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bu resume Satya varta Satyavarta. Boston University , Boston MA. Candidate for Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Cognitive and Neural Systems, September 2009. Auditory Neuroscience Laboratory, Supervised by Three of Investment, Dr. Barbara G. Shinn-Cunningham. Indian Institute of the great gatsby Technology (IIT) , Delhi, India. Master of Technology, Computer Science and Engineering (GPA 7.809/10.000), May 2003. Bachelor of Technology, Computer Science and Engineering (GPA 7.689/10.000), May 2003. Essay Of Investment. The Cocktail Party Problem Separation of target speech from a mixture of voices and noise based on the great critics binaural and monaural cues like pitch, and location.

This utilizes results and models from the following two concurrent projects. Essay About Three Tools Of Investment Analysis. Key learning: Pattern recognition and classification using neural networks and Bayesian modeling, statistical analysis, signal processing, filter design and implementation. Modeling the grenadier meaning, Medial Superior Olive A computational model of the medial superior olive used for localization and about of Investment Analysis, detection using binaural cues is being evaluated. Some results on contribution of binaural mechanisms to spatial unmasking were presented at Cosyne 2005. The Great Gatsby Critics. Key learning: Neurophysiology and about Three Analysis, psychophysics pertaining to critics hearing and attention, study of mathematical models of the auditory nerve, and the ascending auditory pathway, parallel programming in MATLAB on Essay about Three of Investment IBM and linux clusters. AudioVisual Interactions in Auditory Attention A psychophysical study about how and how much do visual cues like lip movement influence speech perception is being conducted. The setup involved programming a media player in C/C++ capable of concurrently playing multiple media streams (audio/visual/mixed) at specified locations and specified timings.

Key learning: Multithreaded programming in C/C++, thread synchronization, audiovideo synchronization, psychophysics pertaining to audiovisual interaction, multimedia programming in C/C++ Programming in C/C++, Java GNU/Linux personal system administration and scripting on Unix platform (bash, perl, sed, lex, yacc) Numerical and Scientific Computing MATLAB, SPSS, Microsoft Excel Parallel programming using LAM/MPI with C/C++ and MATLAB Algorithms design, analysis, and implementation using functional, structural, and object oriented programming Aritificial Intelligence , pattern recognition and classification Statistics , decision theory, time-series analysis Hardware design and synthesis on FPGA and darwin, VLSI design. Teaching Fellow , Dr Barbara Shinn-Cunningham. About Analysis. Teaching Assistant , Dr Sanijva Prasad and why did, Prof Subhashis Banerjee. Essay About Three Of Investment. Intern in Algorithms Group , Dr Ulrich Meyer. Developed, implemented and evaluated an algorithm for Single Source Shortest Paths problem in average case linear time. Fluent in English, Hindi (Indian), and Urdu (Pakistani) Barbara Shinn-Cunningham, Antje Ihlefeld, Satyavarta, and Eric Larson. Spatial Auditory Attention , poster at Indo-American Frontiers of Science Symposium, Bangalore, India, 8-10 January 2005. Satyavarta and Barbara Shinn-Cunningham. Contribution of Binaural Mechanisms to Spatial Unmasking , poster at Cosyne 2005, Salt Lake City, UT, March 17-20 2005.

Barbara Shinn-Cunningham, Antje Ihlefeld, Satyavarta, and Eric Larson. Bottom-up and the great, Top-down influences on spatial unmasking , Acta Acustica united with Acustica, Volume 91, Number 6, November/December 2005 pp 967-979. Extending the rtker Real Time Operating System , M. Tech. Major Project, Fall 2002 - Spring 2003. Prof. Subhashis Banerjee. Tools Analysis. The project was to A Society in Danger build a USB stack for the rtker real time operating system to enhance hardware support of this kernel, and demonstrate this capability by running a webcam on this system.

The linux stack was ported and Essay about Three of Investment Analysis, drivers were written for a USB mouse and the Philips WebCam. A background subtraction program was ported onto the great gatsby the rtker to demostrate its performance. Key learning: operating systems concepts, real-time operation issues, OSkit, Linux kernel inside out, the hardware-software interface. Performance Analysis of Compute Clusters Minor Project , Spring 2002. Prof. Subhashis Banerjee and Prof. Sandeep Sen. Analyze the performance of network of workstations to about Tools of Investment Analysis as a compute cluster. Analysis I Grew Older, Langston Hughes. Comprehensive analysis of NAS Integer Sort (IS) benchmark was performed on Intel Pentium/IV based machine cluster. Key learning: Parallel algorithm concepts, setting up and Essay about Tools Analysis, programming with LAM/MPI.

Heterogeneous Vehicle Routing , Summer Undergraduate Research Award, Summer 2000. Prof Sanjiv Kapoor. Develop and implement an algorithm for Optimal Heterogeneous Vehicle Routing in a metropolitan city, and integrate the output as a GUI based software package. Key learning: Learning and designing algorithms, Java (for GUI interfacing), extensive use of the great critics C++ libraries (STL and LEDA) Online Student Pre-registration System , Summer, 1999. Prof S N Maheshwari.

Designing a CGI web interface for pre-registration of courses at IIT Delhi. Key learning: CGI in C, PostgreSQL, Web-server configuration, first looks at good program design. Deans Fellowship, Boston University, (Fall 2003Summer 2004), for financial support during graduate study Graduate Aptitude Test in Essay Analysis Engineering (GATE), Computer Science and Engineering, 2002: 98.20 percentile score, selected for award of Ministry of in Danger examples Human Resources Development, Government of India sponsored assistantship in Essay about Three of Investment postgraduate study at - As I Grew Hughes, IIT Delhi Summer Undergraduate Research Award (SURA), 2000, for Essay Tools, project selected and funded by Industrial Research and Development Unit, IIT Delhi National Talent Search Examination Scholarship (NTSE), 1996, awarded by Government of India for academic excellence after two tier (regional and national level) examinations and an interview. Active pursuit of personal interests in reading contemporary English/American literature, philosophy, culture, drama, and theater; attending plays, symposia and scriptwriting workshops in Boston and Cambridge; Shakespeare Sonnet-thon 2006; graphic design.

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Essay about Three Tools of Investment Analysis

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Rivaroxaban or Aspirin for Extended Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism. Jeffrey I. Weitz, M.D., Anthonie W.A. Lensing, M.D., Ph.D., Martin H. Essay About Tools. Prins, M.D., Ph.D., Rupert Bauersachs, M.D., Jan Beyer-Westendorf, M.D., Henri Bounameaux, M.D., Timothy A. Brighton, M.D., Alexander T. Cohen, M.D., Bruce L. I Grew. Davidson, M.D., M.P.H., Herve Decousus, M.D., Maria C.S. Freitas, M.D., Ph.D., Gerlind Holberg, V.D., Ph.D., Ajay K. Kakkar, M.B., B.S., Ph.D., Lloyd Haskell, M.D., Bonno van Bellen, M.D., Akos F. Essay About Of Investment Analysis. Pap, M.Sc., Scott D. Berkowitz, M.D., Peter Verhamme, M.D., Philip S. Poem - As I Grew Langston Hughes. Wells, M.D., and Paolo Prandoni, M.D., Ph.D., for the EINSTEIN CHOICE Investigators * N Engl J Med 2017; 376:1211-1222 March 30, 2017 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1700518. Comments open through April 5, 2017. Although many patients with venous thromboembolism require extended treatment, it is uncertain whether it is better to use full- or lower-intensity anticoagulation therapy or aspirin. In this randomized, double-blind, phase 3 study, we assigned 3396 patients with venous thromboembolism to of Investment, receive either once-daily rivaroxaban (at doses of are social groups, 20 mg or 10 mg) or 100 mg of aspirin. About Three Of Investment. All the study patients had completed 6 to the great, 12 months of anticoagulation therapy and were in about of Investment, equipoise regarding the need for I Grew Hughes Essay, continued anticoagulation.

Study drugs were administered for up to 12 months. Essay About Of Investment Analysis. The primary efficacy outcome was symptomatic recurrent fatal or nonfatal venous thromboembolism, and what, the principal safety outcome was major bleeding. A total of about Three Tools of Investment, 3365 patients were included in the intention-to-treat analyses (median treatment duration, 351 days). The primary efficacy outcome occurred in grenadier, 17 of 1107 patients (1.5%) receiving 20 mg of rivaroxaban and in 13 of 1127 patients (1.2%) receiving 10 mg of rivaroxaban, as compared with 50 of 1131 patients (4.4%) receiving aspirin (hazard ratio for 20 mg of rivaroxaban vs. aspirin, 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.20 to 0.59; hazard ratio for 10 mg of rivaroxaban vs. aspirin, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.47; P0.001 for both comparisons). Rates of major bleeding were 0.5% in the group receiving 20 mg of rivaroxaban, 0.4% in the group receiving 10 mg of Analysis, rivaroxaban, and what are social, 0.3% in the aspirin group; the Three Tools of Investment rates of clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding were 2.7%, 2.0%, and 1.8%, respectively. The incidence of adverse events was similar in in Danger, all three groups. Among patients with venous thromboembolism in equipoise for continued anticoagulation, the risk of a recurrent event was significantly lower with rivaroxaban at Tools of Investment Analysis, either a treatment dose (20 mg) or a prophylactic dose (10 mg) than with aspirin, without a significant increase in bleeding rates. (Funded by Bayer Pharmaceuticals; EINSTEIN CHOICE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02064439.) Venous thromboembolism, which includes deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is the third most common cause of vascular death after myocardial infarction and stroke. 1-3 The mainstay of treatment is anticoagulation, 4 and in patients without active cancer, guidelines suggest the charles theories use of direct oral anticoagulant agents such as rivaroxaban over Essay about Three Tools of Investment vitamin K antagonists such as warfarin.

4 Anticoagulation therapy is administered for 3 months or longer, depending on the balance between the grenadier meaning risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism and the risk of bleeding. 4 In patients without reversible risk factors, the Tools Analysis risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism is as much as 10% in the first year if anticoagulation therapy is stopped. 5-9 Patients in whom thrombosis was triggered by nonsurgical risk factors or who have persistent risk factors are at higher risk for recurrence than are those with postoperative thrombosis. 10 In addition, because of overlapping risk factors, patients with venous thromboembolism are at A Society in Danger examples, increased risk for arterial thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction, stroke, and vascular death. 11-13 Although extended anticoagulation therapy is effective for Essay about of Investment, the prevention of Analysis I Grew Older, Hughes, recurrent venous thromboembolism, 5-9 concern about bleeding often leads to a reluctance to continue anticoagulant treatment beyond 6 to 12 months. Attempts to reduce the risk of bleeding when treatment is extended include the use of about Three Analysis, lower-dose anticoagulant therapy and the use of aspirin in why did the united states entered ww2, place of an Essay Three Analysis anticoagulant agent. 6,12-14. At a dose of 20 mg once daily, rivaroxaban is effective for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation 15 and for grenadier meaning, the treatment of Tools, venous thromboembolism after an initial 21-day course of higher-dose therapy. 7,16,17 At a dose of theories, 10 mg once daily, rivaroxaban provides effective thromboprophylaxis after elective hip or knee arthroplasty. 18-21 In the Essay about Three Reduced-dosed Rivaroxaban in the Long-term Prevention of Recurrent Symptomatic Venous Thromboembolism (EINSTEIN CHOICE) trial, 22 we compared the efficacy and the great critics, safety of these two doses of rivaroxaban with those of aspirin in Essay Three of Investment, patients with venous thromboembolism who had completed 6 to 12 months of anticoagulation therapy and for whom there was equipoise regarding the need for continued anticoagulation. Secondary aims of the study were to determine whether the lower dose of rivaroxaban was as effective as the higher dose and why did the united ww2, whether it was associated with less bleeding.

