challenges in some respects because we have no previous records to act as a guide, but in other respects they offer wonderful opportunities to create genuinely innovative and exciting founding principles - your own new business philosophy - on which your plans can be built and developed. On this page there is specific guidance for fien, business start-up situations. See the simple business start-up principles. Depending on the constraints applying in the planning for existing continuous business activities, the principles are very similar for definition, start-up and existing business planning. It's essentially cause-and effect, and using the fien computer to calculate the numbers. A slightly more detailed version is on the quick business/operational plan page. , and begins with.
To explore personal direction and change (for example for Disorder Essay, early planning of self-employment or new business start-up) see the ellen fien passion-to-profit exercise and template on the teambuilding exercises page. See also the simple notes about starting your own business, which to an extent also apply when you are starting a new business initiative or development inside another organisation as a new business development manager, or a similar role. Here's a free profit and loss account spreadsheet template tool (xls) for incorporating these factors and financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. Adapt it to suit your purposes. Taxes: Effects Essays? This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the Profit and Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the fien same.
Towards the end of this article there is also a simple template/framework for so important, a feasibility study or justification report, such as might be required to win funding, authorisation or approval for starting a project, or the continuation of a project or group, in a commercial or voluntary situation. If you are starting a new business you might also find the tips and information about buying a franchise business to be helpful, since they cover many basic points about choice of business activity and early planning. (Note: Some UK-English and US-English spellings differ, for example organisation/organization, colour/color. If using these materials please adapt the spellings to suit your situation.) how to write strategic marketing plans, business plans and sales plans. People use various terms referring to the business planning process - business plans, business strategy, marketing strategy, strategic business planning, sales planning - they all cover the same basic principles. When faced with business planning or strategy development task it's important to ellen clarify exactly what is Spectrum Essay, required: clarify what needs to be done rather than assume the aim from the ellen fien description given to it - terms are confused and why is the resurrection, mean different things to different people. You'll see from the definitions below how flexible these business planning terms are. a plan - a statement of intent - a calculated intention to organize effort and resource to ellen fien achieve an outcome - in this context a plan is in pet planet uk, written form, comprising explanation, justification and relevant numerical and financial statistical data. In a business context a plan's numerical data - costs and ellen, revenues - are normally scheduled over at least one trading year, broken down weekly, monthly quarterly and cumulatively. a business - an activity or entity, irrespective of size and autonomy, which is pet planet uk, engaged in an activity, normally the provision of ellen fien, products and/or services, to produce commercial gain, extending to non-commercial organizations whose aim may or may not be profit (hence why public service sector schools and hospitals are in this context referred to as 'businesses'). business plan - this is now rightly a very general and flexible term, applicable to the planned activities and aims of dialogue, any entity, individual group or organization where effort is ellen, being converted into results , for example: a small company; a large company; a corner shop; a local window-cleaning business; a regional business; a multi-million pound multi-national corporation; a charity; a school; a hospital; a local council; a government agency or department; a joint-venture; a project within a business or department; a business unit, division, or department within another organization or company, a profit centre or cost centre within an melian dialogue analysis an organization or business; the ellen fien responsibility of a team or group or an individual.
The business entity could also be a proposed start-up, a new business development within an existing organization, a new joint-venture, or any new organizational or business project which aims to convert action into results. The extent to socrates on death which a business plan includes costs and overheads activities and resources (eg., production, research and development, warehouse, storage, transport, distribution, wastage, shrinkage, head office, training, bad debts, etc) depends on the needs of the business and the purpose of the plan. Large 'executive-level' business plans therefore look rather like a 'predictive profit and loss account', fully itemised down to the 'bottom line'. Business plans written at business unit or departmental level do not generally include financial data outside the department concerned. Most business plans are in fien, effect sales plans or marketing plans or departmental plans, which form the main bias of Distributional, this guide. strategy - originally a military term, in a business planning context strategy/strategic means/pertains to why and how the plan will work , in relation to all factors of influence upon the business entity and activity, particularly including competitors (thus the use of a military combative term), customers and demographics, technology and communications. marketing - believed by many to mean the same as advertising or sales promotion, marketing actually means and ellen, covers everything from company culture and positioning, through market research, new business/product development, advertising and promotion, PR (public/press relations), and arguably all of the pet planet uk sales functions as well. Marketing is the process by which a business decides what it will sell, to whom, when and how, and then does it . marketing plan - logically a plan which details what a business will sell, to whom, when and how, implicitly including the business/marketing strategy. The extent to fien which financial and dialogue, commercial numerical data is ellen, included depends on Taxes: Distributional Essays, the needs of the business.
The extent to which this details the sales plan also depends on the needs of the business. sales - the fien transactions between the socrates business and its customers whereby services and/or products are provided in return for payment. Sales (sales department/sales team) also describes the activities and resources that enable this process, and ellen fien, sales also describes the revenues that the business derives from the socrates sales activities. sales plan - a plan describing, quantifying and phased over time, how the ellen fien the sales will be made and to socrates whom. Some organizations interpret this to be the same as a business plan or a marketing plan. business strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the ellen fien same. marketing strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the same. service contract - a formal document usually drawn up by the supplier by which the trading arrangement is agreed with the customer.
See the section on service contracts and trading agreements. strategic business plan - see strategy and business plan - it's a business plan with strategic drivers (which actually all business plans should be). strategic business planning - developing and writing a strategic business plan. philosophy, values, ethics, vision - these are the Effects fundamentals of business planning, and determine the fien spirit and integrity of the business or organisation - see the pet planet uk guide to how philosophical and ellen fien, ethical factors fit into why is the resurrection, the planning process, and also the principles and materials relating to corporate responsibility and ethical leadership. You can see that many of these terms are interchangeable, so it's important to clarify what needs to be planned for rather than assuming or inferring a meaning from the fien name given to the task.
That said, the principles explained here can be applied to business plans of all sorts. Business plans are often called different names - especially by senior managers and so important, directors delegating a planning exercise that they do not understand well enough to explain. For example: sales plans, operational plans, organizational/organisational plans, marketing plans, marketing strategy plans, strategic business plans, department business plans, etc. Typically these names reflect the department doing the planning, despite which, the planning process and content required in the document is broadly similar. Other useful and relevant business planning definitions are in fien, the business dictionary; the sales and selling glossary; some are also in the financial terms glossary, and more - especially for training - are in definition sociology, the business and training acronyms listing, which also provides amusing light relief if this business planning gets a little dry (be warned, the ellen fien acronyms listings contain some adult content). when writing a business or operating plan, remember. A useful first rule of business planning is to decide what you are actually trying to achieve and always keep this in mind . Write your aim large as a constant reminder to yourself, and to anyone else involved. Keeping your central aim visible will help you minimise the distractions and distortions which frequently arise during the planning process. An increasingly vital and perhaps second rule of business planning is to establish a strong ethical philosophy at the outset of your planning. This provides a vital reference for decision-making and the resurrection, strategy from the start.
A strong clear ethical code communicates your values to staff, customers, suppliers, and creates a simple consistent basis for operations which conventional financials, processes, systems and even people, do not address. It is very difficult to introduce ethical principles later into an enterprise, especially when planning shifts into implementation, and more so if problems arise relating to integrity, honesty, corporate responsibility, trust, governance, etc., any of which can have massive impact on relationships and reputation. See corporate social responsibility and ethics and the Psychological Contract. It is easy to address issues of ethics and corporate responsibility when you are the owner of a new enterprise. Fien? It is more difficult if you are a manager in someone else's company or a large corporation. Nevertheless ethics and corporate responsibility are highly significant in planning, and strong justification for their proper consideration can now be made. There are now plenty of recent examples of corporations - indeed entire national economies and governments - which have failed because of poor regard to ethical considerations. The world is changing and learning, slowly, but it is, and anyone ignoring ethics in planning today does so at Taxes: Distributional Essays, their own peril. A third crucial requirement for business plans is return on ellen fien, investment , or for melian dialogue, public services and non-profit organisations: effective use of fien, investment and resources, which is beyond simple 'cost control'. For the Taxes: Distributional Effects Essays vast majority of organisations, whether companies, public services, not-for-profit trusts and charities, all organisations need to be financially effective in what they do, otherwise they will cease to function . Ultimately - whatever the organisation and aims - financial viability is necessary to sustain any organised activity . While it's essential to fien manage ethical and socially responsible aspects of organisational aims , these must allow for adequate return on investment (or in less traditional and 'non-profit' enterprises, must allow for the effective use of investment and globalisation, resources , according to the financial requirements of the particular organisation). Remembering the need for financial viability is vital also because business planning is often done - rightly - to ellen fien achieve something new and special.
This tends to focus thinking on creativity, innovation, ambition, quality, excellence, perhaps even social good, etc., which can easily distract planning away from the Autism Spectrum Disorder basic need to be financially viable - and crucially not to make a loss. By treating return on investment as a vital requirement of planning we increase the likelihood that plans will be viable and therefore sustainable. Return on ellen fien, investment is however a variable feature of business planning. It is flexible according to the type of enterprise, its main purpose and philosophy. In a conventional profit-driven corporation return on investment (at an optimal rate) is typically a strong strategic driver for local planning and decisions, and by implication also a basic requirement of the the resurrection so important enterprise as a whole.
On the other hand, in a business or organization less focused on shareholder reward, such as a public services trust or charity, or a social enterprise or cooperative, return on investment (at a relatively lower rate), may be a requirement simply to sustain viable operations, according to the aims of the enterprise. In the first example, return on investment is the aim; in the second example, return on investment enables some other higher aim to be achieved. In more detail: In a traditional profit-driven corporation, return on investment tends to be the fien main requirement of any business plan and also the main aim or purpose or driver of the plan. Socrates? In most traditional corporations return on investment tends to be at the heart of all activities, since typically the corporation exists to maximize the yield (profit and growth effectively) of shareholder funds invested in the business.
Planning in traditional corporations at times forgets this basic obligation, especially when a junior manager is asked to 'write a business plan' for the first time. In traditional profit-driven corporations, when a new manager starts to write a business plan or operational plan for the first time (and for fien, some experienced managers also, for the umpteenth time), the manager wonders: What is the aim? What am I trying to achieve? Often when they ask their own manager, the manager has the same doubts. The central aim is usually return on investment . In businesses or 'non-profit' organisations where shareholder enrichment is not the main purpose, return on investment is less of a driver in business planning, but is nevertheless a crucial requirement . Such enterprises are becoming more popular, and will continue to Essay become so, since the collapse of the ellen fien western economies in 2008, and increasing disillusionment with old-style business thinking. Here return on investment is pet planet uk, not the ellen fien primary driver or objective of the business. Instead the main driver of enterprise may be some other purpose.
An example of pet planet uk, 'some other purpose' might be the activities of a social enterprise or cooperative, or maybe an employee ownership company, or perhaps a trust or charity, whose main aim is (rather than the traditional profit generation for external/institutional shareholders) perhaps to benefit its members/staff, and/or to sustain local jobs, and/or to benefit the local community, or maybe to advance science or learning or health, etc. Ellen Fien? Here, while return on investment may seem less crucial or appropriate to planning and operations, the socrates enterprise must nevertheless remain financially viable , or it ceases to be able to operate at all. In such examples, return on investment in ellen, business planning is not usually maximized, but must still be treated as an why is underpinning requirement to planning, and flexed according to the fundamental aims and financial requirements of the enterprise. Before planning, therefore, it is helpful to understand clearly: What are we actually aiming to fien achieve? What is melian, our policy/position on corporate social responsibility and ethics, etc - our philosophy?
And what return on investment (or alternative financial performance) does our activity/enterprise require - is this a strategic driver in fien, itself, or simply the means by which we maintain our activities in support of our (point 1) aims? The basic methodology of Distributional Essays, business planning is identifying causes and effects , according to your relevant business requirements (financials and ethics) and strategic drivers (what we are actually aiming to achieve). Here a cause is an fien input or action or resource; an effect is an Distributional outcome or result or consequence of some sort. We want to fien achieve xyz effect (for example a given return on investment, or a certain sales level or market share, whatever) - so what should we plan to cause this to happen? Commonly big cause/effect elements are broken down into why is, smaller activities, which also comprise a cause and ellen fien, effect. (The goal planning process and tools help explain how this subdivision works - where a big aim is broken down into pet planet uk, smaller more measurable and achievable parts). Junior managers have responsibility for plans and activities which feed into larger departmental plans and activities of senior managers. Ellen Fien? The plans and activities of senior managers feed into the divisional plans of executives and directors. There is a hierarchy or tree structure of cause and effects, all hopefully contributing to the overall organizational aim. In many good businesses a substantial business planning responsibility extends now to Disorder Essay front line customer-facing staff, and the trend is ellen, increasing. In this context, the Autism Spectrum Essay business plan could be called also be called a marketing plan, or a sales plan - all departmental plans are basically types of business planning:
What you are going to sell to whom, when and how you are going to sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales will produce, what the marketing and/or selling cost will be, and what will be the ellen return on investment. Where a department is Essay, a 'cost centre' not a 'profit-centre' - providing products or services internally to other departments rather than externally to customers - then the language and planning elements may alter, but the fien principles remain the same. Also, these principles and Taxes: Effects Essays, methods apply to very large complex multinational organizations, which tend to entail more and fien, different costs, fixed overheads, revenues, and consequently larger planning formats; more and bigger spreadsheets, more lines and columns on each, more attention and people working on Distributional Effects Essays, the numbers, more accountants, and ellen, typically - especially at middle-management level and above - more emphasis on cashflow and the balance sheet, alongside basic 'profit and loss' planning. carry out your market research, including understanding your competitor activity. 'The market' varies according to the business or organisation concerned, but every organised activity has a market. Knowing the market enables you to Effects assess and ellen, value and plan how to engage with it. Autism Spectrum Essay? A common failing of business planning or operational planning outside of the 'business' world, is to plan in ellen fien, isolation, looking inward, when ideas can seem very positive and reliable because there's no context and melian analysis, nothing to compare. Hence research is critical. And this applies to any type of ellen fien, organisation - not just to businesses.
See especially the guidance on pet planet uk, marketing as it relates to business planning. Planning very much concerns processes. The principles of marketing will explain additionally how to put meaning and fien, values into pet planet uk, what you plan. Your market research should focus on ellen fien, the information you need, to help you to formulate strategy and make business decisions. Market research should be pragmatic and purposeful - a means to an end, and not a means in itself.
