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155 TOEFL Independent Writing Topics. Need to practice for the writing sections? Try this list of past TOEFL independent writing questions, published by ETS (the people who make the TOEFL test). These are also good for practicing independent speaking questions, too #8212; just give yourself 45 seconds to talk on these subjects. 1. People attend college or university for many different reasons (for example, new experiences, career preparation, increased knowledge). Man. Why do you think people attend college or university? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 2. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Parents are the best teachers. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 3. Nowadays, food has become easier to prepare.

Has this change improved the way people live? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Ultra Vires. 4. It has been said, #8220;Not everything that is learned is contained in books.#8221; Compare and contrast knowledge gained from experience with knowledge gained from economic man, books. In your opinion, which source is more important? Why? 5. Ultra Doctrine. A company has announced that it wishes to build a large factory near your community. Man. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this new influence on your community. Insurer Bad Faith. Do you support or oppose the factory?

Explain your position. 6. If you could change one important thing about your hometown, what would you change? Use reasons and specific examples to economic man support your answer. 7. How do movies or television influence people#8217;s behavior? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. 8. Define Mechanism. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Television has destroyed communication among friends and family. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. Economic. 9. In Florida Essays. Some people prefer to live in man a small town. Others prefer to live in a big city. Which place would you prefer to live in?

Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. Essay System. 10. #8220;When people succeed, it is economic man because of define market mechanism, hard work. Luck has nothing to do with success.#8221; Do you agree or disagree with the quotation above? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your position. 11. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

Universities should give the same amount of economic man, money to their students#8217; sports activities as they give to their university libraries. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 12. Many people visit museums when they travel to new places. Why do you think people visit museums? Use specific reasons and the nervous examples to economic support your answer. 13. Some people prefer to eat at food stands or restaurants. Essays. Other people prefer to prepare and eat food at home. Which do you prefer?

Use specific reasons and economic man examples to define support your answer. 14. Some people believe that university students should be required to attend classes. Others believe that going to classes should be optional for students. Which point of economic, view do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer. 15. Bad Faith. Neighbors are the people who live near us. In your opinion, what are the man, qualities of a good neighbor?

Use specific details and examples in your answer. 16. It has recently been announced that a new restaurant may be built in your neighborhood. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 17. Some people think that they can learn better by themselves than with a teacher. Others think that it is always better to have a teacher. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons to develop your essay.

18. What are some important qualities of com, a good supervisor (boss)? Use specific details and examples to explain why these qualities are important. 19. Should governments spend more money on improving roads and highways, or should governments spend more money on improving public transportation (buses, trains, subways)? Why? Use specific reasons and details to economic man develop your essay. 20. It is better for children to Insurer Essays grow up in the countryside than in a big city.

Do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and examples to develop your essay. 21. In general, people are living longer now. Discuss the causes of this phenomenon. Use specific reasons and details to man develop your essay. 22. We all work or will work in our jobs with many different kinds of people. Define. In your opinion, what are some important characteristics of economic man, a co-worker (someone you work closely with)? Use reasons and specific examples to define explain why these characteristics are important.

23. Do you agree or disagree with the economic man, following statement? Sometimes it is shelsilverstein com better not to tell the truth. Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 24. In some countries, teenagers have jobs while they are still students. Do you think this is a good idea? Support your opinion by economic using specific reasons and details. Shelsilverstein. 25. Man. A person you know is planning to move to your town or city. What do you think this person would like and dislike about living in your town or city?

Why? Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay. What. 26. Man. It has recently been announced that a large shopping center may be built in your neighborhood. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 27. It has recently been announced that a new movie theater may be built in your neighborhood.

Do you support or oppose this plan? Why? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 28. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

People should sometimes do things that they do not enjoy doing. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Malaysia. 29. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Television, newspapers, magazines, and man other media pay too much attention to the personal lives of famous people such as public figures and celebrities. Use specific reasons and details to Insurer in Florida explain your opinion. 30. Some people believe that the Earth is being harmed (damaged) by human activity. Others feel that human activity makes the Earth a better place to economic live. What is your opinion? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

31. It has recently been announced that a new high school may be built in your community. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why? Use specific reasons and details in your answer. 32. Some people spend their entire lives in one place. Others move a number of times throughout their lives, looking for a better job, house, community, or even climate.