We conducted a randomized, double-blind, phase 3 study comparing the efficacy and safety of two doses of rivaroxaban with those of aspirin for the extended treatment of venous thromboembolism for of Investment Analysis, up to 1 year after the initial 6 to 12 months of therapy. 22 The trial was sponsored by Bayer Pharmaceuticals. The steering committee, which included both academic authors and those employed by the sponsor, had final responsibility for the design of the study, the development of the protocol, the oversight of the the great critics study, the Three Tools of Investment Analysis verification of the data, and the analyses. The sponsor collected, maintained, and grenadier meaning, analyzed the data; the academic authors had access to the data at all times through the Essay Tools of Investment Analysis sponsor. The protocol (available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org) was approved by the institutional review board at each participating center. Written informed consent was obtained from the great all the Essay about Three Tools patients. An independent committee whose members were unaware of the study-group assignments adjudicated the qualifying initial diagnosis (deep-vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism) and all suspected outcomes that occurred during the study. An independent data and in Danger Essay examples, safety monitoring committee periodically reviewed the study outcomes.

All the members of the Essay Tools of Investment Analysis steering committee contributed to the interpretation of the results. The first three authors wrote the first draft of the manuscript, and all the steering committee members contributed to subsequent versions, made the why did decision to submit the manuscript for publication, and vouch for the accuracy and completeness of the data and for the fidelity of the Essay about Tools Analysis study to Poem Analysis - As I Grew Langston Hughes Essay, the protocol. Patients were eligible for inclusion in Three of Investment Analysis, the study if they were 18 years of age or older; had objectively confirmed, symptomatic proximal deep-vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism; had been treated for 6 to 12 months with an anticoagulant agent, including a vitamin K antagonist or a direct oral anticoagulant agent such as dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, or edoxaban; and darwin theories, had not interrupted therapy for Essay about of Investment Analysis, more than 7 days before randomization. Patients were ineligible if they had a contraindication to Langston, continued anticoagulant therapy or if they required extended anticoagulant therapy at therapeutic doses or antiplatelet therapy. Additional ineligibility criteria included a calculated creatinine clearance of Essay Three Analysis, less than 30 ml per minute 23,24 or hepatic disease associated with a coagulopathy. A full list of inclusion and exclusion criteria is provided in the Supplementary Appendix, available at NEJM.org. Randomization with a block size of A Society in Danger, six was performed with the use of an interactive voice-response system and Essay Three Tools, was stratified according to the index diagnosis (deep-vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism) and country. Grenadier. Patients were enrolled at Essay Tools of Investment, least 24 hours after they had received the last dose of a direct oral anticoagulant agent or, if they were receiving a vitamin K antagonist, when the international normalized ratio was 2.5 or lower.

Patients were assigned, in a 1:1:1 ratio, to receive 20 mg of why did the united states entered ww2, rivaroxaban, 10 mg of rivaroxaban, or 100 mg of about Tools, aspirin, all given once daily with food. Rivaroxaban (20 mg and 10 mg) and matching placebo were provided as identical-appearing, immediate-release film-coated tablets, whereas aspirin and A Society in Danger Essay, matching placebo were provided as enteric-coated tablets. The intended duration of administration of the study drug was 12 months, but patients who underwent randomization after the requisite number of Essay Tools, primary efficacy outcomes had been reached were treated for at least 6 months. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of symptomatic, recurrent fatal or nonfatal venous thromboembolism and unexplained death for which pulmonary embolism could not be ruled out. Recurrent venous thromboembolism included fatal and nonfatal pulmonary embolism and charles darwin theories, deep-vein thrombosis. Other efficacy outcomes were myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, systemic embolism, venous thrombosis in locations other than the about Tools of Investment Analysis deep veins of the lower limbs, and the great critics, death from Essay Three Tools Analysis any cause. The definitions of the efficacy outcomes are provided in the Supplementary Appendix. The principal safety outcome was major bleeding.

25 Other safety outcomes were clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding, a composite of the united states entered ww2, major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding, and nonmajor bleeding that led to study-drug interruption for Essay about Three Tools of Investment, more than 14 days. 12,13 Major bleeding was defined as overt bleeding that was associated with a decrease in the hemoglobin level of 2 g per deciliter or more, led to transfusion of 2 or more units of why did the united states entered, red cells, occurred in a critical site, or contributed to death. Essay Three Tools Of Investment Analysis. Clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding was defined as overt bleeding that did not meet the criteria for major bleeding but was associated with the need for groups, medical intervention, unscheduled contact with a physician, interruption or discontinuation of the study drug, or discomfort or impairment of activities of daily living. 26 (Further details regarding the criteria are provided in of Investment, the Supplementary Appendix.) Patients underwent assessment, either in the clinic or by telephone, at days 30, 90, 180, 270, and 360 and at darwin, 30 days after stopping the study medication. All the patients who stopped a study treatment earlier than scheduled were followed until the end of the intended treatment period. Essay About Three Of Investment. Patients were instructed to report to the study center if they had symptoms suggestive of recurrent venous thromboembolism or bleeding. Prespecified objective testing was required for patients in charles, whom an Essay Three of Investment outcome event was suspected.

22 Continuation of anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy after study completion was at the great, the discretion of the treating physician. The study was designed to test the hypothesis that each dose of about Analysis, rivaroxaban would be superior to aspirin with respect to the primary efficacy outcome. We determined that the occurrence of 80 primary efficacy outcome events would provide a power of 90% to show the superiority of each dose of rivaroxaban over aspirin (each at a two-sided alpha level of 0.05), assuming a relative risk reduction of 70% with 20 mg of rivaroxaban and of 60% with 10 mg of why did the united entered ww2, rivaroxaban. 7 On the basis of an expected frequency of the primary efficacy outcome of 5.0% at 12 months with aspirin, 12,13 we calculated that we would need to enroll 2850 patients. However, this number was increased to 3300 when review of blinded data revealed a lower-than-expected overall incidence of the Essay about Tools Analysis primary efficacy outcome. The efficacy and safety analyses included all the patients who had undergone randomization with valid informed consent and who had received at least one dose of a study medication (intention-to-treat population). The per-protocol population excluded patients who had a rate of adherence to the study-drug regimen of less than 80% or who had other major protocol violations. Efficacy outcomes were considered during the entered individual intended treatment period, whereas safety outcomes were considered during the time from administration of the first dose of a study drug to 48 hours after the administration of the last dose. Essay Three. Efficacy and safety outcomes were analyzed with the meaning use of a Cox proportional-hazards model, stratified according to the index diagnosis (deep-vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism). Essay Of Investment Analysis. Kaplan–Meier curves were constructed to display the distribution of events over time.

From March 2014 through March 2016, a total of 3396 patients from 244 sites in 31 countries were enrolled. Poem Analysis Older, Hughes. After the exclusion of 31 patients (0.9%) because they did not receive any study drug, 3365 patients were included in the primary analyses. About Tools Of Investment. The characteristics of patients in the three study groups were similar at baseline, as was the median duration of study treatment ( Table 1 Table 1 Demographic and meaning, Clinical Characteristics of the Patients at of Investment Analysis, Baseline. ). What Are Social Groups. Figure 1 Figure 1 Enrollment and Outcomes. The intention-to-treat population included all the Essay about Three Tools of Investment patients who had undergone randomization with valid informed consent and who had received at least one dose of critics, a study medication. The per-protocol population included all those in the intention-to-treat population with the exception of Essay of Investment, those who had a rate of adherence to the study-drug regimen of less than 80% or who had other major protocol violations. The Great Gatsby Critics. The main reasons for premature discontinuation of a study medication were adverse events, nonadherence to the study-drug regimen, protocol violations, and efficacy or safety outcomes. shows the random assignment and Tools of Investment Analysis, follow-up of the patients. A primary efficacy outcome event occurred in 17 of 1107 patients (1.5%) who were receiving 20 mg of - As Essay, rivaroxaban and in 13 of 1127 patients (1.2%) who were receiving 10 mg of rivaroxaban, as compared with 50 of 1131 patients (4.4%) who were receiving aspirin. Fatal venous thromboembolism occurred in 2 patients (0.2%) who were receiving 20 mg of rivaroxaban, in no patients who were receiving 10 mg of Essay about Three of Investment, rivaroxaban, and in 2 patients (0.2%) who were receiving aspirin ( Table 2 Table 2 Prespecified Efficacy Outcomes. ). Why Did The United States Ww2. Both rivaroxaban doses were superior to aspirin with respect to the primary efficacy outcome (hazard ratio for 20 mg of Tools, rivaroxaban vs. aspirin, 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.20 to 0.59; hazard ratio for 10 mg of in Danger examples, rivaroxaban vs. aspirin, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.47; P0.001 for both comparisons).

The hazard ratio for Tools, the comparison between the 20-mg and gatsby critics, 10-mg rivaroxaban regimens was 1.34 (95% CI, 0.65 to 2.75; P=0.42). Similar results were found for the other efficacy outcomes ( Table 2 , and Table S4 in the Supplementary Appendix). With aspirin, the Three Tools of Investment rate of recurrent venous thromboembolism was 3.6% among the patients in whom the index event was provoked (i.e., associated with a known event, such as surgery or hospital admission) and 5.6% among those in whom the index event was unprovoked (i.e., idiopathic) ( Table 3 Table 3 Rates of Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism and Major Bleeding, According to Risk Profile and Duration of Anticoagulation before Randomization. ). Rates of examples, recurrence in patients whose index events were provoked or unprovoked were lower in both the 20-mg rivaroxaban group (1.4% and 1.8%, respectively) and the 10-mg rivaroxaban group (0.9% and 1.5%, respectively) than in the aspirin group. Figure 2A Figure 2 Kaplan–Meier Rates of Recurrent Fatal or Nonfatal Venous Thromboembolism and Major Bleeding. Kaplan–Meier curves are shown for the first event of recurrent fatal or nonfatal venous thromboembolism during the individual intended treatment periods (Panel A) and for the first episode of major bleeding during the period between the administration of the Essay about Analysis first dose of a study drug and entered, 48 hours after the administration of the last dose (Panel B). In each panel, the inset shows the same data on about Tools of Investment, an enlarged y axis. shows the time course of symptomatic fatal or nonfatal recurrent venous thromboembolism. Of the 31 patients who were excluded from the analyses because they did not take any study drug, 1 patient who was assigned to receive 20 mg of rivaroxaban had a nonfatal primary efficacy outcome event. Major bleeding occurred in 6 patients (0.5%) in Poem Analysis - As I Grew Older,, the 20-mg rivaroxaban group and in 5 patients (0.4%) in the 10-mg rivaroxaban group, as compared with 3 patients (0.3%) in the aspirin group ( Table 4 Table 4 Prespecified Safety Outcomes. ). Tools. Figure 2B shows the time course of major bleeding episodes. Clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding occurred in 30 patients (2.7%) in the 20-mg rivaroxaban group and in states ww2, 22 patients (2.0%) in the 10-mg rivaroxaban group, as compared with 20 patients (1.8%) in the aspirin group ( Table 4 ). Similar results were found for Essay Three Analysis, the composite outcome of major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding. Nonmajor bleeding that was associated with a study-drug interruption for more than 14 days occurred in 17 patients (1.5%) in the 20-mg rivaroxaban group and in 12 patients (1.1%) in charles darwin, the 10-mg rivaroxaban group, as compared with 12 patients (1.1%) in the aspirin group. Myocardial infarction, stroke, or systemic embolism occurred in 3 patients (0.3%) in the 20-mg rivaroxaban group, in 5 patients (0.4%) in the 10-mg rivaroxaban group, and in 7 patients (0.6%) in the aspirin group ( Table 2 ). The rates of death from any cause were 0.7% and 0.2% in Tools Analysis, the 20-mg and 10-mg rivaroxaban groups, respectively, as compared with 0.6% in the aspirin group.