Market information potentially covers a vast range of pet planet uk, data, from global macro-trends and statistics, to very specific and detailed local or technical information, so it's important to decide what is actually relevant and fien, necessary to know. Market information about market and Distributional Effects Essays, industry trends, values, main corporations, market structure, etc, is important to know for large corporations operating on a national or international basis. Ellen Fien? This type of research is why is so important, sometimes called 'secondary', because it is already available, having been researched and published previously. This sort of ellen, information is available from the internet, libraries, research companies, trade and dialogue analysis, national press and publications, professional associations and institutes. Ellen Fien? This secondary research information normally requires some interpretation or manipulation for your own purposes. However there's no point spending days researching global statistical economic and demographic data if you are developing a strategy for a relatively small or local business. Far more useful would be to carry out your own 'primary' research (i.e. original research) about the local target market, buying patterns and preferences, local competitors, their prices and service offerings. A lot of useful primary market research can be performed using customer feed-back, surveys, questionnaires and dialogue, focus groups (obtaining indicators and views through discussion among a few representative people in a controlled discussion situation). This sort of primary research should be tailored exactly for your needs.
Primary research requires less manipulation than secondary research, but all types of research need a certain amount of analysis. Be careful when extrapolating or projecting figures to avoid magnifying initial mistakes or wrong assumptions. Ellen? If the starting point is inaccurate the resulting analysis will not be reliable. For businesses of any size; small, local, global and everything in Essays, between, the main elements you need to understand and quantify are: customer (and potential customer) numbers, profile and mix customer perceptions, needs, preferences, buying patterns, and ellen, trends, by sub-sector if necessary products and services, mix, values and trends demographic issues and trends (especially if dependent on consumer markets) future regulatory and legal effects prices and values, and customer perceptions in these areas distribution and routes to market competitor activities, strengths, weaknesses, products, services, prices, sales methods, etc. Primary research is recommended for local and melian dialogue, niche services. Keep the subjects simple and the range narrow. If using questionnaires formulate questions that give clear yes or no indicators (i.e. Ellen Fien? avoid three and five options in multi-choices which produce lots of Taxes: Distributional Effects Essays, uncertain answers) always understand how you will analyse and measure the ellen data produced. Try to convert data to why is the resurrection numerical format and manipulate on a spreadsheet. Ellen? Use focus groups for more detailed work. For large research projects consider using a market research organization because they'll probably do it better than you, even though this is socrates on death, likely to be more costly.
If you use any sort of ellen, marketing agency ensure you issue a clear brief, and that your aims are clearly understood. Useful frameworks for research are PEST analysis and SWOT analysis. establish your corporate philosophy and the aims of your business or operation. First establish or confirm the aims of the business, and dialogue analysis, if you are concerned with a part of fien, a business, establish and validate the aims of your part of the business. These can be very different depending on the type of business, and particularly who owns it.
Refer to and consider issues of Effects Essays, ethics and philosophy, corporate social responsibility, sustainability, etc - these are the foundations on ellen, which values and Taxes: Essays, missions are built. Consider the Psychological Contract and the benefits of ellen, establishing a natural balance and fairness between all interests (notably staff, customers, the organization). Traditional business models are not necessarily the analysis best ones. The world is constantly changing, and establishing a new business is a good time to challenge preconceptions of fundamental business structure and purpose. A business based on a narrow aim of enriching a few investors while relegating the ellen needs and involvement of everyone else may contain conflicts and tensions at a deep level. On Death? There are other innovative business structures which can inherently provide a more natural, cooperative and self-fuelling relationship - especially between employees and the organization, and potentially between customers and the organization too. When you have established or confirmed your philosophical and ethical position, state the objectives of the business unit you are planning to develop - your short, medium and long term aims - (typically 'short, medium and long' equate to 1 year, 2-3 years and 3 years plus). Fien? In other words, what is the business aiming to pet planet uk do over the next one, three and five years? Bear in mind that you must reliably ensure the success and fien, viability of the business in globalisation, the short term or the long term is merely an academic issue.
Grand visions need solid foundations. All objectives and aims must be prioritised and as far as possible quantified. If you can't measure it, you can't manage it. All businesses need a ‘mission statement'. It announces clearly and ellen fien, succinctly to definition your staff, shareholders and customers what you are in business to do. Your mission statement may build upon a general ‘service charter' relevant to your industry. Ellen? You can involve staff in defining and refining the Spectrum Disorder Essay business's mission statement, which helps develop a sense of ownership and responsibility. Producing and announcing the mission statement is also an excellent process for focusing attention on the business's priorities, and particularly the ellen fien emphasis on customer service. Pet Planet Uk? Whole businesses need a mission statement - departments and smaller business units within a bigger business need them too. define your 'product offering(s)' or 'service offering(s)' - your sales proposition(s) You must understand and define clearly what you are providing to your customers.
This description should normally go beyond your products or services, and critically must include the way you do business , and what business benefits your customers derive from your products and services, and from doing business with you. Ellen Fien? Develop offerings or propositions for each main area of your business activity - sometimes referred to as 'revenue streams', or 'business streams' - and/or for the sector(s) that you serve. Under normal circumstances competitive advantage is increased the more you can offer things that your competitors cannot. Good research will tell you where the opportunities are to Spectrum Disorder Essay increase your competitive advantage in areas that are of prime interest to your target markets. Develop your service offering to emphasise your strengths, which should normally relate to your business objectives, in turn being influenced by corporate aims and market research. The important process in developing a proposition is translating your view of these services into an offer that means something to your customer. The definition of your service offer must make sense to your customer in terms that are advantageous and ellen fien, beneficial to the customer, not what is technically good, or scientifically sound to you. Think about what your service, and the manner by Disorder Essay which you deliver it, means to your customer. Traditionally, in sales and ellen, marketing, this perspective is referred to as translating features into benefits. The Resurrection So Important? The easiest way to translate a feature into a benefit is to add the ellen prompt ‘which means that. Melian Dialogue? '. For example, if a strong feature of a business is that it has 24-hour opening, this feature would translate into something like: We're open 24 hours (the feature) which means that you can get what you need when you need it - day or night. Fien? (the benefit). Clearly this benefit represents a competitive advantage over other suppliers who only open 9-5.
This principle, although a little old-fashioned today, still broadly applies. The important thing is to Taxes: Distributional Effects understand your services and proposition in terms that your customer will recognise as being relevant and fien, beneficial to them. Most businesses have a very poor understanding of what their customers value most in the relationship, so ensure you discover this in the research stage, and reflect it in your stated product or service proposition(s). Customers invariably value these benefits higher than all others: If your proposition(s) cannot be seen as leading to any of the above then customers will not be very interested in you. A service-offer or proposition should be an encapsulation of what you do best, that you do better than your competitors (or that they don't do at all); something that fits with your business objectives, stated in terms that will make your customers think ‘Yes, that means something to me and I think it could be good for my business (and therefore good for me also as a buyer or sponsor).' This is the first 'brick in the wall' in the process of business planning, sales planning, marketing planning, and thereafter, direct marketing, and particularly sales lead generation. write your business plan - include sales, costs of dialogue, sales, gross margins, and if necessary your business overheads.
Business plans come in all shapes and fien, sizes. Pragmatism is essential. Ensure your plan shows what your business needs it to show. Essentially your plan is pet planet uk, a spreadsheet of fien, numbers with supporting narrative, explaining how the numbers are to be achieved. A plan should show all the Taxes: activities and resources in terms of ellen fien, revenues and costs, which together hopefully produce a profit at the end of the trading year. The level of detail and Essays, complexity depends on ellen, the size and part of the globalisation business that the plan concerns. Your business plan, which deals with all aspects of the resource and management of the business (or your part of the business), will include many decisions and factors fed in from the marketing process. Ellen? It will state sales and profitability targets by activity.
In a marketing plan there may also be references to image and reputation, and to public relations. All of these issues require thought and planning if they are to result in improvement, and particularly increasing numbers of customers and revenue growth. You would normally describe and provide financial justification for the means of why is the resurrection, achieving these things, together with customer satisfaction improvement. Above all a plan needs to be based on actions - cost-effective and ellen, profitable cause and sociology, effect; inputs required to achieved required outputs, analysed, identified and quantified separately wherever necessary to be able to manage and measure the relevant activities and ellen fien, resources. quantify the business you seek from pet planet uk each of ellen fien, your market sectors, segments, products and customer groupings, and allocate investment, resources and activities accordingly. These principles apply to a small local business, a department within a business, or a vast whole business. Before attending to the detail of how to achieve your marketing aims you need to quantify clearly what they are. What growth targets does the socrates business have? What customer losses are you projecting?
How many new customers do you need, by size and type, by fien product and service? What sales volumes, revenues and contributions values do you need for each business or revenue stream from each sector? What is your product mix, in definition, terms of customer type, size, sector, volumes, values, contribution, and distribution channel or route to fien market? What are your projected selling costs and net contributions per service, product, sector? What trends and percentage increase in revenues and contributions, and volumes compared to last year are you projecting? How is Taxes: Effects Essays, your market share per business stream and sector changing, and how does this compare with your overall business aims? What are your fast-growth high-margin opportunities, and what are your mature and low-margin services; how are you treating these different opportunities, and anything else in fien, between?
You should use a basic spreadsheet tool to split your business according to melian dialogue the main activities and profit levers. See the simple sales/business planning tool example below. ansoff product-market growth matrix - strategic tool. A useful planning tool in respect of markets and products is the matrix developed by Igor Ansoff (H Igor Ansoff, 1918-2002), who is regarded by some as the 'Father of Strategic Management'. Fully titled the Ansoff Product-Market Growth Matrix, the tool was first published in ellen fien, Harvard Business Review, 1957, in definition, Ansoff's paper Strategies for Diversification. The Ansoff product-market matrix helps to understand and assess marketing or business development strategy. Any business, or part of a business can choose which strategy to ellen fien employ, or which mix of strategic options to use. This is a fundamentally simple and effective way of looking at strategic development options. Each of these strategic options holds different opportunities and downsides for different organizations, so what is Spectrum Disorder Essay, right for one business won't necessarily be right for another. Think about what option offers the ellen fien best potential for your own business and market. Think about the globalisation sociology strengths of fien, your business and what type of growth strategy your strengths will enable most naturally.
Generally beware of diversification - this is, by its nature, unknown territory, and carries the highest risk of failure. Here are the pet planet uk Ansoff strategies in fien, summary: market penetration - Developing your sales of existing products to your existing market(s). This is fine if there is on death, plenty of market share to be had at the expense of your competitors, or if the market is growing fast and large enough for the growth you need. If you already have large market share you need to consider whether investing for further growth in this area would produce diminishing returns from fien your development activity. It could be that you will increase the profit from Autism Spectrum this activity more by reducing costs than by actively seeking more market share. Strong market share suggests there are likely to be better returns from extending the range of ellen, products/services that you can offer to the market, as in the next option. product development - Developing or finding new products to take to your existing market(s).
This is an pet planet uk attractive strategy if you have strong market share in a particular market. Ellen? Such a strategy can be a suitable reason for acquiring another company or product/service capability provided it is relevant to on death your market and your distribution route. Developing new products does not mean that you have to do this yourself (which is normally very expensive and frequently results in simply re-inventing someone else's wheel) - often there are potential manufacturing partners out there who are looking for their own distribution partner with the sort of market presence that you already have. However if you already have good market share across a wide range of products for your market, this option may be one that produces diminishing returns on your growth investment and ellen, activities, and instead you may do better to why is the resurrection seek to develop new markets, as in the next strategic option. market development - Developing new markets for your existing products.
New markets can also mean new sub-sectors within your market - it helps to stay reasonably close to the markets you know and ellen fien, which know you. Moving into completely different markets, even if the product/service fit looks good, holds risks because this will be unknown territory for you, and almost certainly will involve working through new distribution channels, routes or partners. If you have good market share and dialogue, good product/service range then moving into associated markets or segments is likely to be an attractive strategy. diversification - taking new products into new markets. Ellen Fien? This is high risk - not only globalisation definition, do you not know the products, but neither do you know the new market(s), and again this strategic option is likely to entail working through new distribution channels and routes to fien market. This sort of activity should generally be regarded as additional and supplementary to the core business activity, and should be rolled out carefully through rigorous testing and piloting.
Consider also your existing products and services themselves in terms of their market development opportunity and profit potential. Some will offer very high margins because they are relatively new, or specialised in some way, perhaps because of special USP's or distribution arrangements. Other products and services may be more mature, with little or no competitive advantage, in which case they will produce lower margins. The Boston Matrix is a useful way to understand and assess your different existing product and Taxes: Essays, service opportunities: boston matrix model - product/service development. The Boston Matrix model (also called the ellen BSG Matrix, Growth-Share Matrix, and variations around these titles) is a tool for definition, assessing existing and development products in terms of ellen fien, their market potential, and thereby implying strategic action for products and services in the resurrection, each of the four categories reflected in the model.
The Boston Matrix model was devised by ellen fien Bruce Henderson (1915-92), founder of the Boston Consulting Group in the 1960s. It has been adapted in many ways. A simple version is shown here below. Like other four-part 2x2 matrix models, the Boston Matrix is a very quick and easy method for analysis, thinking and decision-making, while being unavoidably limited in its handling of subtlety and detail. Why Is? Often in ellen, business and strategic thinking too much detail is unhelpful - instead, clarity and socrates, ease of understanding are extremely helpful, especially in communicating ideas to teams and groups, in ellen, which circumstances the Boston Matrix is an excellent aid. cash cow - The rather crude metaphor is Disorder Essay, based on the idea of 'milking' the returns from previous investments which established good distribution and market share for the product.
Products in this quadrant need maintenance and protection activity, together with good cost management, not growth effort, because there is fien, little or no additional growth available. dog - This is any product or service of yours which has low market presence in a mature or stagnant market. So Important? There is no point in developing products or services in this quadrant. Many organizations discontinue products/services that they consider fall into this category, in which case consider potential impact on overhead cost recovery. Businesses that have been starved or denied development find themselves with a high or entire proportion of their products or services in this quadrant, which is obviously not very funny at all, except to the competitors. problem child (also called question marks or wildcats ) - These are products which have a big and growing market potential, but existing low market share, normally because they are new products, or the application has not been spotted and acted upon ellen fien yet. New business development and project management principles are required here to dialogue ensure that these products' potential can be realised and disasters avoided. This is likely to be an ellen fien area of business that is quite competitive, where the pioneers take the risks in the hope of dialogue analysis, securing good early distribution arrangements, image, reputation and market share. Gross profit margins are likely to be high, but overheads, in the form of costs of fien, research, development, advertising, market education, and low economies of scale, are normally high, and can cause initial business development in this area to Essay be loss-making until the product moves into the rising star category, which is by no means assured - many problem children products remain as such. rising star - Or 'star' products, are those which have good market share in fien, a strong and growing market. Melian? As a product moves into ellen fien, this category it is commonly known as a 'rising star'.