Which do you prefer: staying in one place or moving in search of another place? Use reasons and specific examples to support your opinion. 33. Is it better to enjoy your money when you earn it or is it better to save your money for some time in the future? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 34. You have received a gift of money.

The money is kimball malaysia enough to buy either a piece of jewelry you like or tickets to a concert you want to attend. Which would you buy? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 35. Man. You must select a person to shelsilverstein com teach others to do a job. Which one of the following is the most important for you to consider in economic man making your selection? the person#8217;s education the person#8217;s work experience the quality of the person#8217;s previous work. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 36. Businesses should hire employees for their entire lives.

Do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 37. Countries, businesses, and schools are three areas that need good leaders. Choose one of ultra vires doctrine, these three areas and describe the most important qualities of a leader in that area. Explain why these qualities are important, using specific examples and details. 38. Choose one of the following transportation vehicles and explain why you think it has changed people#8217;s lives.

Use specific reasons and examples to man support your answer. 39. Do you agree or disagree that progress is always good? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 40. Learning about the past has no value for on The Welfare, those of us living in the present. Do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

41. The expression #8220;Never, never give up#8221; means to economic man keep trying and never stop working for what system, your goals. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 42. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? With the help of technology, students nowadays can learn more information and learn it more quickly. Use specific reasons and economic examples to support your answer. 43.

Do you agree or disagree with the on The Welfare, following statement? Games are as important for adults as they are for man, children. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 44. Awards and prizes are given for excellence in various fields.

Do these awards and prizes serve a useful purpose? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 45. Some people think that human needs for farmland, housing, and industry are more important than saving land for endangered animals. Do you agree or disagree with this point of doctrine, view? Why or why not? Use specific reasons and man examples to support your answer. 46. What is a very important skill a person should learn in order to be successful in the world today? Choose one skill and on The Welfare use specific reasons and examples to support your choice.

47. Man. Resolving problems between individuals or groups is important. What should be considered or kept in mind in resolving problems between individuals or groups? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Insurer In Florida Essays. 48. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Self-confidence is the most important factor for success in school or at work. Man. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 49.

Why do you think some people are attracted to dangerous sports or other dangerous activities? Use specific reasons and examples to ultra support your answer. 50. Which is more important for man, success: the natural ability you are born with or hard work? Explain your opinion, using specific reasons and examples. 51. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

Parents or other adult relatives should make important decisions for their older (15 to 18 year-old) teenaged children. Use specific reasons and ultra vires doctrine examples to economic man support your opinion. 52. Some people like to Insurer Bad Faith travel with a companion. Other people prefer to travel alone. Economic. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice.

53. Com. Some people prefer to get up early in the morning and economic start the day#8217;s work. Others prefer to get up later in the day and kimball work until late at night. Man. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. 54. What are the important qualities of com, a good son or daughter? Have these qualities changed or remained the same over time in economic your culture? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 55.

Some people prefer to work for Essay, a large company. Others prefer to work for economic man, a small company. Which would you prefer? Use specific reasons and details to support your choice. Vires. 56. People work because they need money to live. What are some other reasons that people work? Discuss one or more of these reasons.

Use specific examples and details to support your answer. 57. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Face-to-face communication is better than other types of communication, such as letters, e-mail, or telephone calls. Use specific reasons and economic details to support your answer.

58. Some people like to do only what they already do well. Other people prefer to try new things and take risks. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. 59.

Some people believe that success in life comes from taking risks or chances. Others believe that success results from careful planning. In your opinion, what does success come from? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 60. What change would make your hometown more appealing to people your age? Use specific reasons and examples to market support your opinion.

61. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The most important aspect of a job is the money a person earns. Use specific reasons and economic examples to kimball malaysia support your answer. 62. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? One should never judge a person by external appearances.

Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. Man. 63. Do you agree or disagree with the ultra doctrine, following statement? A person should never make an important decision alone. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

64. A company is going to give some money either to support the man, arts or to protect the environment. Which do you think the company should choose? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. The Nervous System. 65. Economic. Some movies are serious, designed to make the malaysia, audience think. Other movies are designed primarily to amuse and entertain. Which type of movie do you prefer?

Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 66. Do you agree or disagree with the economic, following statement? Businesses should do anything they can to make a profit. Use specific reasons and examples to support your position. 67. Some people are always in a hurry to go places and get things done.

Other people prefer to take their time and live life at a slower pace. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 68. Some people think governments should spend as much money as possible exploring outer space (for example, traveling to the Moon and to other planets). Other people disagree and think governments should spend this money for vires, our basic needs on economic, Earth. Which of these two opinions do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. Are In The Nervous. 69. People have different ways of escaping the stress and difficulties of modern life. Some read; some exercise; others work in their gardens.

What do you think are the man, best ways of reducing stress? Use specific details and kimball examples in man your answer. 70. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Teachers should be paid according to how much their students learn. Give specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 71. Kimball. If you were asked to send one thing representing your country to an international exhibition, what would you choose? Why? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice. Economic Man. 72.

You have been told that dormitory rooms at your university must be shared by shelsilverstein two students. Would you rather have the university assign a student to share a room with you, or would you rather choose your own roommate? Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer. 73. Some people think that governments should spend as much money as possible on man, developing or buying computer technology. Other people disagree and think that this money should be spent on ultra doctrine, more basic needs. Which one of these opinions do you agree with?

Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 74. Some people like doing work by hand. Others prefer using machines. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 75. Schools should ask students to evaluate their teachers. Do you agree or disagree?

Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 76. Economic Man. In your opinion, what is the most important characteristic (for example, honesty, intelligence, a sense of humor) that a person can have to be successful in life? Use specific reasons and doctrine examples from your experience to explain your answer. When you write your answer, you are not limited to the examples listed in the prompt. 77.

It is generally agreed that society benefits from the work of its members. Compare the contributions of artists to society with the contributions of scientists to society. Which type of contribution do you think is valued more by your society? Give specific reasons to support your answer. 78.

Students at universities often have a choice of places to live. They may choose to live in man university dormitories, or they may choose to live in apartments in the community. Compare the advantages of living in Essays university housing with the advantages of economic man, living in an apartment in the community. Where would you prefer to live? Give reasons for your preference. Define Market. 79. You need to travel from your home to a place 40 miles (64 kilometers) away. Compare the different kinds of transportation you could use. Tell which method of travel you would choose. Give specific reasons for your choice.

80. Some people believe that a college or university education should be available to all students. Others believe that higher education should be available only to good students. Discuss these views. Which view do you agree with? Explain why. 81.

Some people believe that the best way of learning about life is by listening to economic man the advice of family and friends. Other people believe that the best way of learning about life is through personal experience. Compare the advantages of these two different ways of learning about life. Which do you think is preferable? Use specific examples to support your preference. 82. When people move to another country, some of them decide to follow the customs of the new country. Others prefer to Insurer Bad Faith in Florida keep their own customs. Compare these two choices. Which one do you prefer? Support your answer with specific details.

83. Some people prefer to spend most of their time alone. Others like to be with friends most of the time. Do you prefer to spend your time alone or with friends? Use specific reasons to economic man support your answer. Malaysia. 84. Some people prefer to spend time with one or two close friends.

Others choose to spend time with a large number of friends. Compare the advantages of each choice. Economic. Which of these two ways of spending time do you prefer? Use specific reasons to support your answer. 85. Some people think that children should begin their formal education at a very early age and should spend most of their time on school studies.

Others believe that young children should spend most of their time playing. Compare these two views. Which view do you agree with? Why? 86. The government has announced that it plans to build a new university. Some people think that your community would be a good place to what organs are in system locate the university.

Compare the advantages and disadvantages of economic, establishing a new university in your community. Use specific details in your discussion. Ultra Doctrine. 87. Some people think that the family is the most important influence on young adults. Other people think that friends are the most important influence on young adults. Which view do you agree with? Use examples to support your position. 88.

Some people prefer to economic plan activities for their free time very carefully. Others choose not to make any plans at all for their free time. Compare the mechanism, benefits of planning free-time activities with the man, benefits of not making plans. Which do you prefer-planning or not planning for your leisure time? Use specific reasons and examples to Essay on The Welfare explain your choice.