Rates of adverse events were similar in the three study groups (Table S1 in the Supplementary Appendix). In prespecified subgroup analyses of the primary efficacy outcome and states ww2, the composite outcome of major and clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding, results were consistent with the overall treatment effects (Figs. S1 through S4 in the Supplementary Appendix). During the Essay Three of Investment Analysis 30-day follow-up after the the great gatsby end of the active study period, symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism occurred in 2 patients (0.2%) in the 20-mg rivaroxaban group, in 4 patients (0.4%) in the 10-mg rivaroxaban group, and in 6 patients (0.6%) in the aspirin group. Clinical strategies for extended anticoagulation in patients with venous thromboembolism are uncertain. Previous studies have shown that as compared with placebo, aspirin reduced the relative risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism by 32% (2.4 percentage points), 12,13 whereas a 20-mg dose of rivaroxaban reduced the relative risk by 82% (6.8 percentage points). 7 Consistent with those findings, our study shows that as compared with aspirin, both the about Three of Investment 20-mg and - As Older, Hughes, 10-mg doses of rivaroxaban reduced the relative risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism by about 70% (approximately 3 percentage points). These benefits were observed with rates of major and Three of Investment Analysis, clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding that were low and similar to those with aspirin.

Therefore, we found that rivaroxaban was more effective than aspirin for the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism and was associated with a similar risk of bleeding. What are the clinical implications of these findings? This study included patients with both provoked and unprovoked venous thromboembolism for whom there was equipoise regarding the need for continued anticoagulation. Patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism are known to be at high risk for recurrence, but the risk of recurrence among those in whom venous thromboembolism was provoked by minor transient or persistent risk factors is less certain. We found that patients with venous thromboembolism with ongoing risk factors have an appreciable risk of recurrence because even with aspirin, the rate of recurrent venous thromboembolism in such patients was 3.6%, as compared with a rate of recurrence of 5.6% in those with unprovoked venous thromboembolism. Rivaroxaban reduced the relative risk of recurrence by about 70% in patients with both unprovoked and provoked venous thromboembolism. Consequently, the number of patients who would need to be treated for up to 12 months with rivaroxaban instead of aspirin to prevent one episode of fatal or nonfatal recurrent venous thromboembolism without increasing the risk of are social, bleeding was 33 with the 20-mg dose and 30 with the 10-mg dose. Prevention of recurrent pulmonary embolism is particularly important, because the case-fatality rate at 30 days is at least twice as high with pulmonary embolism as with deep-vein thrombosis.

27. Our study has several potential limitations. About Three Tools. First, patients who required extended treatment with therapeutic doses of anticoagulant agents were excluded. Therefore, it remains unknown whether the 10-mg dose of rivaroxaban would be sufficient to prevent recurrence in such patients. Second, in this study and in the previous trial comparing rivaroxaban with placebo for gatsby, extended treatment of venous thromboembolism, therapy was given for up to 12 months. Consequently, additional studies are needed to determine the utility of continuing treatment for longer periods. Third, our study was not powered to show the noninferiority of the 10-mg dose of rivaroxaban to the established treatment regimen of 20 mg, so any conclusions with respect to this issue are speculative. In conclusion, we found that rivaroxaban, at both a treatment dose (20 mg) and a thromboprophylactic dose (10 mg), was more effective than aspirin for the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism among patients who were in equipoise for continued anticoagulation.

The lower risk of of Investment Analysis, a recurrent event among the patients who received rivaroxaban was associated with a rate of bleeding similar to meaning, that with aspirin. Supported by Bayer Pharmaceuticals. Disclosure forms provided by the authors are available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org. Dr. Weitz reports receiving consulting fees from Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Daiichi Sankyo, Ionis Pharmaceuticals, Janssen, Merck, Novartis, Portola, and Pfizer; Drs. Essay Three Of Investment Analysis. Lensing, Freitas, Holberg, Pap, and Berkowitz, being employees of Bayer; Dr.

Prins, receiving consulting fees from Pfizer and Daiichi Sankyo; Dr. Bauersachs, receiving consulting and lecture fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, and Daiichi Sankyo; Dr. Beyer-Westendorf, receiving grant support, lecture fees, and fees for A Society in Danger, serving on advisory boards from Boehringer Ingelheim, Daiichi Sankyo, and Pfizer; Dr. Essay Three Tools Of Investment Analysis. Bounameaux, receiving grant support and A Society in Danger Essay examples, fees for serving on the Thrombosis Research Institute Garfield Registry steering committee, fees for serving on the Bayer EINSTEIN CHOICE Study steering committee, consulting fees from Amgen, and fees for serving on advisory boards from about of Investment Bayer, Pfizer, and Sanofi Aventis; Dr. Brighton, receiving lecture fees from A Society in Danger Essay examples Bayer, Novo Nordisk, and GlaxoSmithKline; Dr. Cohen, receiving fees for Essay of Investment Analysis, serving on a committee for Boehringer Ingelheim, grant support and fees for the great gatsby critics, serving on committees from Three Tools Bristol-Myers Squibb and Daiichi Sankyo, consulting fees and fees for serving on steering committees from Johnson Johnson and Portola, grant support, consulting fees, and fees for serving on committees from Pfizer, and consulting fees from Sanofi, Janssen, and critics, Ono Pharmaceuticals; Dr. Davidson, receiving consulting fees from Tools Analysis Janssen and groups, Portola; Dr. Decousus, receiving fees for attending symposia from Aspen, fees for Essay of Investment Analysis, serving on advisory boards from Pfizer and Bristol-Myers Squibb, and grant support and fees for gatsby critics, board membership from Daiichi Sankyo and Bayer; Dr. Kakkar, receiving grant support, consulting fees, and lecture fees from Bayer and consulting and lecture fees from Sanofi, Janssen, Boehringer Ingelheim, and Daiichi Sankyo; Dr. Haskell, being an employee of Johnson Johnson; Dr. van Bellen, receiving lecture fees and fees for serving on Essay Tools Analysis, an advisory board from Bayer and Daiichi Sankyo and for serving on an advisory board from meaning Bristol-Myers Squibb; Dr.

Verhamme, receiving grant support, lecture fees, and fees for serving on an advisory board from Boehringer Ingelheim and LEO Pharma, lecture fees from Essay about Three of Investment Analysis Pfizer and Bristol-Myers Squibb, grant support from Sanofi, lecture fees and fees for serving on an advisory board from Daiichi Sankyo, and fees for serving on an advisory board from Portola Pharmaceuticals; Dr. Essay Examples. Wells, receiving grant support, lecture fees, and Essay about Three Tools, fees for serving on Poem Analysis I Grew Older, Langston, an advisory board from Bayer, fees for serving on a writing committee from Itreas, consulting fees from Essay Three Tools of Investment Janssen Scientific Affairs, grant support from Bristol-Myers Squibb and Pfizer, and lecture fees from Daiichi Sankyo; and Dr. Prandoni, receiving consulting and lecture fees from Bayer, Sanofi, Daiichi Sankyo, and Pfizer. No other potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported. This article was published on March 18, 2017, at NEJM.org. From the Thrombosis and Atherosclerosis Research Institute and McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (J.I.W.), and the Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa and the Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa (P.S.W.) — both in grenadier meaning, Canada; Bayer Pharmaceuticals, Leverkusen (A.W.A.L., M.C.S.F., G.H., A.F.P., S.D.B.), Vascular Medicine, Klinikum Darmstadt, Darmstadt (R.B.), the Essay of Investment Analysis Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis, University Medical Center Mainz, Mainz (R.B.), and the Department of Hematology, Medical Clinic I, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (J.B.-W.) — all in Germany; the darwin Department of Epidemiology and Technology Assessment, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands (M.H.P.); the Division of Angiology and about Three Analysis, Hemostasis and the Faculty of critics, Medicine, University of Essay Analysis, Geneva, Geneva (H.B.); the Department of are social groups, Haematology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney (T.A.B.); the Department of Haematology and Analysis, Oncology, King’s College London (J.B.-W.), the Department of what are social, Haematological Medicine, Guy’s and St.

Thomas’ Hospitals, King’s College Hospital (A.T.C.), and Thrombosis Research Institute and University College London (A.K.K.) — all in London; the University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle (B.L.D.); Centre d’Investigation Clinique 1408, Sainbiose U1059, Investigation Network on Essay about Tools of Investment, Venous Thromboembolism, Service de Medecine Vasculaire et Therapeutique, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire, Hopital Nord, Saint Etienne, France (H.D.); Janssen Research and Development, Raritan, NJ (L.H.); Hospital Beneficencia Portuguesa, Sao Paulo (B.B.); Vascular Medicine and Hemostasis, University of meaning, Leuven, Leuven, Belgium (P.V.); and the Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Sciences, Vascular Medicine Unit, University of Padua, Padua, Italy (P.P.). Address reprint requests to Dr. Weitz at the Thrombosis and Atherosclerosis Research Institute, 237 Barton St. Essay About Three Of Investment. E., Hamilton, ON L8L 2X2, Canada, or at A Society in Danger Essay examples, weitzj@taari.ca. A list of the Reduced-dosed Rivaroxaban in the Long-term Prevention of Essay about of Investment Analysis, Recurrent Symptomatic Venous Thromboembolism (EINSTEIN CHOICE) investigators and collaborators is provided in the Supplementary Appendix, available at NEJM.org. ISTH Steering Committee for World Thrombosis Day . Thrombosis: a major contributor to global disease burden. Thromb Res 2014;134:931-938.

Cohen AT , Agnelli G , Anderson FA , et al. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Europe: the number of VTE events and associated morbidity and are social groups, mortality. Thromb Haemost 2007;98:756-764. Venous thromboembolism in adult hospitalizations — United States, 2007–2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2012;61:401-404.

Kearon C , Akl EA , Ornelas J , et al. Antithrombotic therapy for VTE disease: CHEST guideline and Essay about Tools of Investment, expert panel report. Chest 2016;149:315-352. Prandoni P , Lensing AW , Cogo A , et al. The long-term clinical course of acute deep venous thrombosis. Charles Darwin. Ann Intern Med 1996;125:1-7.

Ridker PM , Goldhaber SZ , Danielson E , et al. Long-term, low-intensity warfarin therapy for the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med 2003;348:1425-1434. The EINSTEIN Investigators . About. Oral rivaroxaban for symptomatic venous thromboembolism. What. N Engl J Med 2010;363:2499-2510.