When a market is globalisation definition, strong and fien, still growing, competition is not yet fully established. Taxes: Distributional? Demand is ellen fien, strong; saturation or over-supply do not exists, and so pricing is the resurrection, relatively unhindered. This all means that these products produce very good returns and profitability. The market is fien, receptive and educated, which optimizes selling efficiencies and margins. Production and manufacturing overheads are established and costs minimised due to the resurrection high volumes and good economies of scale. Ellen Fien? These are great products and worthy of continuing investment provided good growth potential continues to the resurrection so important exist. Ellen Fien? When it does not these products are likely to move down to socrates cash cow status, and the company needs to have the next rising stars developing from its problem children. After considering your business in terms of the Ansoff matrix and Boston matrix (which are thinking aids as much as anything else, not a magic solution in themselves), on a more detailed level, and for many businesses just as significant as the Ansoff-type-options, what is the significance of your major accounts - do they offer better opportunity for growth and fien, development than your ordinary business?
Do you have a high quality, specialised offering that delivers better business benefit on a large scale as opposed to small scale? Are your selling costs and investment similar for large and small contracts? If so you might do better concentrating on developing large major accounts business, rather than taking a sophisticated product or service solution to smaller companies which do not appreciate or require it, and analysis, cost you just as much to sell to as a large organization. This customer matrix model is used by many companies to understand and determine strategies according to ellen fien customer types. Assessing product type is helped by reference to the Boston matrix model. There is a lot of flexibility as to what constitutes 'good' and 'not so good customers' - use your own criteria. A good way to do this is to devise your own grading system using criteria that mean something to the resurrection so important your own situation. Typical criteria are: size, location, relationship, credit-rating and ellen fien, payment terms, is the customer growing (or not), the security of the supply contract, the service and pet planet uk, support overhead required, etc. This kind of customer profiling tool and ellen, exercise is often overlooked, but it is a critical aspect of marketing and sales development, and of optimizing sales effectiveness and business development performance and profitability. Each quadrant requires a different sales approach. The type of melian dialogue analysis, customer also implies the fien type of sales person who should be responsible for managing the on death relationship.
A firm view needs to be taken before committing expensive field-based sales resources to 'not so good' customers. Focus prospect development (identifying and contacting new prospective customers) on fien, the profile which appears in the top left quadrant. Identify prospective new customers who fit this profile, and allocate your business development resources (people and advertising) to this audience. Consider also What are your competitor weaknesses in terms of sectors, geographical territory and Taxes: Distributional Essays, products or services, and how might these factors affect your options? Use the fien SWOT analysis also for melian, assessing each competitor as well as your own organization or department. Many organizations issue a marketing budget from the top down (a budget issued by the Centre/HQ/Finance Director), so to fien speak, in which case, what is your marketing budget and how can you use it to produce the why is the resurrection so important best return on investment, and to help the company best to meet its overall business aims? Use the models described here to assess your best likely returns on marketing investment.
The best way to begin to model and plan your marketing is to have a record of your historical (say last year's) sales results (including selling and advertising costs if appropriate and available) on fien, a spreadsheet. The level of detail is up to you; modern spreadsheets can organize massive amounts of data and make very complex analysis quick easy. Data is vital and will enable you to do most of the analysis you need for marketing planning. In simple terms you can use last year's results as a basis for planning and modelling the next year's sales, and the marketing expenditure and activities required to achieve them. simple business plan or sales plan tools examples. These templates examples help the planning process. Pet Planet Uk? Split and analyse your business or sales according to your main products/services (or revenue streams) according to the profit drivers or 'levers' (variables that you can change which affect profit), e.g., quantity or volume, average sales value or price, % gross margin or profit. Add different columns which reflect your own business profit drivers or levers, and to provide the most relevant measures. Do the fien same for each important aspect of your business, for example, split by market sector (or segment): And, for example, split by socrates on death distributor (or route to market): These simple split analysis tools are an extremely effective way to plan your sales and business.
Construct a working spreadsheet so that the bottom-right cell shows the total sales or gross margin, or profit, whatever you need to measure, and by changing the figures within the split (altering the mix, average prices, quantities, etc) you can carry out ellen 'what if?' analysis to develop the best plans. If you are a competent working with spreadsheets it is normally possible to assemble all of this data onto a single spreadsheet and then show different analyses by sorting and graphing according to different fields. When you are happy with the overall totals for the year, convert this into a phased monthly plan, with as many lines and columns as you need and are appropriate for the business. Dialogue Analysis? Develop this spreadsheet by ellen fien showing inputs as well as sales outputs - the quantifiable activity (for example, the numbers of enquiries necessary to produce the planned sales levels) required to Taxes: Essays produce the planned performance. Large businesses need extensive and multiple page spreadsheets. A business plan needs costs as well as sales, and will show profit as well as revenue and gross margin, but the principle is the ellen fien same: plan the detailed numbers and values of what the business performance will be, and what inputs are required to achieve it.
Here's a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for incorporating these factors and financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. Socrates? Adapt it to suit your purposes. This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the ellen fien Profit and Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). Taxes: Distributional? The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the ellen principle is the same. Consider also indirect activities that affect sales and the resurrection, business levels, such as customer service. Identify key performance indicators here too, such as customer complaints response and resolution levels and timescales. Internal lead referral schemes, strategic partnership activity; the ellen performance of other direct sales activities such as sales agencies, distributorships, export activities, licensing, etc.
These performance factors won't normally appear on globalisation sociology, a business plan spreadsheet, but a separate plan should be made for them, otherwise they won't happen. write your marketing plan or business plan. Your marketing plan is actually a statement, supported by ellen fien relevant financial data, of how you are going to develop your business. Plans should be based on actions, not masses of historical data. The historical and market information should be sufficient just to explain and justify the opportunities, direction, strategy, and most importantly, the marketing actions, methods and measures - not to tell the story of the past 20 years of why is the resurrection, your particular industry. What you are going to fien sell to whom, when and how you are going to sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales produce, what the marketing cost will be, and why is the resurrection, what will be the ellen return on globalisation definition sociology, investment. As stated above it is easiest and best to assemble all of this data onto a spreadsheet, which then allows data to be manipulated through the planning process, and then changed and fien, re-projected when the Taxes: Distributional Effects trading year is ellen, under way. The spreadsheet then becomes the basis of your sales and marketing forecasting and results reporting tool.
As well as sales and marketing data, in most types of businesses it is Taxes: Distributional Essays, also useful to fien include measurable aims concerning customer service and satisfaction. The marketing plan will have costs that relate to a marketing budget in socrates, the overall business plan. The marketing plan will also have revenue and gross margin/profitability targets that relate to the turnover and profitability in the overall business plan. This data is essentially numerical, and so needs also some supporting narrative as to how the numbers will be achieved - the actions - but keep the narrative concise; if it extends to ellen fien more than a half-dozen sheets make sure you put a succinct executive summary on Spectrum Disorder Essay, the front. The marketing plan narrative could if appropriate also refer to indirect activities such as product development, customer service, quality assurance, training etc., if significantly relevant to achieving the marketing plan aims.
Be pragmatic - marketing plans vary enormously depending on the type, size and ellen, maturity of business. Spectrum Disorder Essay? Above all create a plan that logically shows how the business can best consolidate and grow its successful profitable areas. The marketing plan should be a working and truly useful tool - if it is, then it's probably a good one. sample business plan, marketing plan or sales plan sample structure and example format/template. Keep the ellen written part of the business plan as concise and brief as possible - most situations and high-ranking executives do not need to see plans that are an inch thick. If you can make your case on a half dozen pages then do so. Globalisation Sociology? Particularly if your plan is more than 5-6 pages long, produce an executive summary (easiest to do when you have completed the plan) and insert it at the beginning of the document. If you need to include lots of reference material, examples, charts, evidence, etc, show these as appendices at the back of the document and make sure they are numbered and fien, referenced during the main body of the melian analysis plan. Each new section should start at fien, the top of a new page. Number the pages. Important plans should be suitably bound.
All business plans should be professionally and neatly presented, with no grammar and spelling errors, clearly laid out in an easy to read format (avoid lots of upper-case or fancy fonts or italics as these are all difficult to on death read). Your business plan contents and structure should be as follows: business plans structure - a business planning template. Title page: Title or heading of the fien plan and brief description if required, author, date, company/organization if applicable, details of circulation and confidentiality. Contents page: A list of contents (basically the sections listed here, starting with the Introduction page) showing page numbers, plus a list of appendices or addendums (added reference material at the back of the document) allowing the reader to find what they need and navigate the document easily, and to refer others to particular items and page numbers when reviewing or querying. Definition Sociology? Introduction page : Introduction and purpose of the plan, terms of reference if applicable (usually for formal and ellen, large plans or projects). Executive summary page: Optional and usually beneficial, this should normally be no more than a page long (or it's not an executive summary) - the pet planet uk key points of the whole plan including conclusions, recommendations, actions, financial returns on investment, etc., clearly readable in a few minutes. Fien? Main body of plan: sections and headings as required, see template below.
Acknowledgments and on death, bibliography/reference sources: if relevant (only required normally for very large formal plans) Appendices: appendices or addendums - additional detailed reference material, examples, statistics, spreadsheets, etc., for ellen fien, reference and not central to the main presentation of your plan. business plans - main body sections examples template. This sample template is socrates, typical for a sales/marketing/new business development business plan. (A business plan for a more complex project such as an international joint-venture, or the formation of a new company including manufacturing plant or other overhead activities would need to include relevant information and financials about the overheads and resources concerned, and the financials would need to show costs and profits more like a fully developed profit and loss account, with cashflow projections, balance sheet, etc.) Where appropriate refer to your position regarding corporate ethics and social responsibility and ellen, the Psychological Contract. Distributional Effects Essays? While these aspects are not mechanisms within the plan, they are crucial reference points. Define your market - sector(s) and fien, segment(s) definitions Quantify your market (overview only) - size, segmentation, relevant statistics, values, numbers (locations, people/users, etc) - make this relevant to you business Explain your market(s) - sector trends, eg., growth, legislation, seasonality, PEST factors where relevant, refer to why is the resurrection Ansoff matrix, show the strategic business drivers within sector and segments, purchasing mechanisms, processes, restrictions - what are the factors that determine customers' priorities and ellen fien, needs - this is a logical place to refer to analysis ethics and CSR (corporate social responsibility Explain your existing business - your current business according to ellen fien sector, products/services, quantities, values, distributor, etc. Analyse your existing customer spread by socrates customer type, values and products/services including major accounts (the 'Pareto Principle' or the '80:20 rule' often applies here, eg., 80% of your business comes from 20% of your customers) Explain your products and ellen fien, services - refer to Disorder Essay Boston matrix and especially your strategic propositions (what these propositions will do for your customers) including your USP's and UPB's (see sales training section and acronyms) Explain you routes to market, gatekeepers, influencers and strategic partners - the other organizations/individuals you will work with to develop your market, including 'what's in it for them', commissions, endorsements, accreditations, approvals, licenses, etc. Case studies and fien, track record - the credibility, evidence and proof that your propositions and strategic partnerships work Competitor analysis, eg., SWOT analysis of Disorder Essay, your own business compared to SWOT analysis of each competitor Sales/marketing/business plan (1 year min) showing sales and margins by product/service stream, mix, values, segment, 'distributor', etc, whatever is relevant, phased monthly, in as much detail as you need. Ellen? This should be on a spreadsheet , with as many different sheets as necessary to pet planet uk quantify relevant inputs and outputs. List your strategic actions (marketing campaigns, sales activities, advertising, etc) that will deliver the above, with costs and returns.
This should be supported with a spreadsheet, showing cost and return on investment for each activity. Tip: If the business plan concerns an existing activity, use the previous year's sales/business analysis as the basis for the next year's sales/business plan. Adapt as necessary according to your new strategic plans. other business planning and marketing issues. staffing and training implications. Your people are unlikely to have all the skills they need to help you implement a marketing plan. You may not have all the people that you need so you have to consider justifying and obtaining extra. Fien? Customer service is acutely sensitive to staffing and training.
Are all of the resurrection so important, your people aware of the aims of the business, its mission statement and your sales propositions? Do they know what their responsibilities are? How will you measure their performance? Many of these issues feed back into the business plan under human resources and training, where budgets need to fien be available to pet planet uk support the investment in these areas. You should formulate a customer service charter, extending both your mission statement and your service offer, so as to inform staff and customers what your standards are. These standards can cover quite detailed aspects of your service, such as how many times the telephone will be permitted to ring until the caller is gets an answer. Other issues might include:
How many days between receipt and response for written correspondence. Complaints procedure and timescales for fien, each stage. This charter sets customer expectations, so be sure you can meet them. Customers get disappointed particularly when their expectations are not met, and when so many standards can be set at arbitrary levels, think of each one as a promise that you should keep. Business-to-business customers would expect to agree these standards with their suppliers and have them recorded as part of their contracts, or as SLA's (service level agreements). Increasingly, large customers demand SLA's to be tailored to their own specific needs, and the process of developing these understandings and agreements is Essays, absolutely crucial to the maintenance and ellen fien, development of Effects, large contracts. Remember an important rule about customer service: It's not so much the failure to ellen fien meet standards that causes major dissatisfaction among customers - everyone can make a mistake - the biggest cause of upset is the failure of socrates, suppliers to inform customers and keep them updated when problems arise. Not being told in advance, not receiving any apology, not getting any explanation why, and not hearing what's going to be done to put things right, are key areas of customer dissatisfaction, and therefore easy areas for ellen, suppliers to focus their efforts to achieve and communicate improvements. A special point of note for businesses that require a strong technical profile among their service staff: these people are often reactive by nature and pet planet uk, so not good at taking initiative to identify and ellen fien, anticipate problem areas in customer service. It's therefore helpful to establish suitable mechanisms and responsibility to pick up problems and socrates, deal with them - a kind of trouble-shooting capability - which can be separately managed and monitored at a strategic level. Fien? Do not assume that technically-oriented staff will be capable of proactively developing customer service solutions and revisions to socrates SLA's - they generally need help in doing so from ellen staff with high creativity, empathy, communications and initiative capabilities.
establish systems to pet planet uk measure customer service and staff performance. These standards and the SLA's established for large customers need to ellen be visible, agreed with customers, absolutely measurable. You must keep measuring your performance against definition them, and preferably publishing the results, internally and externally. Customer complaints handling is fien, a key element: Measuring customer complaints is crucial because individual complaints are crucial areas to resolve, and also as a whole, complaints serve as a barometer for the quality and performance of the business. Pet Planet Uk? You need to ellen have a scheme which encourages, not discourages, customers to complain, to Taxes: Distributional open the channels as wide as possible. Most businesses are too defensive where complaints are concerned, preferring to minimise their importance, or to ellen seek to Distributional Essays justify and excuse them.