89. People learn in man different ways. Some people learn by doing things; other people learn by reading about things; others learn by listening to com people talk about man, things. Which of malaysia, these methods of learning is best for you? Use specific examples to support your choice. 90. Economic Man. Some people choose friends who are different from themselves. Others choose friends who are similar to themselves.

Compare the organs the nervous system, advantages of having friends who are different from economic, you with the advantages of having friends who are similar to you. Which kind of friend do you prefer for yourself? Why? 91. Some people enjoy change, and they look forward to new experiences. Others like their lives to stay the same, and they do not change their usual habits. On The. Compare these two approaches to life.

Which approach do you prefer? Explain why. 92. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People behave differently when they wear different clothes. Do you agree that different clothes influence the way people behave? Use specific examples to support your answer. 93. Decisions can be made quickly, or they can be made after careful thought.

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The decisions that people make quickly are always wrong. Use reasons and specific examples to support your opinion. 94. Some people trust their first impressions about a person#8217;s character because they believe these judgments are generally correct. Other people do not judge a person#8217;s character quickly because they believe first impressions are often wrong. Compare these two attitudes. Economic. Which attitude do you agree with? Support your choice with specific examples. Essay Welfare. 95.

Do you agree or disagree with the man, following statement? People are never satisfied with what they have; they always want something more or something different. Use specific reasons to support your answer. 96. Shelsilverstein. Do you agree or disagree with the man, following statement? People should read only those books that are about real events, real people, and kimball established facts.

Use specific reasons and details to support your opinion. 97. Do you agree or disagree with the economic man, following statement? It is more important for students to study history and literature than it is for them to study science and mathematics. Insurer In Florida. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 98.

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? All students should be required to economic man study art and music in secondary school. Use specific reasons to shelsilverstein support your answer. 99. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? There is nothing that young people can teach older people. Use specific reasons and economic examples to support your position. 100. Do you agree or disagree with the vires, following statement?

Reading fiction (such as novels and short stories) is more enjoyable than watching movies. Use specific reasons and examples to explain your position. 101. Some people say that physical exercise should be a required part of economic man, every school day. Other people believe that students should spend the whole school day on com, academic studies. Which opinion do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.

102. A university plans to develop a new research center in your country. Some people want a center for business research. Other people want a center for research in agriculture (farming). Which of these two kinds of research centers do you recommend for your country? Use specific reasons in your recommendation.

103. Some young children spend a great amount of their time practicing sports. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this. Economic. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 104. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Only people who earn a lot of shelsilverstein com, money are successful. Use specific reasons and economic man examples to support your answer. 105. If you could invent something new, what product would you develop? Use specific details to explain why this invention is ultra vires needed.

106. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A person#8217;s childhood years (the time from birth to twelve years of economic, age) are the most important years of a person#8217;s life. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 107. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

Children should be required to help with household tasks as soon as they are able to Essay Welfare System do so. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 108. Some high schools require all students to wear school uniforms. Man. Other high schools permit students to decide what to what organs are in wear to school. Which of these two school policies do you think is better? Use specific reasons and examples to man support your opinion. 109. Shelsilverstein. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Playing a game is fun only man, when you win. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

110. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? High schools should allow students to study the courses that students want to study. Use specific reasons and what are in the nervous examples to support your opinion. 111. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is better to be a member of a group than to be the leader of economic, a group. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 112.

What do you consider to be the most important room in a house? Why is this room more important to you than any other room? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. Bad Faith. 113. Economic Man. If you could make one important change in vires a school that you attended, what change would you make? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. 114.

A gift (such as a camera, a soccer ball, or an animal) can contribute to a child#8217;s development. What gift would you give to help a child develop? Why? Use reasons and specific examples to economic man support your choice. 115.

Some people believe that students should be given one long vacation each year. Shelsilverstein. Others believe that students should have several short vacations throughout the year. Which viewpoint do you agree with? Use specific reasons and examples to economic man support your choice. 116. Would you prefer to live in a traditional house or in a modern apartment building? Use specific reasons and details to support your choice. 117. Some people say that advertising encourages us to ultra vires buy things we really do not need. Economic. Others say that advertisements tell us about new products that may improve our lives.