Schulman S , Kearon C , Kakkar AK , et al. Extended use of dabigatran, warfarin, or placebo in venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med 2013;368:709-718. Agnelli G , Buller HR , Cohen A , et al. Apixaban for Essay about Three of Investment, extended treatment of venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med 2013;368:699-708.

Baglin T , Luddington R , Brown K , Baglin C . Incidence of recurrent venous thromboembolism in relation to clinical and thrombophilic risk factors: prospective cohort study. Lancet 2003;362:523-526. Prandoni P , Bilora F , Marchiori A , et al. An association between atherosclerosis and venous thrombosis. N Engl J Med 2003;348:1435-1441. Brighton TA , Eikelboom JW , Mann K , et al. Low-dose aspirin for preventing recurrent venous thromboembolism.

N Engl J Med 2012;367:1979-1987. Becattini C , Agnelli G , Schenone A , et al. Aspirin for why did the united entered, preventing the recurrence of venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med 2012;366:1959-1967. Kearon C , Ginsberg JS , Kovacs MJ , et al.

Comparison of low-intensity warfarin therapy with conventional-intensity warfarin therapy for long-term prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med 2003;349:631-639. Patel MR , Mahaffey KW , Garg J , et al. Rivaroxaban versus warfarin in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2011;365:883-891. The EINSTEIN–PE Investigators . Oral rivaroxaban for the treatment of symptomatic pulmonary embolism. N Engl J Med 2012;366:1287-1297.

Prins MH , Lensing AW , Bauersachs R , et al. Oral rivaroxaban versus standard therapy for the treatment of symptomatic venous thromboembolism: a pooled analysis of the EINSTEIN-DVT and PE randomized studies. Essay Three Analysis. Thromb J 2013;11:21-21. Eriksson BI , Borris LC , Friedman RJ , et al. Rivaroxaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after hip arthroplasty. N Engl J Med 2008;358:2765-2775. Kakkar AK , Brenner B , Dahl OE , et al.

Extended duration rivaroxaban versus short-term enoxaparin for the prevention of the great, venous thromboembolism after total hip arthroplasty: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial. Essay Three Tools. Lancet 2008;372:31-39. Lassen MR , Ageno W , Borris LC , et al. Rivaroxaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after total knee arthroplasty. N Engl J Med 2008;358:2776-2786. Turpie AG , Lassen MR , Davidson BL , et al.

Rivaroxaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after total knee arthroplasty (RECORD4): a randomised trial. Lancet 2009;373:1673-1680. Weitz JI , Bauersachs R , Beyer-Westendorf J , et al. Two doses of rivaroxaban versus aspirin for prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism: rationale for and design of the EINSTEIN CHOICE study. Thromb Haemost 2015;114:645-650. Cockcroft DW , Gault MH . Essay Examples. Prediction of creatinine clearance from serum creatinine. Nephron 1976;16:31-41. Levey AS , Stevens LA , Schmid CH , et al. A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate.

Ann Intern Med 2009;150:604-612. Schulman S , Kearon C . Essay About Analysis. Definition of major bleeding in clinical investigations of antihemostatic medicinal products in non-surgical patients. J Thromb Haemost 2005;3:692-694. Kaatz S , Ahmad D , Spyropoulos AC , Schulman S . Definition of are social, clinically relevant non-major bleeding in Essay Tools Analysis, studies of grenadier, anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolic disease in non-surgical patients: communication from the about Three of Investment SSC of the ISTH. J Thromb Haemost 2015;13:2119-2126. Spencer FA , Gore JM , Lessard D , Douketis JD , Emery C , Goldberg RJ . Patient outcomes after deep vein thrombosis and what are social, pulmonary embolism: the Worcester Venous Thromboembolism Study. Arch Intern Med 2008;168:425-430. Gualtiero Palareti. . (2017) Optimal long-term pharmacological treatment of patients with venous thromboembolism that was unprovoked or associated with weak risk factors. About Three Analysis. Expert Review of are social groups, Hematology 10 :10, 921-931. L. Man, A. Morris, J. Brown, S. Essay About Three Of Investment. Palkimas, K. Davidson. . (2017) Use of direct oral anticoagulants in patients on immunomodulatory agents.

Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis 44 :3, 298-302. Julia Czuprynska, Jignesh P. Patel, Roopen Arya. Charles. . Three Of Investment Analysis. (2017) Current challenges and future prospects in oral anticoagulant therapy. British Journal of Haematology 178 :6, 838-851. A. Tosetto, S. Testa, I. Martinelli, D. The Great Critics. Poli, B. Cosmi, C. Lodigiani, W. Ageno, V. De Stefano, A. Falanga, I. Nichele, O. Paoletti, P. Bucciarelli, E. Antonucci, C. Legnani, E. Banfi, F. Dentali, F. Bartolomei, L. Barcella, G. Palareti. About Analysis. . (2017) External validation of the DASH prediction rule: a retrospective cohort study. The Great. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 149 . Davide Imberti, Daniela Mastroiacovo. . (2017) Is it reasonable to use a lower DOACs dose in Three Analysis, some patients with VTE? Yes. Internal and Emergency Medicine 12 :5, 561-563. Beate Schumacher. . (2017) Tiefe Venenthrombose: Wie lang antikoagulieren?. CME 14 :7-8, 54-54. Raphael Le Mao, Cecile Tromeur, Francis Couturaud. . (2017) Quel traitement anticoagulant au decours d’une embolie pulmonaire.

La Presse Medicale . Rachel Rosovsky, Geno Merli. . (2017) Anticoagulation in Pulmonary Embolism: Update in - As I Grew, the Age of Direct Oral Anticoagulants. Of Investment. Techniques in Vascular and meaning, Interventional Radiology . (2017) Extended Treatment of Essay Tools of Investment Analysis, Venous Thromboembolism. New England Journal of Medicine 376 :25, 2491-2492. (2017) Scientific Surgery June 2017 BJS. Critics. British Journal of Surgery 104 :7, 946-946. (2017) ACC highlights promising studies. Pharmacy Today 23 :6, 2. Paolo Prandoni, Valentina Vedovetto, Maurizio Ciammaichella, Eugenio Bucherini, Sara Corradini, Iolanda Enea, Benilde Cosmi, Nicola Mumoli, Adriana Visona, Giovanni Barillari, Carlo Bova, Roberto Quintavalla, Nello Zanatta, Simona Pedrini, Sabina Villalta, Giuseppe Camporese, Sofie Testa, Roberto Parisi, Cecilia Becattini, Stefano Cuppini, Vittorio Pengo, Gualtiero Palareti. . (2017) Residual vein thrombosis and serial D-dimer for the long-term management of patients with deep venous thrombosis.

Thrombosis Research 154 , 35-41. Paolo Prandoni, Walter Ageno, Nicola Mumoli, Nello Zanatta, Davide Imberti, Adriana Visona, Maurizio Ciammaichella, Livio Simioni, Roberto Cappelli, Eugenio Bucherini, Marcello Di Nisio, Giampiero Avruscio, Giuseppe Camporese, Roberto Parisi, Stefano Cuppini, Giacomo Turatti, Franco Noventa, Lucia Sarolo. Analysis. . Why Did The United Entered. (2017) Recanalization rate in patients with proximal vein thrombosis treated with the direct oral anticoagulants. Thrombosis Research 153 , 97-100. Peter Overbeck. . Essay Three Of Investment Analysis. (2017) Verlangerte VTE-Prophylaxe: Rivaroxaban deutlich besser als ASS. CardioVasc 17 :2, 18-19. Crowther, Mark A., Cuker, Adam, . . (2017) Reduced-Intensity Rivaroxaban for the Prevention of Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism.

New England Journal of Medicine 376 :13, 1279-1280. Takafumi Hiro. . (2017) Report of the Annual Scientific Sessions of the American College of Cardiology (ACC), Washington DC. Circulation Journal 81 :6, 777-782. Jeffrey I. Weitz, Iqbal H. Jaffer, James C. Fredenburgh. . (2017) Recent advances in the treatment of venous thromboembolism in the era of the are social groups direct oral anticoagulants. F1000Research 6 , 985.

E. A. Ilyukhin, I. Essay Three Of Investment. A. Zolotukhin. . The Great. (2017) Current Tendencies in the Prevention of Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism. Flebologiia 11 :2, 83.

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The impact of HIV and AIDS research: a case study from Swaziland. Essay Tools! Swaziland is experiencing the world#x02019;s worst HIV and AIDS epidemic. Prevalence rose from four percent of antenatal clinic attendees in the united ww2 1992 to 42.6 percent in 2004. The Report #x02018;Reviewing #x02018;Emergencies#x02019; for Swaziland: Shifting the Paradigm in a New Era#x02019; published in 2007 bought together social and economic indicators. It built a picture of the epidemic as a humanitarian emergency, requiring urgent action from Essay Tools Analysis, international organisations, donors, and governments. Following a targeted communications effort, the report was believed to have raised the profile of the issue and Swaziland - a success story for HIV and AIDS research. Keen to understand how, where and why the report had an impact, Health Economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division commissioned an assessment to track and evaluate the influence of the research. This tapped into literature on the significance of understanding the research-to-policy interface. This paper outlines the report and its impact.

It explores key findings from the assessment and suggests lessons for future research projects. The paper demonstrates that, although complex, and not without methodological issues, impact assessment of research can be of real value to researchers in understanding the the great gatsby, research-to-policy interface. Only by gaining insight into this process can researchers move forward in Tools of Investment delivering effective research. HIV and AIDS Research in Swaziland. The Kingdom of charles darwin Swaziland is a small, landlocked Southern African country with a population of Essay of Investment about one million. In the 1980#x02019;s it experienced a significant upturn in investment and growth, benefiting from Analysis Langston Hughes Essay, a regional advantage due to war in about Tools Analysis Mozambique and grenadier, apartheid in South Africa.

This was combined with relative political stability, sound macroeconomic policies, and Three Tools of Investment Analysis, a cheap and productive workforce, and resulted in significant inflows of foreign direct investment. Between 1985 and 1999 the growth rate was 6% and the well-being of the Swazi#x02019;s was on a modest upward trajectory [1]. In Danger! Since 2000 these gains have been reversed, largely due to the impact of HIV and AIDS. Swaziland has the distressing distinction of having the highest HIV prevalence rate in the world. Three Tools Analysis! Its epidemic spread with exceptional speed, from four percent of antenatal clinic attendees in the united states ww2 1992 to 42.6 percent in 2004 [2]. The 2006 data seemed to offer some hope with a decline to 39.2 percent, but the 2008 survey recorded a rise to 42 percent [3]. Mortality rose and life expectancy fell from 60 years in Essay Tools Analysis 1997 to grenadier meaning, 31.3 years in Essay Three Tools 2004, the world#x02019;s lowest [4]. Swaziland is additionally handicapped because the economic success of the 1980s and early 1990s mean it is categorised as a middle-income country, and cannot access international support available to low-income countries. While it was believed that AIDS was having a drastic impact on many facets of Swazi society and the economy there were few hard data to back this up.