Wrong. Ellen Fien? Complaints are the globalisation sociology opportunities to turn ordinary service into unbeatable service. Moreover, time and ellen, again surveys suggest that anything up to nine out of ten people do not complain to the provider when they feel dissatisfied - they just keep their dissatisfaction to themselves and the provider never finds out there's a problem, even when the customer chooses to globalisation sociology go elsewhere. But every complaining customer will tell at least a couple of their friends or relations. Every dissatisfied staff member in the customer organization will tell several of their colleagues. Unreported complaints spawn bad feelings and the breakdown of relationships. It is imperative that you capture all complaints in fien, order to: Put at ease and socrates, give explanation or reassurance to ellen the person complaining. Reduce the chances of pet planet uk, them complaining to fien someone else. Autism Spectrum Disorder? Monitor exactly how many dissatisfied customers you have and what the causes are, and that's even more important if you're failing to deliver your mission statement or service offer!
Take appropriate corrective action to ellen prevent a re-occurrence. If appropriate (ie for large customers) review SLA's and take the opportunity to agree new SLA's with the customer. implications for IT, premises, and Taxes: Essays, reporting systems. Also relating to fien your business plan are the issues of: Information Technology - are your computers and communications systems capable of giving you the information and why is, analysis you need? How do you use email - is ellen fien, it helping or hindering your business and Autism Disorder Essay, the quality of service you give to your customers? What internet presence and processes do you need? How should your voice and data systems work together? What systems need to be available to mobile staff?
What customer relationship management (CRM) systems should you have? How should you consider all these issues to see the needs and opportunities? IT and communications systems increasingly offer marketing and competitive advantage to businesses in all sectors - make sure you know hat IT can do for you and for your customers. Premises - Review your premises and sites in light of fien, your customer service, distribution, and customer relationship requirements. Taxes: Distributional Effects Essays? Pay particular attention anywhere in your organization that your customers visit - the ellen impression and Distributional Essays, service you give here is critical. Reporting systems - If you can't measure it you can't manage it, and where finance and ellen, business performance is concerned this is certainly true. First you must identify and agree internally your key performance indicators (KPI's). Identify every aspect of your service or performance that is important - then you need to be able to measure it and pet planet uk, report on ellen fien, it, and where people are involved in performing to certain standards then the standards and Autism Disorder Essay, the reporting needs to be transparent to them also. How do you report on sales, marketing and business performance and interpret the results? Who needs to know?
Who needs to ellen capture the data? communications and ongoing customer feedback are essential. Having an open dialogue with your customers is vital. There's a double benefit to your business in ensuring this happens: You nip problems in Disorder, the bud and fien, stay aware of how you're performing. Your customers feel better about the service you provide as a result of the communications, or from the fact that the channel is open even if they don't use it - it's human nature. Try to devise a standard feedback form. It can double as a promotional tool as well if it's made available on a wider scale. The form can carry details of your mission statement, service offer and your customer service charter.
Consider carrying out a customer satisfaction and perceptions survey. Globalisation Sociology? There are many ways to do this on fien, a small or large scale, and valuable feedback is always obtained from customer survey exercises. tips for starting a small business or self-employment - for non-financial people. Some of globalisation definition sociology, us are not naturally inclined towards the ellen fien sort of detailed financial thinking that is required for traditional detailed business planning. If this is you, you'll possess other valuable capabilities that will be useful in your own enterprise, and you'll maybe find it helpful to use this alternative approach to globalisation sociology planning a new enterprise or self-employment. It can be stressful and counter-productive to try to use methods that are not natural or comfortable. If you are helping or advising others about starting their own enterprise or self-employment, the same principles apply. Fien? Not everyone is naturally good at business planning, but everyone who dreams of being self-employed or who wants to start and run their own independent enterprise is capable of doing so, provided they work to their strengths, capabilities and passions. People running successful enterprises come in all shapes and sizes, from pet planet uk all backgrounds, all ages, with skills, passions, and ellen fien, capabilities in socrates, any field you can imagine. Anyone can run their own business or be successful in self-employment given the simple determination to do so.
Business and enterprise is not just for stereotypical 'business-types'; the benefits and advantages of being your own boss are available to us all. Here are some pointers for people considering starting their own new enterprise, or for helping others to do the same. First, and especially if you are not clear of your own real strengths, or what direction to pursue, focus on using tools to understanding your own personality style and strengths. Then use this knowledge to imagine and realise how your natural capabilities can be used to best effect in fien, defining and providing your own services or running your own enterprise. The VAK and Multiple Intelligences tools on this site are helpful for this purpose. Socrates On Death? They assess people's strengths completely differently to traditional IQ or academic evaluations, which are extremely narrow and generally not relevant at all for people who want to be their own boss. Understanding personality is also useful since personality-type greatly influences the way that a person approaches self-employment or running an enterprise, and what sort of service or business to fien offer. The Resurrection? The Personality Styles page provides a lot of explanation about fien, this. Many people are conditioned by schools and over-cautious parents to under-estimate their own potential and capabilities, which is a big reason to take a fresh look at melian dialogue analysis, what you are good at, and to re-think and understand better the ways that your personality type tends to be successful in life and business. There are many ways to be successful and independent in life aside from building and fien, running a conventional business and adhering to conventional financial planning methods. The basic economics of becoming successfully independent in any sort of venture are actually extremely simple, and focusing on the following simple fundamentals (a process really) can help many folk turn your dream or an idea into a successful enterprise or self-employment reality.
It's usually easiest to pet planet uk think first of these factors in terms of daily, weekly or monthly numbers and values, and ellen fien, then to extend the figures to give totals for a whole year: 1. So Important? What's your product or service? (What's good/special/different about ellen fien, your products or service that enough people will buy it? And importantly is this something that you have a real passion for? All successful enterprises are built on doing something the owner enjoys.) 2. What does it cost to melian dialogue make/buy in/provide the product or service? (If you are buying and selling products or using materials consider the cost prices.
If the main resource is your own time then attach a cost to your labour that reflects your available time for the work and the wage you need to draw. Divide your required annual wage by the number of work hours available to you, and this is your notional hourly labour cost.) 3. What price will the ellen fien product/service sell for? (Ideally small businesses need a healthy profit margin or mark-up - doubling the cost is good if the Taxes: Effects market will accept it. A mark-up of less than 50% is cause for concern unless you are selling products in relatively high volumes or values. Price your products/services according to what the market will pay, not according to your costs. Take into account your competitors and what they charge and ellen fien, their relative quality.
Service businesses that use only the why is so important person's time are often very attractive and profitable because there is no added complication of ellen fien, buying and holding stock - hence why window-cleaning, sign-writing, repairs, gardening, decorating, tutoring, writing, therapy, training, coaching and consultancy, etc., are such good businesses for Taxes: Distributional Essays, people who prefer a simple approach to self-employment and enterprise. Consider the ellen fien effect of VAT especially for pet planet uk, 'consumer' businesses - ie., selling to the general public - assuming your business is or must be VAT registered. Private consumers of course are more sensitive to VAT than business customers who can generally reclaim VAT should you have to add it to your prices.) 4. Who will buy the product/service? (Identify your customers and market. Do you know this for sure? Test your assumptions: this is a critical part of the proposition and generally benefits from ellen more thought and research to confirm that a big enough market exists for your idea. Dialogue? Consider your competition - what are people buying currently and why will they buy from you instead?) 5. Ellen? How much/many do you need to sell in a year? And how many customers do you need? (This is a vital part of the proposition to Taxes: Distributional Essays confirm that the gross profit (the difference between costs of bought in products/labour and sales revenues) covers your/their financial needs (including a living wage and other fixed costs of ellen, running the enterprise.
Again remember the affect of VAT on your selling prices if applicable.) 6. How will people know about the service/product? (You need to understand what advertising/marketing/enquiry-generation is the resurrection, necessary - activity and cost. There is ellen, usually a cost for generating new customers, especially in the early stages of a new enterprise. Once the business is established, say after six months to a year, 'word-of-mouth' referrals are for Taxes:, some businesses all that is fien, required to produce new customers - especially those based in a local community, but virtually any new enterprise requires marketing at its launch. See the articles on marketing and selling.) 7. Does all this add up, and better still provide a cash surplus at sociology, the end of ellen fien, a year? - if so then it's probably a good business model. These basic questions represent the typical 'table napkin' business proposition that is the start of most businesses, including very large complex ones. People who dislike and are not fluent in detailed business calculations might find the above process a useful starting point when thinking about how to begin a new enterprise or a venture in dialogue, self-employment. If this is you, you are not alone: many visionary entrepreneurs can run a huge profitable business but have great difficulty putting together a proper business plan.
Hence many highly successful business leaders rely heavily on their financial directors to take care of the financial details, leaving them free to ellen fien get on sociology, with the business activity that makes best use of their natural skill, be it creativity, selling, service-provision, people-skills, technical skills, or whatever. Incidentally the above factors are the essential components which make up a basic Profit and Loss Account, which is the primary management tool for a business of any scale and complexity. Here's a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for extending these factors and financials into fien, a more formal phased plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. If in Taxes: Distributional Effects, doubt about this seek some help from an experienced business person or your accountant. Ellen? Adapt it to suit your purposes. The example PL trading plan is also available as a pdf. The numbers could be anything - ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same. company types and the resurrection, financial set up - quick guide. When you have confirmed and refined the basic viability of your business idea you can then begin getting to grips with the ellen more detailed aspects of forming the business itself. This necessarily includes deciding your type of business constitution - the legal format of your company - or 'company type' as it is why is the resurrection, often described. The Psychological Contract is increasingly significant within and relating to business constitution.
Small (UK) businesses are most commonly one of the following: sole-trader - essentially a self-employed owner - no limited personal liability - relatively easy set up and administration. partnership - essentially a group of self-employed partners/owners - no limited personal liability - easy-ish set up and ellen, administration, although ultimately dependent on the complexity of the company and melian, partnership. limited liability partnership (LLP) - as above, except that liability is limited to personal investments and guarantees. limited company (abbreviated to Ltd after the company name) - liability is limited to fien the assets of the Spectrum company - registered with Companies House and legally obliged to publish accounts. There are less common variations of ellen fien, limited companies, and other business structures and constitutions, for example: social enterprise - various structures including , trusts, associations and especially cooperatives - these are not common typical or traditional business structures, but social enterprises are growing in popularity, and will be explained in globalisation definition sociology, more detail on this website in due course. Meanwhile here is useful information about cooperatives. public limited company (plc) - not appropriate for ellen, small companies. Sole-trader and partnership companies are very easy to set up and administer, but the owner/partners are personally liable for all business debts and why is so important, potential claims, so good insurance cover (including professional indemnity and public liability) is ellen, essential especially if business liabilities are potentially serious. A limited liability partnership offers protection to melian analysis partners in terms of personal liabilities, in that liabilities are limited to the extent of personal investment and fien, any other guarantees.
This is considered to be too much personal exposure by many business people, in which case a limited company is the obvious alternative. A limited company exists in its own right - a tricky concept to understand for pet planet uk, many people - basically meaning that financial liabilities belong to the company (its shareholders, to the value of their shares in other words) rather than the ellen directors and Autism Disorder Essay, executives of the business, as would apply in a partnership. Limited companies ultimately offer more flexibility for large complex businesses but can be over-complicated and administratively heavy if all you want to do is run a local shop or landscape gardening business or modest training or coaching business. Whatever, consider carefully what type of company framework will suit you best. Once established it can be quite difficult to unravel and change if you get it wrong - not impossible, but a nuisance if you could have got it right first time with a bit of extra thought at the planning stage.
A good accountant will help you decide what is best for your situation from a legal and financial standpoint, although before this you should think for yourself what sort of business structure best fits your wider business situation, and especially your business aims and philosophy. Broad guidelines about business types are available from the UK Government business information Businesslink website. You'll need a business bank account. In fact it is a legal requirement of all limited companies to have a business bank account. Ellen? Shop around.
There are wide variations in services and costs offered by the different banks. You must also understand and organize the Taxes: Effects tax implications for ellen, your type of business. Before starting any business ensure also that you have the information and controls to account for and pay all taxes due. Helpfully to dialogue analysis learn more about this in the UK, most tax affairs are within the fien responsibilities of on death, HM Revenue and Customs - until they too change their name to something very silly. Ellen Fien? That said, the relevance today of HM (Her Majesty's) is a bit puzzling when you stop to think about it and Taxes: Effects, surely due for updating to the modern age. HMRC is another weird example of quirky UK Government departmental names and branding.
God help us all, our country is ellen fien, run by Autism Spectrum Disorder Essay alien wannabe noblemen from the ellen middle ages. VAT (Value Added Tax or your national equivalent) is an issue warranting serious thought if your business is small enough to have a choice in melian dialogue analysis, the matter. Beyond a certain turnover (?68,000 as at 2010) any UK business must register for VAT. Fien? Check the sociology HMRC website for the current position. Being VAT registered means you must charge VAT on all VAT-rated supplies, which means also that the ellen fien VAT you receive on payments from socrates on death your customers must be paid to HM Revenue and Customs. (No you cannot keep it, even though some accidentally try to, and others think they are entitled to.)
Being VAT registered also enables you to ellen fien reclaim VAT that you pay on business costs, although there are some notable exceptions, like company cars. Retail and consumer businesses are especially affected by melian analysis VAT. Private consumers cannot claim back VAT, so the ellen fien effect of VAT on pricing and margins needs careful thought in planning any consumer business. Up to globalisation definition sociology a certain level of ellen, turnover (in the UK) becoming registered for VAT is optional. If your business turnover is Autism Disorder, likely to be below the threshold for ellen fien, mandatory VAT registration, you must decide for yourself if the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. The main advantages of VAT registration are: your business will be perceived by certain people - especially other businesses - to be larger and more credible (not being registered for VAT indicates immediately that your turnover is below the Spectrum VAT threshold) you will be able to reclaim VAT that you are charged on legitimate allowable business costs. The main disadvantages of being VAT registered are: the administrative burden in keeping VAT records and submitting VAT returns (although this has been enormously simplified in recent years so that for small simple businesses it is really not a problem at all) risks of getting onto ellen fien, cashflow difficulties if you fail to set funds aside to pay your VAT bills (see the why is the resurrection tax tips below) Information about VAT (and all other tax issues) is at the UK Government HM Revenue and Customs website: http://www.hmrc.gov.uk. VAT is not the only tax.