Which viewpoint do you agree with? Use specific reasons and examples to shelsilverstein com support your answer. 118. Some people prefer to spend their free time outdoors. Other people prefer to spend their leisure time indoors. Would you prefer to be outside or would you prefer to be inside for your leisure activities? Use specific reasons and examples to man explain your choice. Shelsilverstein Com. 119. Your school has received a gift of money. What do you think is the best way for your school to spend this money? Use specific reasons and details to support your choice.

120. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Playing games teaches us about life. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 121. Imagine that you have received some land to use as you wish. How would you use this land? Use specific details to explain your answer. 122. What is the most important animal in your country?

Why is the animal important? Use reasons and specific details to economic explain your answer. 123. Many parts of the world are losing important natural resources, such as forests, animals, or clean water. Market Mechanism. Choose one resource that is man disappearing and explain why it needs to be saved. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.

124. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A zoo has no useful purpose. Use specific reasons and examples to explain your answer. What. 125. In some countries, people are no longer allowed to smoke in many public places and office buildings. Economic Man. Do you think this is a good rule or a bad rule?

Use specific reasons and define market details to support your position. Man. 126. Plants can provide food, shelter, clothing, or medicine. What is one kind of plant that is important to you or the people in your country? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice. 127.

You have the opportunity to visit a foreign country for are in, two weeks. Which country would you like to visit? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice. 128. In the future, students may have the choice of studying at home by using technology such as computers or television or of studying at traditional schools. Which would you prefer?

Use reasons and specific details to explain your choice. Economic Man. 129. When famous people such as actors, athletes and rock stars give their opinions, many people listen. Do you think we should pay attention to Essay on The System these opinions? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 130.

The twentieth century saw great change. In your opinion, what is one change that should be remembered about the twentieth century? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice. 131. When people need to economic complain about a product or poor service, some prefer to Insurer in Florida Essays complain in writing and others prefer to economic complain in person. Which way do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to kimball malaysia support your answer. 132. People remember special gifts or presents that they have received. Why? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

133. Some famous athletes and entertainers earn millions of dollars every year. Do you think these people deserve such high salaries? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 134. Is the ability to man read and write more important today than in the past? Why or why not? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 135. People do many different things to stay healthy. What do you do for good health?

Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 136. You have decided to give several hours of your time each month to improve the Insurer Bad Faith Essays, community where you live. What is one thing you will do to economic man improve your community? Why? Use specific reasons and details to organs the nervous system explain your choice. 137. Your school has enough money to purchase either computers for students or books for man, the library. Which should your school choose to buy- computers or books?

Use specific reasons and examples to support your recommendation. 138. Many students choose to attend schools or universities outside their home countries. Why do some students study abroad? Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer. 139. People listen to music for malaysia, different reasons and at different times. Why is music important to many people? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice.

140. Groups or organizations are an man important part of some people#8217;s lives. Why are groups or organizations important to people? Use specific reasons and examples to Essay explain your answer. 141. Imagine that you are preparing for a trip. You plan to be away from your home for a year. In addition to clothing and personal care items, you can take one additional thing. What would you take and economic man why?

Use specific reasons and details to market support your choice. 142. When students move to a new school, they sometimes face problems. How can schools help these students with their problems? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your answer. 143. It is sometimes said that borrowing money from a friend can harm or damage the friendship.

Do you agree? Why or why not? Use reasons and specific examples to explain your answer. 144. Every generation of people is different in man important ways. How is your generation different from your parents#8217; generation? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your answer. 145. Some students like classes where teachers lecture (do all of the talking) in class. Other students prefer classes where the students do some of the talking. Essay On The Welfare System. Which type of class do you prefer?

Give specific reasons and economic details to support your choice. 146. What. Holidays honor people or events. If you could create a new holiday, what person or event would it honor and how would you want people to celebrate it? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 147.

A friend of yours has received some money and plans to use all of economic, it either to go on vacation to buy a car Your friend has asked you for advice. Compare your friend#8217;s two choices and explain which one you think your friend should choose. Use specific reasons and details to support your choice. 148. The 21st century has begun. What changes do you think the new century will bring? Use examples and com details in your answer. Economic. 149. What are some of the qualities of Essay on The Welfare, a good parent? Use specific details and examples to explain your answer.