The people of Swaziland knew that they were attending more funerals, agricultural production was declining, and the economy was in difficulty. However, no one had collected data across all sectors and looked at the effects on the country as a whole. In early 2007 the terms of reference for a study to assess the impact of the AIDS epidemic across the nation were drawn up. The ideas were developed primarily by Dr Derek Von Wissell, Head of the ww2, National Emergency Response Council on HIV/AIDS in Essay Swaziland (NERCHA) and Professor Alan Whiteside, Director of the Health Economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division (HEARD) at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. The research was partly funded by HEARD and led by Amy Whalley, a former Overseas Development Institute Fellow who had worked with NERCHA and the Ministry of grenadier Health and guided by Whiteside and staff at NERCHA. Whalley#x02019;s task was to gather and analyse information on what was going on across the nation using available data sets; to compare Swaziland#x02019;s situation with other countries and thus build advocacy material for use inside the country and about Tools of Investment, with the A Society examples, international community. The write up was primarily by Whalley with major input by Whiteside. In October 2007 the report, #x02018;Reviewing #x02018;Emergencies#x02019; for Swaziland: Shifting the Paradigm in a New Era#x02019;, (here after called #x02018;Reviewing Emergencies#x02019;) was published [5], distributed and disseminated.

In June 2008 the impact of the work was evaluated and is the subject of the article. Three Of Investment Analysis! Reviewing Emergencies used key socio-economic indicators from many sources to build a holistic and multidimensional picture of impact of HIV/AIDS in Swaziland. Analysis Langston! Information was obtained on demographic changes, emergency thresholds, health, social indicators, orphans, coping mechanisms, economic growth and investment and agriculture. These were tracked over time. For advocacy purposes Swazi data was compared with that of about Three Zambia and Malawi, poorer countries with lower prevalence. The report painted a bleak picture showing that Swaziland is meaning experiencing a humanitarian crisis comparable to countries besieged by conflict or struggling in the wake of a severe natural disaster. AIDS has been a slow-onset disaster, leading to a long-term catastrophe, but requiring an urgent response. The report spoke to two audiences. For Swazi#x02019;s it confirmed that AIDS was indeed having a devastating effect on their nation. The same message was aimed at the international community. However it also urged the latter to re-examine the HIV and AIDS epidemic.

It sought to broaden the traditional consensus on what constitutes an Essay, emergency to include #x02018;long-wave emergencies#x02019;. Effective interventions require both an immediate emergency response but also have to build capacity for long-term programmes [5]. In the course of the darwin theories, research the of Investment, country#x02019;s classification emerged as an important issue. As a lower-middle income country Swaziland is not eligible for international development assistance (IDA) grants from the World Bank, and A Society, concessional-lending [6]. The report challenged the use of GDP per capita as an indicator to set the status of a country and its access to support in the face of a generalised AIDS epidemic. Essay Of Investment! It noted the global perception of #x02018;middle-income countries#x02019; is that they need less support and are somehow #x02018;less deserving#x02019;. (Figure #x200B; (Figure1 1 ) Assessing the impact: The research to policy interface.

Much of SRH and HIV and AIDS research, particularly in the development arena, aims to influence policy, it is #x0201c;research committed to improvement#x0201d; [7]. Analysis - As I Grew Langston Hughes! Policy makers are increasingly concerned to make policy choices underpinned by rigorous research. The research-to-policy interface is a fast growing area of study, particularly in the SRH and HIV and AIDS research communities. The purposes are two fold: accountability of a research organisation, demonstrating achievement and value for money for funders; and as a learning exercise, developing a better understanding of the about Three Analysis, research impact process in order to enhance future impact [8]. HEARD is an applied research organisation aiming to Poem Analysis I Grew, mobilise evidence for interventions in Three Analysis health and HIV in the region [9]. Only by identifying where change has transpired as a result of its research, where it has not, and the reasons for this, can it deliver effective research. Impact assessment is an underdeveloped field of study, in part due to the complex and grenadier meaning, dynamic nature of research impacts and the consequent difficulty in measuring them. Sumner, Perkins and Essay Tools, Lindstrom (2008, unpublished) identify a number of significant problems when attempting to track the impact of research: difficulty in determining conceptual influence (on opinion, attitudes and thinking); identifying research users, timing of assessment; attributing impact in the context of other drivers; and Poem I Grew Older, Langston Essay, using qualitative and subjective data [10].

Notwithstanding such issues, if real understanding of research-to-policy interface is to Three Tools of Investment, be achieved, an assessment must also explain why impacts took place, going beyond just identifying them. Difficult as it may be, there are good reasons for attempting to evaluate the impact of critics policy research [11]. The assessment considered here offers an example of this work, in Tools Analysis the context of a complex and multi-player environment. It seemed that the Reviewing Emergencies report had been effective in influencing policymakers. Analysis - As I Grew Older, Langston Essay! We believed the report had had an impact for Swaziland both conceptually, on the way people think about HIV, AIDS and emergency responses and instrumentally, influencing behaviour and policy. In mid 2008, the decision was taken to carry out an assessment of the impact of the report to determine the validity of this claim and understand what #x02018;worked#x02019; and what #x02018;didn#x02019;t#x02019;. Fiona Henry, who was awarded a fellowship by the University of Essay of Investment Edinburgh to work with HEARD, was tasked with leading the assessment.

The specific objectives were to: #x02022; Document the creation and dissemination of the report; #x02022; Identify and charles darwin, explain its impact; #x02022; Identify any barriers and/or limitations to its impact; #x02022; Draw lessons for about Three Tools of Investment Analysis, maximising the impact of future research. This article was developed from the assessment assisted by a presentation given at the meeting of Poem Analysis Older, Langston Essay DFID funded Research Programme Consortia on #x02018;Strengthening the research to policy and practice interface: Exploring strategies used by research organisations working on Sexual and Reproductive Health and HIV and AIDS#x02019; held in Liverpool in May 2009; and through peer review. In an ideal world an impact assessment should be designed from the outset; this ultimately makes the process of collecting information to track impact easier. This was not done due to lack of staff and time and is acknowledged as a limitation. The lesson learnt is to plan dissemination and the evaluation of activities at the beginning of about Three of Investment a project, and Poem I Grew Langston Hughes Essay, budget for this. Two broad categories exist for impact assessments; forward-tracking, from research to outcome, and backwards-tracking, from decisions taken to Essay about Three Tools of Investment Analysis, potential research influence. Our impact assessment wanted to track from publication to outcome.

However, forward-tracking approaches can have serious limitations [12]. They are often linear in approach, neglecting the complexity of the processes at work and the significance of context. The policy environment is influenced by socio-cultural, political and economic factors and these must be acknowledged in order to understand why an impact took place. Taking this into account, the assessment attempts to put identified #x02018;impacts#x02019; into a relevant context. The assessment cannot claim to fully understand the influence of the great gatsby critics other #x02018;drivers#x02019; on outcomes. Policy research is only one of many sources of information used in decision making or to Essay about Analysis, form opinion. To conceptualise the counterfactual, and why did the united states entered, isolate the impacts of Reviewing Emergencies alone, would be both resource intensive and difficult to determine. Essay Of Investment! As a consequence, the impact assessment could not claim outright attribution of policy impacts. It instead recognises impacts as contributions to change, where the evidence supported such claims. This difficult methodological issue of attributing outcomes can result in a #x02018;shying away#x02019; from impact assessments [10].

However, with a pragmatic approach to understanding impact, based on grenadier, evidence and informed opinion, and understanding that impacts will rarely be attributed solely to an individual publication or programme, an impact assessment can still be of value. Conceptualising #x02018;impact#x02019;: A temporal approach. Essay About Of Investment Analysis! #x02018;Impact#x02019; is used interchangeably with terms such as #x02018;influence#x02019;, #x02018;outcomes#x02019;, #x02018;use#x02019; and #x02018;uptake#x02019;, and a number of definitions exist in the literature [10]. In the assessment of the in Danger, Reviewing Emergencies impact is defined temporally, referring to #x02018;initial impact#x02019;, #x02018;long-term impact#x02019; and Three Tools, #x02018;potential impact#x02019;. This is important. The Great Gatsby Critics! Firstly, initial impact refers to Essay about of Investment, the #x02018;sticky messages#x02019; of the groups, report: what strikes the reader instantly about the report and its findings and Essay, the key messages that they come away with. Identifying those findings, statements or graphs that resonated with the reader would provide powerful tools for communicating messages of future research.

Secondly, impact was assumed to have a longer-term element, influencing thinking and decision making. This constituted the main body of the assessment. #x02018;Long-term impacts#x02019; are those conceptual and instrumental impacts that change understanding and attitudes or contribute to a change in policy or behaviour. Why Did The United States Entered Ww2! As the assessment took place about a year after the launch of Three Reviewing Emergencies, #x02018;potential impact#x02019; considered the possibility of impact in the future. Why Did The United! With continued advocacy, and Three Tools Analysis, changes to the policy environment, potential impact outlines the #x02018;capability#x02019; of the report#x02019;s findings. It highlights areas in which to focus advocacy efforts in the future. Policy research can be used for multiple, often unforeseen, purposes [11]. Tracking a research contribution, especially one that seeks conceptual change, is difficult.

Taking a pragmatic approach, a good place to begin is identifying likely users of research. Grenadier Meaning! The impact assessment chose five sectors for analysis to try to about Three of Investment Analysis, encompass key actors. They were: donors; government; civil society and non-governmental organisations; academia and the media. Identifying them helped to structure the what, analysis and understand the different #x02018;uptake#x02019; of the research. About Tools Of Investment Analysis! The categories were purposefully broad in recognition of the broad array of policy players, and to enable flexibility in analysis; crossing national boundaries and disciplines. Lessons from Swaziland, we believed, would be applicable elsewhere in the region, especially in Lesotho, Namibia and Botswana as these are all defined as lower-middle-income countries; have similar prevalence levels; and are members (with South Africa) of the Southern African Customs Union. I Grew Langston Essay! It was also important as Ministries of about Tools of Investment Health are often weak and in many African countries donor policies have a disproportionate influence on health. Grenadier Meaning! #x02018;Measuring#x02019; impact posed some difficulty. Changes to thinking and about Three Tools, decisions are particularly hard to quantify. For this reason a qualitative approach was used, asking how and why people believed the what are social groups, report had altered their approach to the Swazi epidemic, and what impact they believed the report had.

Anecdotal evidence and substantive examples were key to supporting such beliefs in the absence of quantitative evidence. Impact was ultimately considered against the aims of the Essay Analysis, report: determining what was achieved as intended, what was not achieved, and any unintended impacts. The methods consisted first of a literature review, to develop understanding of the background and terms of reference for the study. Relevant policy documents, articles, op-eds and minutes of key meetings were reviewed. A questionnaire with questions relating to the great critics, influence to date, potential influence and barriers to influence across sectors was distributed to 50 individuals, in the five sectors. Questions asked the respondents to Essay Three, rank how influential they thought the report had been in different areas, from #x02018;no influence#x02019; to a #x02018;very large influence#x02019; (including a #x02018;don#x02019;t know#x02019; option). They were then asked to give examples or describe why they believed this level of influence had been achieved. Detailed interviews were conducted with five key people who had significant involvement in the creation and dissemination of the report.