Taxes are also due on company profits (sole-traders or partnerships profits are taxed via personal earnings of the sole-trader or partners) and on staff salaries (national insurance). A sole-trader or partnership can employ staff, in which case national insurance tax is fien, due on salaries paid to globalisation definition sociology employees, which is different to ellen the tax that employees pay themselves. Failing to retain funds in a company to pay taxes is pet planet uk, a serious problem that's easily avoided with good early planning. Contact your tax office. Inform them of your plans and seek their help. Tax offices are generally extremely helpful, so ask.
You can even talk to a real person on the phone without having to ellen breach a six-level automated menu system. Ideally find a decent accountant too. Why Is The Resurrection So Important? Preferably one who comes recommended to you. Fien? With all the greatest respect to accountants everywhere, accountants are quite commonly very intense people, like solicitors and globalisation definition sociology, scientists, very much focused on process, accuracy, rules, etc., which in terms of personality fit can be a little at odds with the style of many entrepreneurs. So again shop around and find an accountant with whom you can share a joke and a beer or something from the human world.
The relationship between a business person and his/her accountant is crucial if the business is to grow and develop significantly. Accountants might seem at times to be from another planet, but I can assure you the fien good ones are bloody magicians when it comes to pet planet uk business development, especially when the figures get really interesting. The statement that one stroke of an ellen fien accountant's pen is mightier than the world's most successful sales team, is melian dialogue analysis, actually true. For many entrepreneurs, the ideal scenario is to grow your business large enough to support the cost of a really excellent finance director, who can take care of all the detailed legal and financial matters for you, and leave you completely free to concentrate on ellen, growing the business - concentrating your efforts and ideas and strategy externally towards markets and customers, and internally towards optimizing innovation and your staff. See the quick tax tips below, especially for small businesses which might not easily be able to achieve immediate and accurate control of their tax liabilities, which is one of the major early risks for a new successful small business. tax tips - understanding and on death, accounting for taxes from the start. A significant potential problem area for newly self-employed people, and for ellen, new business start-ups, is failing to budget and save for inevitable taxes which arise from your business activities. N.B. These tips are not meant to be a detailed comprehensive guide to business taxation.
This section merely addresses a particular vulnerability of new start-up businesses in failing to set aside sufficient reserves to meet tax liabilities, especially small businesses, and Essay, even more especially sole-traders and fien, partnerships and small limited companies, which lack expertise in accounting and consequently might benefit from these simple warnings and tips related to tax liabilities. In general these issues would normally be managed via a cashflow forecast, together with suitable financial processes to allocate and make payments for all costs and liabilities arising in the course of trading. I recognise however that many small business start-ups do not begin with such attention to why is the resurrection so important financial processes, and it's primarily for those situations that these particular notes are provided. These notes in no way suggest that this is the normal fully controlled approach to planning and organizing tax liabilities and other cashflow issues within any business of significant scale. This is simply a pragmatic and practical method aimed at averting a common big problem affecting small business start-ups. While your type of fien, company and business determines precisely which taxes apply to you, broadly taxes are due on sales (for VAT registered businesses in the UK, or your VAT equivalent if outside the UK), and on the profits of your business and your earnings.
If you employ staff you will also have to pay national insurance tax on employees' earnings too. Generally sole-traders and partnerships have simpler tax arrangements - for example, profits are typically taxed as personal earnings - as compared with the more complex taxes applicable to limited companies, which also pay taxes on company profits and staff salaries. Whatever, you must understand the tax liabilities applicable to your situation, and budget for them accordingly. You must try to seek appropriate financial advice for your situation before you commence trading. Indeed understanding tax basics also helps you decide what type of so important, company will best suit your situation, again, before you begin trading.
The potential for nasty financial surprises - notably tax bills that you have insufficient funds to pay - ironically tends to increase along with your success. This is because bigger sales and profits and earnings inevitably produce bigger tax bills (percentage of tax increases too in the early growth of a business), all of ellen, which becomes a very big problem if you've no funds to pay taxes when due. The risks of getting into difficulties can be greater for the self-employed and small partnerships which perhaps do not have great financial knowledge and experience, than for larger Limited Company start-ups which tend to pet planet uk have more systems and ellen fien, support in financial areas. Start-ups are especially prone to why is so important tax surprises because the first set of tax bills can commonly be delayed, and if you fail to account properly for all taxes due then obviously you increase the chances of spending more than you should do, resulting in not having adequate funds to cover the payments when they are due. Risks are increased further if you are new to self-employment, previously having been employed and accustomed to receiving a regular salary on ellen fien, which all taxes have already been deducted, in sociology, other words 'net' of tax. It can take a while to appreciate that business revenues or profits have no tax deducted when these earnings are put into fien, your bank account; these amounts are called 'gross', because they include the tax element. Therefore not all of your business earnings belong to you - some of the money belongs to the taxman. It's your responsibility to deduct the taxes due, to set this money aside, and to pay the tax bills when demanded.
Additionally, if you are a person who is in the habit of spending everything that you earn, you must be even more careful, since this tendency will increase the risks of your being unable to pay your taxes. Failing to get on top of the reality of taxes from the very beginning can lead to serious debt and pet planet uk, cashflow problems, which is a miserable way to ellen run a business. So you must anticipate and socrates on death, set aside funds necessary to ellen fien meet your tax liabilities from the very start of your business, even if you do not initially have a very accurate idea of what taxes will be due, or you lack effective systems to calculate them - many small start-ups are in this position. Nevertheless it is too late to start thinking about tax when the first demands fall due. If when starting your business you do not have information and systems to identify and account accurately for your tax liabilities, here are two simple quick tax tips to analysis avoid problems with the taxman: You must estimate your tax liabilities and ensure that you set aside funds to cover these liabilities while you are banking your payments received into the business. The easiest way to do this is to identify the taxes applicable to fien your business, for example VAT and your own personal income tax and national insurance.
Identify the percentages that apply to your own situation and socrates, earnings levels. You can do this approximately. It does not need to be very precise. Add these percentages together, and then set aside this percentage of all your earnings that you receive into your business. Put these monies into a separate savings account where you can't confuse them with your main business account, i.e., your 'working capital' typically held in a current account. Fien? Always over-estimate your tax liabilities so as to set aside more than you need. Having a surplus is not a problem. Having not enough money to on death pay taxes because you've under-estimated tax due is a problem; sometimes enough to kill an otherwise promising business. Here's an example to show how quickly and easily you can plan and set aside a contingency to pay your tax bills, even if you've no experience or systems to calculate them precisely. This example is based on a self-employed consultancy-type business, like a training or coaching business, in which there are no significant costs of sales (products or services bought in) or overheads, i.e., revenues are effectively the profits too, since there are minimal costs to offset against profits: example of estimating and setting aside money to ellen pay taxes. 1. In the UK VAT on most products and services is 17.5%.
This equates (roughly) to 15% when calculating the VAT element within a VAT-inclusive amount. Melian Dialogue Analysis? This means that you can set aside 15% of your revenues and reliably be sure of ellen, covering your VAT liabilities. 2. Why Is The Resurrection? In the UK personal income tax and national insurance combined is roughly 30% of earnings up to about ?30,000 (a little over in fact), rising to 49% - call it 50% - of earnings above ?30k - roughly. N.B. Income tax and national insurance are calculated on taxable earnings, which exclude money spent on ellen, legitimate business costs, and VAT received. These figures in the above example are approximate I emphasise again, which is all you need for Autism Disorder, this purpose, moreover the approximations are on the high side of what the precise liabilities actually are. Ellen? Accountants call this sort of thinking 'prudent'. It's a pessimistic approach to analysis forecasting liabilities rather than optimistic, which is fundamental to good financial planning and management: if the pessimism is wrong then you end up with a surplus (which is ellen fien, good), but if you are wrong in making optimistic forecasts and estimates (over-ambitious sales, and lower-than-actual costs and liabilities), then you run out of money (which is bad). Back to the percentages.. Knowing the income tax percentages enables you to set aside a suitable percentage of pet planet uk, your earnings when you receive them into the business.
Roughly speaking, for earnings up to ?30k you need to set aside 30% to cover income tax and national insurance. For earnings over ?30k you need to ellen fien set aside 50% to dialogue analysis cover your income tax and national insurance. Fien? (Earnings below ?30k remain taxable at 30%). Remember you can arrive at Effects Essays, these figures based on the VAT exclusive revenues, but to keep matters simpler it is easier to fien use an adjusted total percentage figure to apply to the total gross earnings. If it's kept very simple and quick you'll be more likely to do it - and/or to communicate the method effectively to your partner if they are responsible for handling the financials, as often happens. Given this example, if in definition sociology, your first year your gross revenues (banked payments received) are say ?50,000, assuming you are VAT registered, then your tax liabilities will be (roughly): From this example you can see that setting aside 45.5% of earnings (yes it's a lot isn't it - which is why you need to ellen anticipate it and set the money aside) would comfortably cover VAT and income tax liabilities. To be extra safe and simpler in this example you could round it up to 50%. The tax liability will obviously increase with increasing revenues - and in percentage terms too regarding personal income tax, since more earnings would be at the higher rate. You must therefore also monitor your earnings levels through the year and adjust your percentage tax contingency accordingly.
As stated already above, the risk of under-estimating tax liabilities increases the Spectrum more successful you are, because tax bills get bigger. In truth you will have some costs to fien offset against the earnings figures above, but again for Autism Spectrum Essay, the purposes of establishing a very quick principle of saving a fixed percentage as a tax reserve until you know and can control these liabilities more accurately, the above is fien, a very useful simple easy method of initially staying solvent and on top of why is, your tax affairs, which are for many people the most serious source of nasty financial surprises in successful start-up businesses. The above example is very simple, and is provided mainly for small start-up businesses which might otherwise neglect to provide for ellen, tax liabilities. The figures and percentages are not appropriate (but the broad principle of Disorder Essay, forecasting and providing funds for tax liabilities is) to apply to retail businesses for example, or businesses in ellen, which staff are employed, since these businesses carry significant costs of sales and overheads, which should be deducted from revenues before calculating profits and taxes liabilities. Neither does the example take account of the Distributional Essays various ways to ellen reduce tax liabilities by why is so important reinvesting profits in the business, writing off stock, putting money into pensions, charitable donations, etc. A third tip is - in fact it's effectively a legal requirement - to inform your relevant tax authorities as soon as possible about your new business.
Preferably do this a few weeks before you actually begin trading. That way you can be fully informed of the fien tax situation - and your best methods of dealing with tax, because there are usually different ways, and sometimes the differences can be worth quite a lot of money. I do not go into more detail about tax here because it's a very complex subject with wide variations depending on your own situation, for which you should seek relevant information and definition, advice from a qualified accountant and/or the relevant tax authorities. template and structure for a feasibility study or project justification report. First, and importantly, you need to clarify/confirm the criteria that need to be fulfilled in ellen fien, order to justify starting or continuing the project or group, in other words, what do the decision-makers need to see in Distributional, order to approve the project or its continuation ? Then map these crucial approval criteria into the following structure. In other words, work through the following template structure according to, and orientated as closely as you can to, the approval criteria . (These points could effectively be your feasibility study or report justification structure, and headings.) past, present and particularly future ('customer') need (for the outputs/results produced by fien group or project) benefits and outcomes achieved to date for what cost/investment benefits and outcomes to be produced in the future resources, costs, investment , etc., required to produce future required outcomes and benefits (identify capital vs revenue costs, i.e., acquisition of major assets and ongoing overheads) alternative methods or ways of satisfying needs, with relative cost/return (return on investment) comparisons (ie., what other ways might there be for satisfying the need if the definition group or project doesn't happen or ceases?) outline strategy and financial plan , including people, aims, philosophy , etc (ideally tuned to meet the authorising power's fulfilment criteria) for proposed start or continuation of fien, project (assuming you have a case, and assuming there is no better alternative) Keep it simple.
Keep to the facts and figures. Provide evidence. Be clear and concise. Refer to the tips about the resurrection, effective writing. If possible present your case in person to the decision-makers, with passion, calm confidence and style. Look at the tips on presentations, and assertiveness. tips on ellen fien, finding and working with business planning advisors and consultants. If you need help putting together a business plan, and if you want to dialogue analysis get the fien best from the melian dialogue analysis engagement, it's important to fien find the pet planet uk right person to work with, and to establish and maintain a good working relationship with them. If you are great big organisation you'll probably not need to work with outsiders, and fien, if you do then you'll probably opt for a great big supplier, however there are significant benefits from why is working with much smaller suppliers - even single operators - and if you are a small business yourself, then this is probably the best choice anyway: to ellen seek a good single operator, or small partnership of pet planet uk, experts. Ellen? Here are some ideas of what to look for. You'll be best finding someone who meets as much of this criteria as possible: lives close-by you so you can work face-to-face with them and melian dialogue analysis, get to know each other properly, and so that their time is ellen, efficiently used, instead of being in traffic on their way to and from your place is high integrity and the resurrection so important, very discreet is grown-up and got no baggage or emotional triggers - wise and mature - and ellen fien, it needn't be an socrates age thing can help you see and decide where and how you want to take the business, rather than tell you where he/she thinks you need to go - a mentor not an instructor understands or can immediately relate to your industry sector and type of work is experienced working with small family companies, but is also a big picture strategist and ellen, visionary (advisors who've only ever worked with big corporations can sometimes be a bit free and on death, easy with relatively small amounts of money - you need someone with a very very practical approach to managing cash-flow, and real business realities, who've worked in situations without the protection of fien, vast corporate bureaucracy and the lack of transparency that this often brings) is triple-brained or whole-brained - mostly front-brained - (see the sociology stuff on Benziger) - intuitive-creative, thinking, but also able to be personable and grounded, subject to the point below complements your own strengths and fills the gaps and weaknesses in your collective abilities (again see the ellen fien stuff on Benziger and Jung etc) - ie., if collectively you need hard facts and figures and logic then seek people with these strengths - conversely if you are strong on all this, then seek the creative humanist ethical strengths - he/she must work with you in a balanced team - so that the team has no blind spots, and Effects Essays, no subjective biases in style or emphasis has two or three referees you can talk to and see evidence of ellen fien, past work (although if you check most of the above it will be a formality) doesn't smoke or drink too much isn't desperate for why is so important, the work.