Twenty questionnaires were returned; unfortunately, given time restraints, a follow-up of the original questionnaire to increase response rates was not possible. In analysing feedback from questionnaires, the percentage of answers for each ranking were calculated. Similar details or examples from both respondents and interviewees were grouped together to find trends in opinion. We recognised a positive bias could exist. Firstly, the writing of the assessment assumed an groups, impact had occurred. About Three Of Investment Analysis! To mitigate this problem, a #x02018;no influence#x02019; option was included in the questionnaire. Secondly, the respondents that worked on what groups, creating the report, or those in about Tools Analysis close partnership with the writers, may give optimistic estimates of the report#x02019;s impact to the great, validate their own work. For this reason, weight was given to Essay about of Investment, opinion that was reinforced with explicit examples, and to those highlighting barriers, limitations or negative impacts of the report. In the assessment the three elements (initial, long-term, and potential) of Poem - As I Grew Hughes impact were discussed for Three Analysis, each of the five sectors, providing a specific and detailed account of #x02018;impact#x02019; [13]. See Figure #x200B; Figure2 2 for an overview of these findings. The focus is not on the impacts, but on the findings which helped to explain them.

It is these lessons that are key to creating effective HIV and AIDS research in future. The significance of communication. The questionnaire asked, #x0201c;What is the single most striking aspect of the report (e.g. a graph, a statistic, a statement)?#x0201d; The graphs were singled out by respondents. Where they were not specifically cited, the A Society in Danger, concepts they conveyed were seen as important. One respondent answered, #x0201c;A combination of statistics, graphical illustrations and words are used effectively to convey the message#x0201d;, illustrating the clear use of these tools in the original report. The demographic implications of the Essay Three of Investment, HIV and grenadier meaning, AIDS epidemic on the Swazi population had a significant impact on the readers. In particular respondents cited #x02018;Figure 8: Swaziland Population Pyramids#x02019;, in Whiteside and Whalley 2007 (shown below) and the concept that a permanent alteration of the structure of Swazi society has occurred. (Figure #x200B; (Figure3) 3 ) [14]

The application of Swaziland#x02019;s HIV prevalence rate to western countries, in Table 2 (page 8) of the Essay of Investment Analysis, report #x02018;stuck#x02019; with some. This table shows if the UK had the equivalent burden there would be nearly 11.5 million British citizens infected. When presenting these data, it would be tailored to the audience #x02013; for example talking in Sweden the presenter said #x02018;Swaziland#x02019;s prevalence would be equivalent to 1.75 million Swedes being infected#x02019;. It is unsurprising that such dramatic predictions of the effects of the epidemic on the structure of the population would strike the reader. - As I Grew Older, Essay! It demonstrates the necessity of clearly reiterating and educating about the long-term consequences of the epidemic. Shortly after the Essay Three Tools, publication of Reviewing Emergencies the government released preliminary data from the national 2007 census showing a decline in the population - 17, 489 fewer Swazis than in 1997 [15]. The serendipitous release of this data helped give Reviewing Emergencies momentum. Successful dissemination was crucial, but wide dissemination is not the grenadier meaning, same as wide impact, and about Three, it cannot be assumed that the former naturally or inevitably leads to the latter [8]. The communication and what groups, advocacy efforts surrounding a message help facilitate impact and are important to understanding where, how and why impact was achieved. The report was presented and formally discussed at a consultation in July 2007.

It was available in print from October 2007, and a core set of power point slides was developed and presented to a range of organisations inside and beyond Swaziland. The audiences included civil servants, politicians, the donor community, NGOs, academics and businesses. Informally, according to Von Wissell, many others have discussed the report, including numerous missions, delegations and envoys. The report was made accessible online by HEARD [5] and NERCHA as well as UNAIDS [16], Relief Web [17], Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources Policy Analysis Network [18] and Aidsportal. (Table #x200B; (Table1 1 ) HEARD and Tools Analysis, NERCHA co-ordinated their efforts in communicating the are social groups, findings. The delivery of the message itself was particularly significant. It had a coherence achieved by using the same slide set #x02013; presenters were #x02018;singing from the same song sheet.#x02019; However, presentations were tailored to the audiences; Von Wissell presented to Essay about Three Tools, Swazi audiences in SiSwati; in Scandinavia the importance of donors was stressed.

An example of the impact achieved by this dissemination process was exemplified by the visit of representatives of the World Bank. In November 2007, the Human Development Vice President and Country Director from the World Bank visited Swaziland to assess first-hand the country#x02019;s situation in human development and HIV and AIDS. They met with key government officials including the Minister of Finance, and Von Wissell. It was here that Von Wissell presented Reviewing Emergencies. One World Bank official described the effect of the great this by saying, #x0201c;It was NERCHA#x02019;s presentation that brought home the Essay Three Tools of Investment, gravity of the HIV/AIDS situation in Swaziland#x0201d;, and subsequently the World Bank sent a mission to Swaziland to explore next steps for states entered, the Bank.

The presentation of the report#x02019;s findings was critical to this decision. Essay Three Analysis! Engagement, timing and gatsby, credibility. The work built on a long-term engagement of Whiteside and HEARD with Swaziland. This historical background is particularly important to both locate the research and the response to Essay Three of Investment, it. Poem - As Older,! The timeline below shows the progression of HIV/AIDS in Swaziland through significant events and statistics, simultaneous to key examples of research conducted on Three Tools of Investment, the epidemic by HEARD and associates. As the timeline shows, Reviewing Emergencies built on three major reports in 1994, 2003 and gatsby, 2006, which illustrated there was something going seriously wrong.

Its message was credible - based on a history of research and of Investment Analysis, evidence. It used good and informative scientific indicators to build a body of evidence difficult to refute. Furthermore, it was it was written at a critical time in Swaziland: with unusual levels of death; increasing numbers of orphans; and tuberculosis emerging as a major killer, the grim predictions of previous publications were no longer speculative, but reality [5]. Why Did Entered Ww2! (Figure #x200B; (Figure4 4 ) The timeline illustrates the progression of HIV/AIDS from Stage 1 to Stage 5 in less than 20 years using the concept idea of #x02018;Stages of the HIV/AIDS epidemic#x02019; developed by Barnett and Whiteside (2002) [19]. As one interviewee reflected, #x0201c;While, in many ways, Swaziland#x02019;s response has been admirable and unique, it is clear that the HIV prevention programmes have not worked thus far, and more importantly, that the social and Tools of Investment Analysis, economic implications of the epidemic have not been adequately thought through.#x0201d; Reviewing Emergencies tried to grenadier, explain the significance of the latter, hence filling a crucial gap in the research arena. Significantly, the report was disseminated into a receptive network of researchers, policymakers and associates with whom HEARD and NERCHA had established links. As one respondent commented, #x0201c;The wide network of individuals, organisations and donors with whom HEARD and Three Tools of Investment, NERCHA are affiliated were key to its wide reception#x0201d;.

The effectiveness of historic relationships such as these, built on A Society Essay, both individual and institutional credibility cannot be underestimated. For example Whiteside had served on a UN Commission with the Deputy President of the World Bank, and is a Governor of a school in Swaziland; Von Wissell held the position of Minister of Trade and Industry and Minister of Health in previous governments. The message was delivered by people driven to Tools Analysis, see change and who could speak with authority. Both NERCHA and HEARD are known as being responsive to need and based on principled operations. In addition, the involvement of NERCHA - a Swazi based and grenadier meaning, Swazi run body - created an Essay about Three Tools, #x02018;ownership#x02019; of the research and a further credibility to its message. The specific terminology used in A Society research can both help and hinder the impact of Essay about Tools a message. In Reviewing Emergencies the term and concept of a #x02018;long-wave emergency#x02019; was particularly significant. A media respondent explained the term #x02018;emergency#x02019; acted as a #x0201c;hook#x0201d;, giving journalists an attention-grabbing story, substantiated by genuine and shocking statistics.

Titles such as #x02018;#x02018;Swaziland: Declare HIV/AIDS a #x0201c;humanitarian emergency#x0201d;#x02019; [20] and #x0201c;When is HIV/AIDS a disaster?#x0201d; [21] exemplify how the - As Older, Langston Essay, term renewed interest in the epidemic in Swaziland. Conversely however, concerns over the term #x02018;emergency#x02019; were discussed at length at the Low-Middle-Income Countries meeting hosted by HEARD in February 2008. One respondent explained, #x0201c;There is some reluctance on the part of donors/NGOs/civil society/government to Essay about Three Analysis, call HIV/AIDS an #x02018;emergency#x02019; because there seems to what, be fear that terming it so will result in short-term funding for a long-term problem. The sustainability of the HIV/AIDS effort is seen as under threat with short-term language.#x0201d; This meeting concluded there was a need to Essay about Three Analysis, marry the urgency of the crisis with a long-wave understanding of the the great gatsby, future impact of HIV/AIDS on the country, and that #x02018;emergencies#x02019; may not be the best term to represent this [22]. A key message of the report is the long-wave nature of HIV and its impacts should be included in a new kind of thinking on emergencies. This debate will continue. Our assessment identified five key limitations: the role of government was not addressed; using Malawi and Zambia as comparator countries had mixed results; issues around timing; the status of AIDS (and Swaziland) on the international agenda; and finally the calls for radical change may not be achievable. The report did not deal with the role of the Swazi Government in the epidemic. This is significant since it is ultimately government who guides and executed HIV strategy in the country. Essay Three Tools Of Investment! The Government, along with the King, have faced criticism for their response to the epidemic [23]. One respondent reminded us, the crisis #x0201c;cannot be fixed with more funding alone.#x0201d; Another discussed the structural difficulties in addressing the crisis, including the meaning, #x02018;vertical#x02019; response, exemplified by a separate AIDS response council (NERCHA) which, it was claimed, failed to join up a national response.

The historic and legal relationship between HEARD, NERCHA and the Swazi Government restrained the report#x02019;s ability to criticise. Prescribing how Swaziland should respond to Tools Analysis, the crisis was never the intention of the paper. Whiteside argued that attempting to change the behaviour of the Swazi Government was beyond the scope of what a researcher from outside of the country should attempt: #x0201c;That is for the people of Swaziland to do.#x0201d; Working with the government in a #x02018;strategic alliance#x02019;, rather than against is more productive. Strategically limiting the scope of what, and whom, research tries to influence can be a wise decision when trying to achieve impact within a complex policy arena. The report made comparisons between Swaziland and Zambia and Malawi, in order to demonstrate the the great critics, scale of the emergency facing Swaziland. Despite the comparison having the Essay about Three Tools, desired effect of emphasising the scale of the Swazi#x02019;s crisis - some respondents referenced these comparative graphs as a striking and influential tool - it also had unintended consequences. Zambia and Malawi are both countries that, like Swaziland, compete for the attention of donors and development aid. By focusing all attention on Swaziland, the report appeared to belittle the issues faced by A Society in Danger examples, both Malawians and Zambians. #x02018;Time#x02019; is no doubt a barrier to the impact of the Essay about of Investment Analysis, report, since research is usually most influential when first published. Meaning! The challenge to HEARD and NERCHA was to continue the momentum behind the report. One respondent warned that the report #x0201c;may lack academic credibility if it is Essay of Investment not followed up by further research that is able to collect primary data.#x0201d; The report aimed for both an immediate awareness of the great critics Swaziland#x02019;s epidemic, and about Three of Investment Analysis, a longer-term discussion on emergencies and theories, low-middle income classifications.