As regards finding someone like this, without doubt the most reliable and quickest method is by networking introductions through trusted people. The person you seek might be three or more links away, but if it's a friend or associate of someone trusted, by someone who's trusted, by someone you trust, then probably they'll be right for you. Start by talking to people you know and asking if they know anyone, or if they know anyone who might know anyone - and take it from there. The chances of finding the right person in the local business listings or directory, out ellen of the blue and from cold, are pretty remote. Replying to Taxes: Distributional Essays adverts and ellen fien, marketing material from the resurrection consultants is a lottery too. Fien? You'll find someone eventually but you'll need to kiss a lot of frogs first, which takes ages and on death, is not the cleverest way to spend your valuable time. For something so important as business planning advice or consultancy use referrals every time.
Referrals work not only because you get to find someone trusted, but the person you find has a reasonable assurance that you can be trusted too, you see: good suppliers are just as choosy as good clients. It works both ways. Be prepared to ellen fien reward the person in whatever way is Spectrum Disorder, appropriate and fair (I'm thinking percentage share of incremental success beyond expectations - perhaps even equity share if the person is really good and you'd value their on-going contribution and ellen, help). Often the Taxes: Distributional Essays best people won't ask for ellen fien, much money up front at all, but from socrates your point of view you will attract a lot more commitment and fien, work beyond the call of normal duty from them if you reward higher than they ask or need. Good suppliers are immensely motivated by good clients and lots of Taxes: Distributional Essays, appreciation, even if they don't want the financial reward. Good suppliers have usually seen too many ungrateful greedy people taking them for fien, granted and penny pinching, and globalisation sociology, will tend to sack clients like these without even telling them why, and move on to more deserving enjoyable work with people who are fair and appreciative, which is how you'll be I'm sure.
Finally, when you've found the right person, always continually agree expectations and invite feedback about how the relationship is working, not just how the work is ellen, going. starting your own business - or starting any new business. These are the simple rules for planning and starting your own business. The principles also apply to planning and starting a new business within an organisation for someone else. In amongst the distractions and details of new business planning, it is important to keep sight of the basic rules of new business success: Your successful new business must offer something unique that people want. Uniqueness is vital because otherwise there is globalisation definition sociology, no reason for customers to ellen buy from you. Anyone can be or create a unique business proposition by thinking about it clearly. Uniqueness comes in all shapes and globalisation definition, sizes - it's chiefly being especially good and different in a particular area, or field or sector.
Uniqueness can be in a product or service, or in ellen, a trading method, or in you yourself, or any other aspect of your business which makes what you are offering special and appealing to people. You will develop your own unique offering first by identifying what people want and which nobody is providing properly. Second you must ensure that your chosen unique offering is also an extension of your own passion or particular expertise or strength - something you will love and enjoy being the best at - whatever it is. Every successful business is built on someone's passion. new business start-ups by older people. If you already have a career behind you, and you wonder if you've got it in melian, you to ellen compete and succeed in the modern world, consider this.
First - you have definitely got it in you to succeed. Experience and wisdom are fundamental building blocks of Taxes: Effects, success, and will be for you from the moment you start looking at yourself in this way. The reassuring wisdom that older people generally possess is extremely helpful in ellen fien, forming trusting relationships - with customers, suppliers, partners, colleagues, etc - which are essential for good business. Added to this, as we get older we have a greater understanding of our true passions and globalisation definition sociology, capabilities; we know our strengths and ellen fien, styles and globalisation definition sociology, tolerances. This gives older people a very special potency in business. Older people know what they are good at. They play to their strengths. Ellen? They know which battles they can win, and which to pet planet uk avoid. Older people are also typically better at fien, handling change and adapting to new things than younger people. This is socrates on death, because older people have had more experience doing just this. Adapting to change and fien, working around things are significant capabilities in on death, achieving new business success.
If you are an older person considering starting a new business, think about the things you can do better than most other people - think about your strengths and ellen, use them. business start-ups for younger people. Younger people can be very successful starting new businesses just as much as older people can be. The essential principle of playing to socrates on death your strengths applies, although the implications are different for ellen, younger people compared to older people. Younger people are likely to pet planet uk have lots of fresh ideas. This is an advantage, so avoid people pour cold water on them.
Test your ideas on potential customers, rather than to take advice from ellen those people who are ready with their buckets of socrates on death, water. Next, get the help you need. It's difficult for young people to know all the answers. You'll have the ideas and the energy to make things happen, but consider the gaps in ellen fien, your experience, and globalisation definition sociology, the things you don't enjoy doing, and seek good quality reliable help for these things. Getting good help at what you can't do or don't want to do will enable you to put all your energy into what you are good at ellen, and what you want to spend your time doing.
Young people sometimes try to force themselves to pet planet uk fit into roles or responsibilities that are not comfortable or natural. This is de-stabilising and stressful. Learn what you love and excel at, and focus on building success from this. Which brings us back to playing to your strengths. All successful businesses (and people who become successful working for ellen, others) are based on globalisation definition, the person using personal strengths and pursuing personal passions. Success in business is always based on doing something you love and ellen, enjoy, which is fundamentally related to your natural strengths and unique personal potential, whatever that is. The sooner you identify these things in yourself, the sooner will build sustainable business success. planning business success - in summary. Spreadsheets, mission statements, planning templates and other process elements of new business creation and melian dialogue, development are tools. Ellen Fien? They enable the business to be properly structured, started and run.
They are essential of course, but in themselves they don't determine success. Business success is determined by deeper factors. Increasingly business success depends on socrates on death, having a solid philosophical foundation - where relevant interests, inside and outside of the organization, are balanced rather than conflicting. Ellen Fien? The bigger the business, the globalisation sociology more widely it must consider how it relates to external interests and responsibilities - to society and fien, the world at large. A business with this sort of harmony and balance built into its shape and principles at the outset has a huge advantage over a business which contains tensions and competing pressures. Within these considerations, relationships - as explained by the Psychological Contract - are crucially important in every business. Businesses ultimately depend on people, and people depend on relationships.
Aside from this - and without diminishing the significance of other vital business components such as reliability, value, quality, etc., which are necessary merely to survive at a basic level - uniqueness and passion are the Taxes: remaining special ingredients for success: Uniqueness (just one word, with so many implications) - so that people will want what you offer, and Passion, so that you will enjoy being and ellen fien, offering your best - and so that this belief and commitment conveys to others.
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Nov 07, 2017 Ellen fien, write my paper -
10 Topics Guaranteed to Start an Argument. Ellen Fien! One of the great things about the internet is the pet planet uk way it opens up debate. Now we don’t just read a news story, we actively get involved below the line—broadcasting our opinion to fien millions. At its best, this sort of melian dialogue analysis ‘below the line’ activity can throw up more interesting points than the article itself. At its worst… well, you only ellen fien, have to look at stories on pet planet uk, any of ellen fien these topics to see how opinions can polarize. For instance, good luck finding a rational debate on: One of Autism Essay humanity’s most-enduring questions is: ‘is there a God?’ For millennia, people have fought and killed each other over the issue and wasted a ton of ink justifying their opinions. Fien! So you’d think by now we’d have learned to debate the question sensibly.
In reality, nothing could be further from the truth. The trouble is, both sides (atheists and believers) have their minority of fundamentalists who will do their level-best to ‘win’ the argument by being as condescending as possible. Atheists accuse their religious counterparts of ‘believing in sky fairies’ and pet planet uk, compare religious upbringing to child abuse; while the ellen fien religious faction simply resort to attacking the concept of science. The weird thing is, most of us have probably met plenty of atheists and believers and never encountered a single lunatic. From personal experience, I know my Christian and atheist friends largely respect each other’s opinions and why is, never try to fien ‘convert’ others to dialogue their side. In fact, watching a debate between these guys would likely be genuinely informative—so why is it only the diehards who ever make it onto message boards? Around the world, there are dozens of ‘contested’ territories: Northern Ireland, Kashmir, the Falklands, Gibraltar and the Western Sahara, to name a few. Many of them have long, turbulent histories, periodically spill over into fien violence and one of them (Kashmir) nearly triggered a nuclear war. So why is it only the dialogue disputed Israeli/Palestinian border that whips up such emotion? Let’s be clear here: I’m not saying there’s nothing to get worked up about. The situation is undoubtedly tense, not-helped by such things as rocket attacks on ellen fien, Israel, Israeli airstrikes, the seizure of Palestinian land and the violently anti-Semitic propaganda prevalent in dialogue the region.
If you have to deal with it on ellen fien, a daily basis it’s only natural you’d form a strong opinion. But what’s puzzling is how the entire internet has chosen this specific land-dispute to jump onto—and invested it with such emotion that rational argument becomes impossible. Tax is more-or-less a fact of analysis life: none of us want to pay it, most of us don’t like what it gets spent on, but most of us use some of the stuff it buys—so we begrudgingly pay up. If we think about it much beyond that, it’s probably because we’ve either heard about some company refusing to pay a single cent; or some dumb government introducing a ridiculously unfair rate. But mention taxation on a message board and watch the lunatics come crawling out the fien woodwork.
Now, to be fair, I’ve voiced some strong opinions on tax on these very pages. So feel free to pet planet uk call me a hypocrite. But I’ve never argued for a one hundred percent tax rate or literally equated taxation with slavery—which is what you’ll hear on ellen fien, any forum devoted to the topic. Like everything else on this list, it seems to be only the extremists who leave comments on these articles: the beret-wearing Che Guevara wanabees and Ayn Rand worshippers. As much as people like to get their hackles up at the thought of the resurrection so important atheists and Christians or that chunk that comes out their paycheck each month, nothing compares to the vitriol evoked by feminism. Simply put: a good deal of the population seem to see the term as an invite to either spew violent misogyny or get into an oppression competition. And that’s before we even get onto fien the various strands of feminism that spend more time attacking each other than the globalisation patriarchy. Fien! Now, if we’re being honest, there are some forms of feminism that really do suck. Equally, a lot of serious articles about on death, ‘men’s issues’ often get shouted down under sarcastic calls of ‘lolz what about teh menz?’ But the sheer hatred feminism seems to stir up is way out of proportion to any of fien this. After all, the basic concept is something we should all be able to get behind. For example: do you think everyone deserves equal pay for equal work, the melian dialogue freedom to make their own life choices and to live without the threat of violence, no matter what type of genitals they have?
Then congratulations: you’re a feminist. There are two types of circumcision: male and female. Female circumcision is better known by ellen fien, its more-truthful name ‘female genital mutilation’ (fgm) and Taxes: Effects, everyone pretty-much agrees it’s a really bad thing. Male circumcision, on ellen, the other hand, is an absolute powder keg. That last link, by the way, goes to a representative article on the subject—if you have time, follow it and check the comments. The Resurrection So Important! That’s how most discussions about circumcision look: a whole mass of people screaming child abuse, threatening to call the police and comparing the ellen fien practice to witch burning. To clarify: I’m not trying to take sides here.
If you have a particular bugbear about this issue, that’s your opinion and I’ll respect that. But for the life of me, I can’t see why this particular issue might drive people into a howling frenzy. Disorder Essay! Yet venture below the line on fien, any article mentioning it, and that’s exactly what you’ll see. Sticking the word ‘Islam’ in an article is like lobbing a hand grenade into melian dialogue a hornet’s nest. Simply put: a lot of people have some very strong opinions on ellen fien, the subject—and they’re not afraid to let you know it.
Unlike some of the entries here, the reason is pretty clear: a decade of socrates on death news stories linking radical Islam to bomb attacks, assassinations and fien, violent riots have left most of us in no doubt that we need to tackle religious extremism. But debates on Islam rarely focus on ‘extremism’. For whatever reason, a vocal minority of our online community have gotten used to speaking about it as a monolithic entity: as if there’s no difference between, say, a moderate Indonesian leading a regular life and a Sudanese extremist. What’s weird is how this rarely applies to any other religion. Can you imagine someone seriously being unable to differentiate between Oprah and globalisation definition sociology, Fred Phelps because they’re both Christian; or between Jerry Seinfeld and a member of Israel’s Ultra-Orthodox community? Well, apparently that’s how some people view 1.6bn of their fellow human beings. If there’s one thing the fien internet loves, it’s freedom of speech. We’re kinda libertarians in that respect: there’s little more likely to invoke the wrath of Anonymous than a serious attempt to curtail our right to it.
However, it’s often taken as read that this freedom extends to anything and everything; and melian dialogue analysis, not everyone agrees. Fien! See, although freedom of why is so important speech may be enshrined in American law—to the extent that even scum like Westboro Baptist Church are constitutionally protected—the same logic does not apply elsewhere. In Germany, for example, it’s a criminal offense to ellen display a Nazi flag and you WILL do time for it. In France, denying the holocaust can get you a prison sentence. The online clash usually comes when American ideology crashes up against European—with neither side willing to accept their system isn’t ‘best’. So let’s be honest here: free speech may be an idea worth fighting for, but just because parts of melian analysis Europe have taken a different route on certain subjects does not make them any less ‘free’.
Minor restrictions do not automatically make an ellen, Orwellian dystopia—any less than total freedom automatically results in the anarchic Wild West. Most scientists wish the public would get excited about their chosen field. Mention awe-inspiring concepts like string theory, Hawking radiation or gravitons to the man on the street and he’ll probably go out of his way to avoid you. For climate scientists, however, it’s a case of ‘be careful what you wish for’. Definition Sociology! Thanks to decades of programs, books and blogs written on the subject, just about fien, everyone now considers themselves an expert. And part of that expertise apparently involves shouting down the other side—bizarrely enough, for why is so important, the exact same reason. Those who don’t believe in it see a vast conspiracy by scientists, liberals and ellen, other boogeymen to put us all in FEMA prison camps, while those who do see a vast conspiracy involving the Koch Brothers and big oil to manipulate the ‘sheeple’ into believing otherwise. It’s a perfect storm of paranoia centered around an globalisation definition, issue most of us aren’t qualified to understand—and, every time someone brings it up, the sparks are sure to ellen fly. Definition! As you may have noticed, I’ve tried to maintain a largely neutral tone on most of fien these.
That won’t happen here. For whatever reason, despite the why is the resurrection so important mountains of evidence and eyewitness testimony proving otherwise; there are still people out there who honestly believe the holocaust was either exaggerated or simply didn’t happen. And their brand of mental sickness is virulent enough to ellen fien infect the comments section of any article that cares to mention it. There are a few things in globalisation sociology the world that mark you out ellen fien as a bad person; and denying the holocaust is one of them. It’s not just the pet planet uk extent of human suffering that occurred in moral blackholes like Auschwitz and Treblinka; or the sheer hatred required to send millions of Jews, gays, Poles and disabled people to certain death. It’s all that plus the stubborn refusal to learn from history—to pretend genocide never happened. And trust me, if there’s one mistake we never want to fien repeat from history, it’s this one.
Here it is: the most-divisive issue you will ever encounter. With feelings running so high on both sides, it’s impossible to take any sort of stance on abortion without seeing the entire comment section explode in your face—so I’m remaining one hundred percent neutral on Distributional Effects, this one. You’re probably aware of the basic arguments. Pro-lifers believe with the utmost intensity that killing a fetus is ellen, as bad as killing a child. Pro-choice supporters believe with an identical passion that criminalizing abortion is State intrusion into women’s bodies, and Distributional Essays, completely incompatible with a free society. Politicians meanwhile try to fien search for a middle ground—a point where termination remains acceptable and pet planet uk, a point where it unequivocally isn’t. But this is one argument that’s never going away: so long as there’s a human race it will continue to rage—and nowhere is this more apparent than on the internet. Now, I’m not going to make any value judgement on this, and I appreciate that people have strong feelings about it. But wouldn’t it be great if both sides could debate this and other issues—just once—without resorting to hysterical name-calling? I guess we’ll find out in the comments. Follow us on Facebook or subscribe to our daily or weekly newsletter so you don't miss out on our latest lists.
Morris is a freelance writer and newly-qualified teacher, still naively hoping to make a difference in ellen fien his students' lives. You can send your helpful and less-than-helpful comments to his email, or visit some of the other websites that inexplicably hire him.
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Nov 07, 2017 Ellen fien, write my essays today -
convey tone essay I fear for the essay, friends, and its bad reputation. It feels white and dull, dusty, old. Ellen Fien? Encased in dialogue, tombs like the Oxford Book of the Essay. Each year's Best American is not a yawn, exactly, since some of the individual essays are good enough when read and ellen, thought about, but as a whole they are not particularly inviting, exciting, compelling (though: [here]). They lack, what, pizzazz?
Flash? Flare? Fireworks? Prestidigitation? Say what you want about the spectacle of analysis memoir, but it at least seems timely. Hot. Fresh. Glittery. Ellen? Fake. It has the socrates veneer of reality or reality show. Ellen? It as much as anything else appears to be about the stuff of our lives, or the wished stuff of our lives: suffering, crime, sexual politics, revelation, television, possibly hot tubs, body waxing, celebrity, and bikinis.
You know a memoir might be trashy but it will entertain us. But essays? They are easy chairs. Thinky. Stable. The nice sensitive older guy driving a 92 Volvo. The smell of aged pine. They are sedentary.
They connote senescence. Walnut desks stranded in Taxes:, unused studies that smell like centuries of pipe smoke. Ellen Fien? You have to admit it does not feel like a youthful form. All of this sob story for the essay is concurrent with the Taxes: declining technology of the fien newspaper, the literary journal, and other print media that gave rise to many of the essay's brightest stars. We still have commentary but it's moved online. It's become increasingly an amateur sport. Distributed via blog and amazon reviews by Top 500 Reviewers to you, the consumer. Perhaps it's only fair. Maybe the lyric essay is an exception. A sparkler, a firecracker on a summer evening.
It alone is saucy, upper lip curled. Flirty in its assignations with poetry. More than a little rebellious, contemptuous of any curfew placed upon it. It inhabits the margins already, barely an essay, hardly claiming any cultural weight. We'll return to this lonely roamer later. A sign: a sigh was my response to the essay when I discovered it. I did not lack love for its meanderings, its attempts to convey the motions of pet planet uk thought, but it felt remote.
Isolated. Writ in stone and fien, handed down. Unapproachable. The production of years of pristine thinking and immersion journalism. It is seemingly inaccessible from an artist's standpoint without deploying some kind of wizardry. As an enthusiast of literary forms, I faced the wall. I looked up it, looked around it.
Saw only wall and socrates, wall and wall. Brick after brick. No chink. No crinkle in its face. This is one trajectory. Introduction to ellen fien the Hack. Hacking is at heart a creative activity. It is first, simply, an exploration, an opening up, of a system.
A kind of problem solving. Autism Spectrum Disorder Essay? When we say hack , we probably mean to illegally access a computer system by any one of various means, probably by someone geeky, eggheaded, to plant a virus in some high-level Dept of Defense computer, but that's reductive, pejorative, sloppy thinking. Ellen Fien? Most hackers who illegally access computer (or other) systems do it not to break the law but because we want access. Because we see a system and we are not allowed inside it. Because we see that apparently impenetrable tower and Taxes:, we want to ellen know what rests within its walls. More loosely, a hack is an ingenious use of technology to accomplish something that is otherwise impossible to accomplish. It is a bridge from one land mass to another over deep water.
It appears, like any sufficiently advanced technology, as a kind of magic. It comes out pet planet uk, of the ellen insoluble. It is surprising. Pleasing. Distributional? Amazing. For instance, a famous hardware hack, the red box, repurposes a Radio Shack autodialer (a portable, pre-cell-phone device that could store and automatically dial numbers) via some soldering to mimic the tone (technically a series of four tones) that indicates to ellen fien a pay phone that a quarter has been deposited, allowing me to call anywhere for free. The blue box (the even more famous hardware hack) generated the 2600 Hz tone and allowed a hacker (well, technically the term is on death phone phreak ) to take control of the trunk line and ellen fien, go wherever he wanted to go in the phone system. These hardware hacks commanded knowledge of a system (often discovered accidentally, or through long evenings of trial and error) to accomplish control.
For some users of the sociology red box, the ellen fien device is about free calls. For others it is about the act of accessing the network, of bypassing a lock quite ingeniously, it allows further exploration, node by node, of a network. But regardless the hack is the trick, not what use it's put to. I have lived the life of accessing networks, exploring PBX systems and phone lines, been publicly punished for why is so important it, for my audacity. Illegal access to credit cards, to ellen databases of Autism Disorder Essay hundreds of thousands of credit cards. I didn't use credit cards for anything: I simply wanted access to them, to the growing, private world of information stored on ellen, thousands of servers lined up, hidden away in banks of modems. Because I could, I tell myself, I wanted in. I hesitate to try to globalisation sociology ascribe a particular motivation to my actions in retrospect. The brain reconfigures memory, reorders events, resets them among other events to ellen fien form narrative, causality: it creates sense.
The mind tells itself stories about what happens to Distributional it. So me saying that I did X because of Y rests on thousands of assumptions about who or what I think I am, how I thought of myself thentransmuted into how I think about myself now. I can tell myself that I was drawn to fien hacking because of socrates on death curiosity or nascent writerly interest but that is almost certainly untrue. Who knows why I did what I did, why I broke into Michigan Bell trucks armed with smoke bombs and centerpunches and mace in case the cops arrived? And who knows what I would have done with the mace if the cops arrived? Any sort of attempt to sort meaning from the ellen past is fraught in melian analysis, thousands on thousands of ways, exponentially splintering. The more you think about it the ellen more it asymptotically approaches impossibility. This is not to suggest we shouldn't attempt it. The attempt is glorious, and attempting rewires the brain. It moves the circuitry around, attaching a new conclusion to an action, reconstructing self.
In a way, thinking about the self hacks it. It is after all, our own brain, an globalisation sociology impossibly complex system, shifting, synaptic. It is the system, the main subject for literature of ellen fien any sort, the perfect subject, also seemingly inaccessible. The memoir appears to try to understand but mostly it narrates. Dialogue Analysis? airs action out, reveals it. It offers us confession, prepackaged narrative arc: redemption, for instance. It thinks it thinks but it does not quite get there. The essay instead, lonely sentences stretching across the page, unfurls, representing thought. The essay affords us the best way to hack this system. Let me take another shot at it. My primary experience with video games is ellen fien one of exhaustive exploration.
While I can't quite admit the level of exhaustive play that characterizes those who write completist walkthroughs for, say, Final Fantasy XII, which I have logged 110 hours playing on the PS2 (helpfully the globalisation definition sociology game tracks my addictive hours), I do spend a lot of time thinking about and being immersed in ellen, game worlds. “Split Infinity,” the pet planet uk writer who compiled the FAQ/Walkthrough I have been consulting for some of the more arcane secrets that the ellen game holds, is one of these superexhaustive players slash writers. So Important? The FAQ, the Walkthrough: these forms are a response to the complexity of a created system. The FFXII FAQ is fien exceptionally exhaustive (a sort of split infinity). On Death? It is 1600 pages. 800,000 words, though I have some doubts about what MS Word is counting as a word.
It took him more than 400 hours to write this tome, based on more than 1000 hours of gameplay, exhaustively exploring every conceivable pathway through this created, interactive space. I would argue this is essay, even as it is an informative document. It is a record of an ellen fien individual (and eventually collaborative) exploration of a system. It is a fairly ingenious solution to a problem: where can gamers go to find information about how to get the Zodiac Spear, for instance (the answer is very far from obvious). The Internet is the perfect distributed system for assembling these sorts of answers. For hacking the problem into soluble chunks and Spectrum Essay, distributing it across thousands of players' experiences. Split Infinity has done it for us.
It is ellen fien a staggering achievement. Too, it is a hack. Through exhaustive play and documentation he (or otherspeople in this way work collaboratively) has discovered a number of secrets I had no idea the game held. He has accessed secret rooms in the dungeon, and why is so important, he's given us the key. He's opened up hidden areas in the system. His FAQ lists 61 easily missable things in ellen fien, the game (sometimes these are called easter eggs). There are of course a thousand hacking FAQs and walkthroughs of ways to hack specific computer and other systems. The writers of these hacks are often anonymous but they have brought gaming zeal to their subject. They ferociously descend on the system and socrates, do not come out until they have penetrated it. It's a little male, though, you have to ellen fien admit. Reading these FAQsor, better, writing themadds pathways to the brain.
Adds syntax where there was none. Itcomplicated system as it isattempts to reckon with an even more complicated system. To map it out. To render it inert, paused, interrupted, in definition, another form. Essay as Simulated Mind. The essay tries hard to solidify the motions of thought. Ellen? Itmore than most other forms of pet planet uk writingis not as beholden to tradition, restriction. Sure, it's, like, old. Totally AARP. We can date it back to Montaigne, or, trying harder, Seneca. I have to admit that Montaigne bores me.
Seneca, too, really, and fien, most of what we call the moral essayists, publicly thinking about individual behavior as part of a society, offering suggestions for better living, and on death, so on. Maybe it's my age. Maybe it's that I want to sex it up. The essay does not rely on narrative arc (though it can). Fien? It does not rely on lyric motion (though it can).
It can potentially incorporate anything, draw from anything, in search of the range of motion of human thought that it attempts to present. It is a sticky ball. Disorder? It is the fien video game Katamari Damacy. It accommodates. Why Is? Like the fien brain.
Each essay we read is as close as we can get to another mind. It is a simulation of the mind working its way through a problem. This is not to suggest that every essay is good, revelatory, successful, fruitful, interesting. But stepping into an essay is stepping into the writer's mind. Globalisation Sociology? We are thrown into the labyrinth, a huge stone rolling behind us. It is a straight shot of the brain in all its immediacy, its variety, strands of half-remembered text, partly-thought-through ideas, images below the surface of fien memory.
We are thrown into process: of thinking, which is like an algorithm, a machine for replicating or simulating thought: So, a quote to add to our ball, a line to add to our algorithm, one strand of globalisation definition sociology thinking: . the essay is decried as a hybrid; that it is lacking a convincing tradition; that its strenuous requirements have only ellen fien rarely been met: all this has been often remarked upon and censured. The quote is from Theodor Adorno's essay, The Essay as Form. Here we find ourselves. We find ourselves plucked out of our lives and Effects, are transplanted in the middle of a mind. A plot, really, strung together of thought. Of a linguistic situation. An argument. Ellen? Given that the essay lacks tradition, what then? And later:
Luck and play are essential to the essay. It does not begin with Adam and pet planet uk, Eve but with what it wants to discuss; it says what is at fien issue and stops where it feels itself completenot where nothing is pet planet uk left to say. The essay claims its own limits and fien, works within them: as it works, so does the mind. As the argument shifts, cuts back, or redoubles, uncovering something the essay did not know it knew (for that is every essay's purpose, to globalisation definition sociology wend, explore, to sidetrack as it must), so goes the processes of the mind. It freezes thought for us. Of course this fixity is a lie: one line of thought extends and becomes yesterday, diaspora.
The second time through an ellen fien essay in revision we are not the same combination of brain and body; the network has shifted and what we thought we thought is no longer what we think. And by thinking we erase or redouble thought, confirming or denying it. So the essayist tweaks the essay, smooths out a transition, takes another branching path. And that version of thought is fixed and left, a pathway in the brain, graphite trace on the page. And on why is the resurrection, and on until the essayist gets up and gives it up. The essay should change on ellen fien, every public reading or recitation as something new occurs. But it's impossible in art. Finally we have to let it go and hope it will show the reader something new.
Reading essays gets us closer to others' thinking, or at least the most recent version. Writing them gets us closer to our own. Globalisation Sociology? It at least allows us to interrupt the constant motion of our minds to put something down and consider it, think about it from fien, a year removed, or from space on melian dialogue analysis, the shuttle, or in a different space, overlooking another view from a new hotel in fien, a different city. And what about the lyric essay? Have we forgotten it? It proceeds in on death, chunks, disconnected fragments. It pauses, tacks around the subject or dead-end through white space. In some ways the lyric essay is the most essay sort of essay. Our lyric variety of the fien essay is a polyglot. It is pansexual.
If the essay is a ball, the lyric essay is a super sticky power ball. Effects Essays? But calling the essay lyric doesn't add all that much. It specifies, I guess, that this essay is a lyric one. It closes down some of the dimensions through which essay might move. Essay itself is already polymorphic. It is oversexed in its potential union with anything: polemic, story, treatise, argument, fact, fiction, lyric.
But lyric has freshened up the essay world, it seems, so we should be grateful. This semester I am assigning mind-hacks of sorts to my fiction writing workshop. I am asking them to fien interrupt their sleep patterns to write, to alter their methods of composition which means changing their thinking, reducing it, at least at globalisation sociology the generative stage. To feel the force necessary to strike keys on a manual typewriter. To only write in abandoned buildings.
To dictate into a microphone. To write hungry. Exhausted. Fien? If I could, I'd prescribe some psychotropic drugs. The brain gets used to so important its own strategies when we write. It finds the path of ellen least resistance, like a liquid on a surface.
It moves. It settles into ruts. I am trying to get my students to write from different mental states, to find their way to different voices. I think of this as a way of hacking the brain, to Disorder Essay get ittechnology as it isto go someplace it is fien unaccustomed to. I want them to try to the resurrection so important feed it different stories, different stimuli, in an attempt to get it to ellen generate different sorts of texts. Essay as Interruption. The world moves.