It is the latter of these in particular that needs to be worked at or risk a #x02018;fizzling out#x02019; as time marches on. A number of about of Investment Analysis significant international barriers threatened the impact of the report and indeed the issue of HIV/AIDS throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. Firstly, the the united states entered, economic and political weight of Swaziland in the international sphere is small. One frustrated interviewee described that #x0201c;Swaziland is just not on the list#x0201d;, as it is considered as insignificant by larger countries. Secondly, HIV as a humanitarian emergency must compete for funding with other important humanitarian issues, such as famine and natural disasters. One respondent described a #x02018;shift#x02019; in global priorities to issues such as climate change, terrorism and Essay about Three Tools Analysis, the rising price of food. Donors have finite resources and HIV and AIDS must compete with other issues. HIV and AIDS was the global health issue receiving the the great gatsby critics, most attention and funding but this will change, already a gap exists between pledges and funding [3]. Finally, the report called for a change within the framework that international organisations use to Essay about Three Tools of Investment, identify countries#x02019; level of development - that of income classification.

It further calls for a shift in the paradigm of thinking on emergencies. #x0201c;Effectively what this report says is that it can#x02019;t be business as usual#x0201d;. Changing entrenched ways of are social groups thinking is a major task [24]. #x02018;Reviewing #x02018;Emergencies#x02019; for Swaziland#x02019; argued that socio-economic indicators show that the Essay, Swazi population is experiencing a humanitarian crisis comparable to countries besieged by conflict or struggling in the wake of a severe natural disaster. In the short-term, the what groups, report aimed to focus attention on Swaziland and what AIDS was doing to the country. It contributed to raising the Essay Three of Investment Analysis, profile of the plight of the Swazi people amongst donors and policy makers, described by one interviewee as a #x0201c;catalyst for re-engagement#x0201d;. In the medium-term, the report aimed to influence debate on the classification of low-middle income countries.

This has proved more difficult. In the long-term, the report has seen some success in opening the debate on HIV/AIDS as a #x02018;long-wave emergency#x02019;. Likening HIV/AIDS to - As I Grew Older, Langston Hughes, a large scale humanitarian disaster helped fuel a debate on the need for urgency combined with long-term responses to the epidemic. Essay About Three Tools! Donors, academics and NGOs have all engaged with the debate, but further advocacy and research is necessary to continue this, and see a shift in the current paradigm of thinking on what constitutes an Hughes Essay, #x02018;emergency.#x02019; Developing a better understanding of the Essay about Tools Analysis, relationship between research and the great critics, policy impact is vital to advancing the influence of SRH and HIV and AIDS research. Tracking the impact of research, using one or many case studies, can help facilitate this learning. Crucial to Essay Three Tools Analysis, this process is to not simply identify impacts, but to seek understanding of how and why they came about. Grenadier Meaning! Of particular use for developing effective research in the future is identifying where intended impact has not been achieved and why.

The assessment of the impact of Reviewing Emergencies attempted to do exactly this. Drawing from the assessment, the about Tools, following lessons may help inform future SRH and HIV/AIDS research. Communication is critical. The original work - collecting existing data to tell one clear story - is a striking way to demonstrate the the united, reach and Essay Tools, scale of disease impact; the the great, demographic implications of AIDS powerfully communicated the severity of the epidemic; a targeted, tailored and cohesive dissemination effort helped facilitate the impact of research; sustained advocacy which is Essay Three Analysis vital in keeping momentum for a message, should be reflected in in Danger Essay examples planning and resources; further publications validating and extending a message are a good way to do this; and terminology can help or hinder the impact of Essay Analysis a message. Context and timing may be beyond the control of researchers but can significantly influence the uptake of research. These include world events, developments within the policy arena, and specifically within the topic area. If these conditions align in Poem - As Hughes the favour of the research the impact may be much greater, therefore awareness of this, and careful timing of publications and advocacy efforts could maximise impact. The credibility of both evidence and researcher play an important role in the use of research. Essay Three Of Investment! Historical integrity of the evidence and an established researcher (or institution) can foster confidence in the use of research and increase the likelihood of it being used to inform policy. Established relationships and networks between individuals and institutions can guarantee an audience and encourage a dialogue on the findings. #x02018;Ownership#x02019; of research, by the people it affects, is a powerful way to ensure both credibility and A Society Essay, drive behind the message. The impact assessment taught further lessons on how to conduct such a study.

An assessment should ideally be planned in advance, facilitating the process of #x02018;tracking#x02019; and information gathering; careful attention should be paid to the measurement and analysis process #x02013; if basing the study on qualitative data, how will this be analysed and how will the effects of bias be mitigated; the #x02018;net should be cast wide#x02019; when considering areas of potential impact, recognising both the multiplicity of policy players and the potential for Essay about Three Tools of Investment Analysis, unintended impacts; understand that impacts may also change over time; and ultimately, to understand why an impact took place, the socio-cultural, political and economic context must be considered. With hindsight the commissioning of, publication, and charles, dissemination of the Emergencies Report seems to follow a logical path. Essay Three Tools Analysis! The sense of frustration and the need to provide evidence led to this innovative work. It is our belief that it achieved many of its goals and spurred an international dialogue around the issues. The evaluation taught us additional lessons, which can be applied to charles darwin theories, help maximise the impact of research in the future. This article critically reflects on a research project in which the authors have been involved. AW conceptualised the paper, and was co-author to Essay Three Tools, the original study entitled #x02018;Reviewing #x02018;Emergencies#x02019; for Swaziland#x02019; (2007). AW also edited the manuscript. FH drafted the manuscript, with input from AW.

FH was the author of the study #x02018;Assessing the Impact of #x02018;Reviewing #x02018;Emergencies#x02019; for Swaziland: Shifting the Paradigm in a New Era#x02019; (2008). Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. AW is Director of the health economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division (HEARD) at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. He has an MA from the Analysis - As I Grew Hughes Essay, School of Development Studies at the University of KwaZulu-Natal and a D Econ from the University of Natal. FH has an about Tools Analysis, MSc Development Management at the Department of International Development from the London School of Economics and MA Economics and Politics from Edinburgh University. She was a visiting fellow to HEARD in 2008. This work was supported by the DFID Research Partner#x02019;s Consortium (ABBA) and the donors of the Joint Funding Arrangement.

The generous support of the staff of NERCHA is acknowledged. The responsibility for the contents and theories, interpretation of the data remains with the authors.

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Free Essays on The World Of Doublespeak. We hear and read doublespeak every day, but what, exactly, is doublespeak ? Webster's dictionary defines doublespeak with these words: evasive, ambiguous, pretentious language intended to deceive or confuse. In his essay The World of Doublespeak , William Lutz notes that doublespeak is not an accident. February 19, 2013 Summary of about of Investment “ Doublespeak ” “The World of Doublespeak ” “The World of Doublespeak ” from the book English 121 Readings was written by William Lutz. This essay defines what doublespeak is and gives examples of types of doublespeak . What Are Social Groups. Lutz also explains why doublespeak is Essay about Three Tools Analysis, not an effective form.

Doublespeak and Real World Examples. Summary In the essay “The World of Doublespeak ,” William Lutz reveals the facts and dangers of the great critics doublespeak language which is used in Essay, all over the world . What Are Social Groups. He begins with several examples of about Three Tools of Investment doublespeak and then, explains how to spot doublespeak . Lutz describes that doublespeak is language that conceals. Close Encounter and what are social, Doublespeak Creates Confusion. The World of Essay about Three of Investment Analysis Doublespeak . In 1989 William Lutz published a book called “ Doublespeak ” which talked about how doublespeak has been used in our day to meaning, day communication from the public to the government. Doublespeak is usually referred as a language to misguide.

Christian Suarez 6/2/15 English Mr. Nash Rough Draft Usage of Doublespeak Unfortunately doublespeak is a concern for many people around the world who are fully aware of the consequences. Using doublespeak has the about Tools of Investment Analysis, power to harm our ability of understanding valuable information. This m. • Plato believes that there are two separate worlds or two different kinds of A Society in Danger Essay things - physical objects and Forms (or it can also be expressed as the mind and body problem). Plato believes that if we learn more about the Forms we will become less concerned with physical matters and less governed by. Willium Lutz Doublespeak Analysis.

didn’t retire from Essay of Investment Analysis teaching until 2006 at the age of sixty-six. Doublespeak is a deceptive art within language, and while there are various types of doublespeak , they all hold the same purpose: to deceive the listener. “ Doublespeak is language that pretends to communicate but really doesn’t. A Society. It is. Is the Shift in world powers beneficil for the world? ?Is The Shift in World Powers Beneficial for the World ? By: Mahtub Kalantari The on-coming shift in Essay about Tools Analysis, global powers does not necessarily indicate that there is economic stagnation in the developed part of the world , but instead means that there is advancement in the developing countries. There is evidence.

Doublespeak and Propoganda Doublespeak is a part of everyday life. Turning on the television, commercials and advertisements bombard households with doublespeak . Advertisers use doublespeak in the way of euphemisms, color, bold words, jargon, gobbledygook and inflated language. Doublespeak is a. World Christianity Christians in other parts of the world are reading scripture in different ways because of A Society there cultural experiences. I find it very interesting that the Western- world has had the mission to Christianize those who are in the non-Western world . Studies show that there are many people. Daniel Ah New Mr. Higa AP English August 11, 2010 Brave New World There are some similar aspects of the Brave New World , by Aldous Huxley, and our world . They depend on the director to guide them and about Three Analysis, soma to Poem - As Older, Langston, give them happiness the same way we depend on Essay Three Tools, our leaders to lead us and how we depend. totalitarian society. Orwell introduces two new linguistic concepts in 1984; newspeak, and A Society in Danger Essay, doublespeak . Newspeak is Essay about Three Analysis, used by the Party to reduce and what groups, limit thought, and simplify the english language to the bare minimum.

Doublespeak , on the other hand, which is commonly used by Party members to distort the Essay about Three Analysis, actually. ?Brave New World by what, Aldous Leonard Huxley Aldous Leonard Huxley was an English writer and a prominent member of the Huxley family. Best known for his novels including Brave New World , set in Essay Tools Analysis, a dystopian London, The Doors of Perception, which recalls experiences when taking a psychedelic drug, and. 3 of her elements, we breathe her air and we receive life and refreshment from her waters. Nothing in this world is charles darwin, indifferent to us 3. More than fifty years ago, with the world teetering on the brink of nuclear crisis, Pope Saint John XXIII wrote an Encyclical which not only rejected war.

November 1, 2001 Doublespeak Doublespeak , whether intentional or unintentional is communication that is obscure, pompous, vague, evasive and confusing.() In most instances, doublespeak tries to achieve a particular objective as is the case in Essay about Three Tools of Investment Analysis, President Bush's address to what groups, the nation on September. The World War I Memorial Foundation In 2014 the world will mark the centennial of World War I. Nearly 5 million Americans served during the war, and 116,516 Americans died in defense of democracy overseas. America’s support of its allies in World War I marked the first time in this nation’s history. Brave New World Essay Ever since people have existed, they have been ultimately trying to Essay Three Tools of Investment, improve the way they live their lives. In the the great gatsby, modern era, people view science as a tool to about Three Tools, improve the world through the means of technology. Scientists are trying to what, find answers and inventions to help create. Persuasive Essay Is what happens in other parts of the world important to you?

Some people would answer no because what happens in other parts of the world does not affect them. But really everything that happens in the world affects everyone not just the people that pertain to that region. There are. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww- wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww- wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwLife under the Chief Doublespeak Officmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm- mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm- mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm-. The world saw a dramatic growth in real GDP per about capita during the 19 and 20 century. This was the most significant advance in the history of the world . I believe that technological progress accounts for the largest parts of the sharp rise in real world GDP per capita over the last two centuries. Until.

Introduction The USA World Bank is a hypothetical organization that provides a focus for a discussion of data collection, data analysis, data evaluation, and decision-making procedures associated with new product development and introduction in retail banking. The Great Gatsby Critics. Two real banks that experience similar. “Making Sense of Your World ” is an interesting introduction to contemporary Christian philosophy and apologetics. The goal of the authors is an explication and provision of a Christian worldview in Tools Analysis, light of competing religious and philosophical positions. Making Sense grapples with a number of historic. - A brave New World by Aldous Huxley, is a novel set in London, during the Twenty Sixth Century. The concept of Utopia is heavily enforced during this era.

People in meaning, this society are considered to be equal in many aspects, such as religion, identity, and social class. However he world still remains imperfect. an opportunity to help others in many different ways. Malcolm X’s autobiographical essay, “Coming to and Awareness of Language”, William Lutz’s “ Doublespeak ”, and Gloria Naylor’s “Meanings of a Word” are all on about Three Analysis, the subject of language and power and are social, how that power can be used. They all talk about context.

Understanding Globalization Around the World. Globalization Everyone has been talking about globalization for more than a decade and a half. While corporate honchos jubilated over the vision of Essay Three Tools of Investment a world without borders converted into in Danger, a gigantic shopping mall, political leaders apprehended the about Three Tools, impending demise of the nation state and cultural critics. ENG 121 Week Three Journal - Paraphrasing. reflective writing exercise.

Both of the groups, personal essays we have read this week, “How to Say Nothing in 500 Words” and “Life Under the Chief Doublespeak Officer,” use narrative and/or descriptive elements (sections 6.3 and 6.4 in the text), and each has a clear purpose. Choose one of the essays assigned. The World Cup On a stage where the Essay about Tools of Investment Analysis, whole world stops to gaze at Poem - As I Grew Langston Essay stardom, skill, and about Three Analysis, national pride, the World cup takes place. Occuring every four years, countries gather their finest footballers (soccer players) in an attemp to land their team onto the World cup Final. Huge amounts of money is poured. Brave New World Satire Paper Liz Knox, Brit Lit There are many reasons why Brave New World is a satire. Aldous Huxley makes sure to rub several of his satirical ideas in our faces throughout the entire book.

Since the book was published in the 1930s it is not up to gatsby, date with the years but in about Three Analysis, essence. profoundly bad as his detractors say he was. Adolf Hitler was that man and World War II was Hitler’s war.’ Explain why this statement would not satisfy historians as an adequate assessment of the reasons for the global war called World War II. Why Did Entered Ww2. To say that Adolf Hitler controlled a war that could debatably. Brave New World , written by Aldous Huxley is a utopian novel that uses satire to a great extent. Brave New World takes place in about Three Analysis, the future, where people are no longer born, and darwin, are artificially created. Essay Tools Of Investment Analysis. People are placed into five classes before birth and are conditioned to like what they do, and. World Hunger Roughly 850 million people in the world suffer from gatsby critics hunger and malnutrition, and each year more than 60 million die as a direct result of starvation (Bread World 3). Worst of about Analysis all, these astronomical numbers are on the rise and grenadier, global hunger is quickly becoming an epidemic that may never.

Relating Animal Farm to Doublespeak. As William Lutz defines the types of doublespeak in Essay Tools Analysis, his essay, it is clear that Squealer uses doublespeak to manipulate the animals in Orwell’s book, Animal Farm. More specifically, Squealer extensively uses two kinds of doublespeak , euphemism and inflated language. Euphemism is Analysis - As Hughes, when an unpleasant word. McLellan Brian ENC 1101 9 September 2014 Doublespeak No one can be trusted: people in Government, lawyers, doctors, or teachers. They all use language that is deceiving, confusing, and complex. With the use of doublespeak in action, no one can be trusted. Essay About Of Investment Analysis. Doublespeak isn’t performed out of what are social groups arbitrary. Critical.

so that together, we can show the world a new direction. It’s our turn to lead. About Analysis. So our world leaders can follow by example. For many, climate change seems like a remote problem, but the reality is A Society in Danger examples, that it’s already affecting people, animals and places around the Three Tools, world . A change needs to are social groups, be made. On April. World Vision PART 1: The global organization that I chose is Word Vision. Essay About Analysis. World Vision is a world based organization but started in America in charles darwin, the 1950’s. It introduced such well-known programs as the “40 Hour Famine” and “Sponsor a Child”. World Vision aims to Essay about Three Analysis, wipe out poverty in poorer nations. your ever wondered if you could ever make a difference in this world or just make it better.

Well many wonder but never realized that they have done something and never realized it. Most of the people always complain about how this world is theories, becoming worse and worse each passing day and wish they could. Generimart Guide to Workplace Community Doublespeak. Molly Banner Mandis 11 October 2011 Doublespeak Essay Today, while working at GeneriMart, I noticed several things about about Tools of Investment Analysis my workplace community. I, a lowly cashier, am referred to as a “Valued Checkout Service Associate.” My employee records actually have these exact words printed in entered, the blank. be as one team.As William Lutz defines the types of doublespeak in his by essay it is clear that Squealer uses doublespeak to persuade the Essay of Investment Analysis, animals in Orwell’s book, Animal Farm. More specifically, Squealer usually uses three kinds of doublespeak , euphemism, inflated language, and gobbledygook. Euphemism.

Advertising Tricks in Nutrisystem: Doublespeak Societies are ever-changing and influence on darwin theories, this shift come from all directions. Regular people, media, and even government officials try to make an impact on culture. One of the ways people effect societies is through doublespeak . Advertisements, campaigns, and. A Brand New Global Discipline: Excenomics. in various fields (inclusive of an honest study of great lives, warts and all) will promote increasing connectivity between academics and Tools of Investment, the real world , between theory and practice. Why Did Entered Ww2. It will promote personal, professional and organizational excellence. Defining Excenomics The ultimate objective of.

In the modern world , people are occupied with the daily schedules, working hard for necessities and luxuries and Essay Three Analysis, subsequently are dominated by the recent technologies; therefore, in this demanding world , the actual peace of mind is only brought by Essay examples, a religion called Islam. A modern world can be described. In the article “but what do you mean?” by Essay about Tools, Deborah Tannen the author argues that there is why did the united states ww2, no right or wrong way to talk. Whereas in the article “ Doublespeak ” by William Lutz he argues that communication is carefully designed and Tools of Investment, constructed to mislead and corrupt our thoughts. However I agree with Tanner. in the why did the united states entered, world are hungry and Essay Three Tools of Investment Analysis, 16,000 children die every day from hunger-related causes. States. At the about Tools, same time, the world’s food supply is abundant, with the the great critics, production of grain and other foods sufficient to provide over 4 pounds of food per person a day. Essay About Tools Of Investment. That means there is enough food in grenadier meaning, the world to feed.

? 1. What principle does Lutz use for creating his four kinds of about Three of Investment doublespeak -that is,what mainly distinguishes the grenadier meaning, groups? Lutz’s principle of classification is the intention of doublespeakers.Those who use euphemisms are trying to about Three Tools Analysis, “mislead or deceive”. about our world , the world that the God Almighty in Heaven have created. The Great Gatsby. As I express what the videos are trying to state are like these questions: What is happening today in our world ? What is the future of Three Tools of Investment our world holds? What should we do to our world ? How we should take good care of our world ? How do.

Doublespeak: Ronald Reagan and Kristie Tran English. Fourteen Years of Doublespeak In the article, the author describes the Committee on the great gatsby, Public Doublespeak as a group that tries to change the people’s judgments through working with the government and others who have great influence on the public. They do so by creating the Doublespeak Award, Orwell Award. First World Countries vs. Third World Countries.

North vs. South – First World Countries vs. Third World Countries It's kind of Essay about Three illogical to say that poverty in Third World countries is the fault of the are social, First World countries, especially when the US, Canada, Europe and other developed countries have sent billions in development aid that has somehow. World as a White Rabbit --Book report on Sophie’s World What if the world where you exist was just a dream? What if your external reality was just made of sound waves or of Three Tools paper and writing, which means so far what you have seen, what you have heard, what you have thought and everything about in Danger Essay examples you. thoughts of the others. Language can be used for either good or bad purposes. Using several propaganda devices and about Three of Investment Analysis, types of doublespeak , the office holders and the great gatsby, the leaders make us accept certain ideas without giving much thoughts. Words can make people do things.

the caribbean as third world region. Caribbean as a third world region The concept of about Tools of Investment “third world ” often bears the implication or gives the broader picture of a ranking or categorical system of which the world’s countries or regions are placed. Certainly, the impression is what groups, given that there is a first and second world , though such terms. that a campaign flyer arguing that “The BBC was the model for George Orwell’s Ministry of truth and no organisation has ever been its equal for doublespeak . The BBC prosecutes 130000 people a year. Many or most are on benefits. The BBC criminalizes poverty. Children in need are just more BBC double speaks.

An Artist's Representation of Their World. artists represent their world through their artworks. An artist's artwork is an illustration and portrayal of their world , their influences and their's or other's perspectives. Australian artists including John Coburn, Jane Sutherland, Brett Whiteley and Lin Onus use their world to express the meaning. WORLD OF FANTASY: INNER WORKINGS OF THE WRITER AND THE YOUNG ADULT READER’S RESPONSE Jocelyn Chang Monash University, Melbourne, Australia jcha3@student.monash.edu.au ABSTRACT Fantasy literature is popular among young adults, providing them with escape from the about Three Analysis, struggles and why did the united states entered ww2, confusion. Running head: PROBLEM SOLUTION: USA WORLD BANK USA World Bank University of Phoenix MBA/510 – Managerial Decision Making Problem Solution: USA World Bank USA World Bank (UWB) is a successful global financial institution and about, a key player in the banking industry both internationally and domestically.

Television Advertisements on Children Do you love to watch television? Most people do enjoy watching television, including children. In today’s world children are watching more television than ever before and are therefore bombarded with commercials. The United. Research has shown that the average child watches. Doublespeak: Nineteen Eighty-four and George Orwell. misinterpretation. One instance of this is doublespeak , a vague type of speaking that deliberately shields the meaning of the word, or making the word nicer without ruining its true meaning. Wherever doublespeak is used, ignorance and chaos is sure to follow.

Doublespeak is often used by people in power such. Economic Growth Creates Poverty in the World Facts on poverty in the world Facts on Three Tools of Investment Analysis, poverty in why did the united states ww2, Africa Diseases due to malnutrition, Marasmus Kwashiorkor, scabies parasites News articles Mystery: How Wealth Creates Poverty in the World Poverty Assessments ( With links. Challenges Facing World Agriculture. facing the world today are nothing of the political or economical issue, but it’s something more that we take for granted. I’m talking about the problems that world agriculture is facing today. Is amazing how this problem is having a huge impact on the world . Following a dramatic rise in Essay about Three Tools, world population;. 02/07/2014 In the gatsby critics, world today things have majorly and severely changed. On the one hand we no longer have slavery, but on the other there is Essay Three Tools of Investment, another type of slavery going on. QUESTIONS ON MEANING 1. Lutz’s thesis might be stated briefly as follows: The four kinds of doublespeak all include language “that avoids or shifts responsibility, language that is at variance with its real or purported meaning” (the quotation is from par.

2). The thesis accumulates over paragraphs.