Art stops it. The essay stops it. It is pet planet uk a temporary thing, but necessary. You know the photographic trope where the city's streets are illuminated with the lighted headlight trails of cars, their past motion and present location represented as trails and curls. Time-lapse photography uses trickery to represent flux as static, as history. Ellen? Beauty occurs in isolation, from a distance.
When we pause our DVDs and can admire the frozen shot remaining, the curl on one lip, the flex in Distributional Effects, a ninja sword, the expression of the face. The essay, like a poem, acts as fermata. It processes ideas, images, texts, or objects at ellen its own speed. It rewinds, meditates, circles, returns, sits and spins if it must. And it should. It is, like all good art, an interruption, an intervention between the world and the mind. Its status as a weird sort of pet planet uk hybrid comes from this. Stories have forward motion.
They are driven by what happens. The essay is ellen fien propelled by what it thinks about what happens, or what it thinks about a subject. It turns the subject in its mind. It gets all self-conscious. Too self-conscious sometimes. The essay can lock up, find its way to infinite recursion: what do I think about what I think about what I think about etc.? If left undisturbed, thinking can spiral down. The essay-space is a dreaming space. Everything is allowed. It might move erratically, as in dreams, with its own logic.
It can tangent out, follow a line as far as it can go. As I sit here writing this, looking out the window at passing traffic, cold people, a fire truck comes blaring by, sirens on. Globalisation Sociology? An ambulance follows. My gaze heremy train of thought, toois interrupted. Back to regularly scheduled traffic programming. Two minutes later another fire truck blows by, moving fast. These vehicles are en route to intervention. A home might be on fire. People might be dying even as I speak, their flesh crisping up or melting off.
It could be a false alarm. If I were a real investigative essayist, or journalist, I'd be up and in fien, my car, on their trail, trying to dodge the resuming traffic, hoping to see something exciting or terrible. I am not. I haven't moved. Pet Planet Uk? A girl opens the door across the street. The pizza delivery guy is inside. Nothing is happening. They are both just sitting there. Her boyfriend, apparently wearing Zubaz, looking a little like an ellen animal, shows up from the back.
There is a transaction. You can try to keep the world out, but it intrudes on the mind, on the language taking shape. I believe in Autism Disorder Essay, interruptions. I believe in sidetracks. The pizza guy is from Domino's. I used to deliver Domino's in Ames, Iowa. I liked their pizzas in high school: sausage, green pepper, and ellen fien, onion, in particular. It is amazing that writing these wordsand reading them each timestimulates my hunger even now. Take that, brain!
Take that, body! The job sucked but paid occasionally well. There were stories about being tipped with sexual favors which never happened to anyone I knew, surprisingly, buff dudes with ripped abs and spray-on tans as we were. I was in grad school. Everyone there was younger than me and enjoyed humiliation. Globalisation? I quit that job. The apartment across the street has a wadded up American flag dangling from a pole. This must mean something but I know not what. Perhaps if I think about it long enough, allow the ellen fien mindand the sentenceto swirl around it, it will dream and yield up its meaning (or I can fool myself into thinking that it will yield its meaning). Essay accommodates. It expands.
It contracts. It is a flexible technology. The good essay advantages itself of interruption. Thinking, after all, is not dramatic. Because it is isolated, potentially pure mind, it can spin and spin. If the essay interrupts time's forward motion, then it loses out on the pleasures of time: urgency, dilemma, arc, sequence, pressure. Pet Planet Uk? Left without constraint, the essay languishes.
Even an argument must move inexorably forward, however fraught, however much we know that our thinking the next time around will change. Of course any text moves forward. Ellen Fien? It reads (and composes) word by word, sequentially, line by line and on down the page. It stacks up like in Tetris. It creates pressure on why is so important, the thinking. Even as the essay diverges in its thought processes, as it follows tangents and diversions, there's still the expectation of convergence, of ellen fien a final arc. We want the essay to rise and take its shape. We want to Autism Spectrum be pleased.
We want cohesion. Maybe we want redemption for ellen fien your or our sins. We want rising and falling action, even in essay. The smart essayist knows this. She uses the reader's expectations to her advantage. She understands that even faced with infinity we need constraint. I believe in the fragment. It's the most honest representation of anything. It acknowledges gaps, its lack of comprehensiveness, its ability to surround and control a subject, an Taxes: Effects Essays idea. Of the literary forms, the essay is the most open to fragment.
Because it tries to represent thinking, it knows only so much. It constantly faces the edge of ellen fien what it knows and stares off the edge into a darkness filled with question marks. On Death? The essay is about limitations. It understands itself. Because it forgoes much of the structure of ellen fien poem or story, it gets by on its own ability to dialogue analysis expand and consume whatever we feed it. It is self-replicating, expanding like a virus. Perhaps it's more accurate to say an ellen fien essay is Disorder Essay like a worm, spreading across systems, sending out new shoots.
It is modular, nodular. And of the forms of the essay, the lyric essay swallows fragments most easily. In order to accommodate gap, the essay must ape the poemit must create an openness, an attention to beauty rather than meaning, at least on the micro-scale, it must jump through gaps and continue on, an elision of the white space on the page. I am a writer who likes constraint. For me this means form: that which constrains or exhibits the effective constraints of a system. Ellen? It is an obsession. Forms come in dreams. They structure dreams. They embody system. The outline is a system.
The index is a system, or it relies on system. Indexes show up in all three of my books: as poem, as story and functional index, and pet planet uk, as essay. Fien? So the essay begins for me with the acknowledgment of dialogue system. This limits the fien motion, the options for the essayist. It allows the Taxes: Essays thinking and rhetoric to expand and run along the edge.
This is what hacking does. Hacking engages with a system, with its physical or digital limitations, the impossibility of access to parts of the system, for instance, without authorization. The limits of the Unix structure of read/write/alter rights. Ellen Fien? The limits of human ingenuity when it comes to choosing passwords (hint: we are not very ingenious at all; unfortunatelyfor two reasonsthe weakest part of any system is the human. The first reason is Autism Disorder Essay that it's unfortunate from a hackerly point of view that the easiest way in is the least technologically sophisticated: guessing. Or educated guessing, based on what I can find out about a person. Or what we used to refer to as social engineering, talking people into revealing their passwords or setting up an account. A form is like a challenge. A wall. A system of rules. A dungeon.
Signifiers accessing other signifiers. Given the rules of system X I want to hack it, see what it can be repurposed to do. Ellen? In this way writing the essay accesses the system, breaks the locks off of it, pushes against Autism Spectrum Essay it, line by line, and transforms . My friend Nicole has a purse made out of candy wrappers woven together. It is a beautiful object: glossy, slick, enclosing, crafty. I find myself wanting to fill it with candy but in practice she fills it with the usual stuff of a purse, a world I don't typically have much access to. Fien? The pleasure for me of looking at this artifact is dual: I recognize it is a purse. On closer inspection we see it is made up of candy wrappers. It is both things and neither, and in so doing it is something more. It is transformed.
It is melian dialogue also falling apart. It is an object transformed into another object. It was made, and doubly made (in the process being unmade, losing its former function), and now it is slowly unpeeling. I wonder if the half-life of the object is ellen intentional. That, like a candy wrapper, it is finally disposable, reducing to the memory of globalisation definition sociology what it contained, a ruin. I write this talk on my new word processing program. It's called WriteRoom (click here), and it is fien fantastic. The screen I am writing on mimics the look (in some ways) of a green-screen monochrome monitor, the kind you'd find on an Apple IIc, for instance, or an old IBM PC. On Death? In this way the writing of thisthe essaying of it, for I have only a vague sense of where I hope this essay to gois physically not all that dissimilar from my experience sitting in front of computer screens looking at the login prompt of ellen fien a BSD Unix system or the entrypoint for an unknown database, announcing almost nothing about globalisation definition sociology, itself. I am there again in one dorm room or another, or downstairs in the basement of ellen my parents' split-level, thinking about ordering Domino's and quaffing Cokes, fingering my bag of dodecahedron DD dice, playing some Sisters of pet planet uk Mercy on fien, my boombox bought from a duty free shop in Dubai.
I am feeling cool. The world is stretched out in why is the resurrection, front of me, accessible via keyboard, via text input into a machine. It is a series of walls and gateways. This is a generative space for me. It is like a dream. Ellen Fien? It is light spreading out in darkness (green light growing on the black screen).
It is globalisation definition sociology like an ellen fien electric dungeon. Hacks surround us. The world is made of them, of ingenuities. Of technical responses to particular problems, which is to say the world is made up of analysis designs. The essay is one of these, a technology repurposed in any given instance to fien solve a sort of problem, one that it does not know it is socrates meant to solve until it solves it. It is an exploration; it serves the function of art, treading out in darker waters. Even this essayespecially this essayis a hack.
Given the idea an essay is a hack I have been trying to find ways to make it work, to ellen fien wave my hands, trace my thoughts, produce language, produce magic. When I was sixteen, I broke into the mainframe of Comerica bank in Michigan. The details are now distant. It was simple. Really no hack at all. It required a couple minutes of guessing passwords. Melian Analysis? Once I found the dial-in number it led to an unlocked door. I used our dormitory resident assistant's phone line that I had rerouted from his room above mine to my own. Two security personnel from the bank visited me shortly thereafter, having traced the ellen call.
I hadn't thought to globalisation definition try to make my number more difficult to trace; in ellen fien, a way it did not occur to Spectrum me that they might take offense at my exploration, my intrusion. They asked me questions for an hour about what viruses I had uploaded into the system. I was dumbfounded. They expectedor maybe fearedthe worst. What I cared about was simply being inside, typing words and ellen fien, sending them through my modem to their modem to their mainframe system, something larger, more complex, more powerful and godlike and awful and other than my personal computerand having it respond. Eventually I was not allowed to have a phone line for obvious reasons. I had acquired master keys for dialogue analysis the campus that year, and ellen fien, I went about rerouting two phone lines from the switchboard in the basement: one snaked up to my room.
I painted the phone line the color of brick (or perhaps I wish I hadthere is no way to tell if this is a fabrication; it feels too ingenious in globalisation, retrospect, the mind says: you weren't quite that crafty) and bent the lead panes in ellen, the dorm room window to accommodate the line. Pet Planet Uk? The other line I snaked up to fien my friend Jason's room. We had hollowed out Spectrum Disorder Essay, one of the standard-issue dressers so that the fien drawer faces were just façade. The Resurrection So Important? I had installed a computer in his hollow dresser for my BBS, Datacrime International, to ellen fien run 24-7 on a modem and the rerouted, dedicated line. I admired that hack, that hiding of the the resurrection machine in fien, the dresser. It was like a literary symbol, I thought to myself appreciatively.
Or perhaps I think so now. I also rewired the phone system of the dorm so that the payphone was connected to one of the professors' lines, allowing everyone to call for free. Autism Spectrum Disorder? It was an elegant solution to a particular problem: being stuck at fien boarding school with no money, no phone lines, and no way out except the pay phone. I freed that passage up. None of this is difficult. I did not evade detection. I wasn't all that smart. Many hackers I knew were more ingenious, more serious, than me, more adept with assembler code or with the dialogue errata of shadowed password files in BSD Unix. What I had, though, was a talent for physical audacity, a willingness to dismantle systems, locking mechanisms, to steal if necessary, to raid dumpsters for manuals, all in the pursuit of access, meaning knowledge, meaning power. I have a hundred of these stories, some of which I've recounted before, and ellen fien, that I will recount again. They are a cloud of possibility that resides in the brain part of the body that produces this essay.
They constitute this version, this vision, of myself that I periodically let out to play. But with technical ability at writing, and the discovery of the pleasure of plundering received forms, a lot of my interest in the hack moved in a literary direction, towards the intricacy of language systems. And now the language systems interact with the memory system that recalls the globalisation definition hacker exploits, and behind every essay I write is this hacker persona, this desire for punkrockitude, the trickster impulse. The History of Literature. The history of literature is the history of experimental literature. Ellen Fien? Thank God. It isor it mirrors and prefiguresthe history of hacking.
Of geographic exploration. Of body modification projects. Of medical innovation. Of Star Trek mythologies or other invention. Of the Spectrum Disorder Essay human urge to push against, to fill in blanks, to see what else is there behind the there. What person wants to fien accomplish simply what has occurred before? What writeror artist of any sortdesires only to live up to her forebears? Experiment interacts and sprouts from literary history.
Every poem, every story, every essay must still deliver an emotional or intellectual experience, no matter how unusual the form. It must still offer arc. It must emanate from a mind and show some trace. It poses questions and resolves at socrates on death least a few of fien them. Experiment is a hack of Taxes: one or more formal element, trying to do without it, to cross a gap. It acknowledges that there is a gap, for starters, and that it is not trivial to cross it. But those who decry literature as experimental are usually saying something is only experimental, that it lacks human dimension, that it is all brain, no body, no heart.
That it is an experiment that has not borne fruit. But the experiment is the process, not the product. The problem is colossal: rendering human experience as text. Finding our way into the nearly-infinite complexity of human interaction, of the human capacity for memory, for language. Our job as writers, as essay writers, is to set out (dare we say essay ) with no clear sense of what the results of the experiment will be, but to try to create something of it that is somehow magical. The last strandor maybe fragmentof the essay has yet to fall into place, I think, as I prepare for bed, looking out on the spectacular ripple of lights in the city buildings. After a ridiculous battle with the packaging, I get open one of ten individually-wrapped pouches of ellen Vanilla Mint-flavored Benadryl Quick Dissolve Strips. That is a lot of the resurrection so important adjectives. One of ellen fien many recent methods of delivering medications (the caplet, the capsule, the tablet, the the resurrection so important tab, the gelcap, the liquid) all offering us options to the pill, I have been looking forward to this, I think, for months.
I am a huge fan of the ellen Listerine Pocket Pack breath strip. I am a fan of anything that seems solid and then disintegrates in the body. With the pouch finally open, I lay it on my tongue like an offering. Definition Sociology? Or maybe I am thinking communion. It is heavier than a Pocket Pack Breath Strip but lighter than a communion wafer. It smells tingly. Minty. I am amazed by its technology. On my tongue it holds its form for a minute, longer than I would expect. I watch my mouth in the mirror as it dissolves. Ellen Fien? It takes a long time and leaves an aftertaste of chemicals that somehow equal vanilla mint.
Even now I can feel it in my mouth and melian dialogue, I am pleased. Ellen Fien? I don't know what this means.