150. Movies are popular all over the world. Explain why movies are so popular. Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. 151. In your country, is there more need for land to be left in its natural condition or is there more need for economic, land to be developed for housing and industry? Use specific reasons and ultra examples to support your answer. 152. Many people have a close relationship with their pets.

These people treat their birds, cats, or other animals as members of their family. In your opinion, are such relationships good? Why or why not? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 153. Films can tell us a lot about the country where they were made. What have you learned about economic, a country from watching its movies? Use specific examples and details to support your response. 154. Some students prefer to study alone. Others prefer to study with a group of students.

Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 155. You have enough money to purchase either a house or a business. Insurer In Florida. Which would you choose to buy?

Give specific reasons to explain your choice.

What Is the Economic Man? - Concept, Assumptions & Constraints

Economic man

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How to make an art portfolio for college or university (the ultimate guide) February 8, 2017 by Amiria Gale. What should be in economic, an art school application portfolio? How do you present a portfolio? What gives you the Bad Faith Essays, best chance of being accepted by economic man, the art school of your dreams?

This article explains how to make an art portfolio for college or university and is packed with tips from leading art and design school admissions staff from around the world. It is written for those who are in the process of creating an application portfolio for a foundation course, certificate, associate or undergraduate degree and contains advice for specific art-related areas, such as Architecture, Fine Art, Graphic Design, Illustration, Interior Design, Animation, Game Design, Film and other creative, visual art-based courses. It is presented along with art and design portfolio examples from are in the nervous system students who have recently gained acceptance to a range of art schools from around the world, creating a 9,000 word document that helps guide you through the application process. What is an art school application portfolio? In addition to meeting academic requirements, Art and Design Schools, Universities and Colleges typically require a practical art portfolio as part of the application process (this is economic, often accompanied by a personal statement and/or an art school interview – more on this soon). Vires Doctrine? So what is this? The University of the man, Arts London gives the following definition of an application portfolio: A portfolio is shelsilverstein, a collection of your work, which shows how your skills and economic ideas have developed over a period of Essay on The time. It demonstrates your creativity, personality, abilities and man commitment, and helps us to evaluate your potential. Just as every art student is different (with individual strengths, experiences, passions and ideas) every art school has different requirements and expectations.

While some universities and colleges have strict criteria when it comes to preparing a portfolio, others are open and flexible. This variation in expectations can leave students uncertain about how to proceed. Even when criteria is clear, applicants may feel overwhelmed and wonder what to draw/paint/make/create, which mediums to use and how to best select and present their work. Producing an art portfolio is not to be taken lightly. Top art schools often accept very small percentages of applicants. Understanding how to produce a great portfolio is mechanism, crucial. Although it is impossible to generate a list of criteria that are appropriate for all applicants in man, every circumstance (there is unfortunately no guaranteed magic formula for creating a winning art portfolio) this article highlights tips from experienced admissions staff and makes general recommendations to help you produce the market mechanism, best university or art college application possible. A step-by-step guide to economic, creating an com art portfolio for college or university. 1. Research carefully and economic record the art portfolio requirements for a number of kimball courses that interest you. Deciding which art or design school is for you is a big decision (our upcoming article ‘how to find the best art school in economic, the world’ will help with this). While you consider your options, it is advisable to apply to a number of different schools, in are in the nervous, case you are not accepted into your first choice.

There is no shame in applying to man, college or university and not getting in (many highly successful individuals are not accepted into their university of first choice); but being left with no place to go because you didn’t apply to enough schools is an easily avoidable circumstance! Create a list of art or design schools that you would be prepared to attend and find their admissions criteria (you can search for art schools in Insurer Bad Faith, California and New Zealand on this website – more areas coming soon). All university and college art portfolio requirements are different. Economic? Record the exact admissions requirements carefully, well in advance, as deadlines can be earlier than you expect and portfolios take a long time to prepare. What Organs Are In? Print these out, highlight key information and keep on-hand, so that you can refer to economic, them as needed throughout the application process. Your creativity is a big part of who you are and where you’re going. To take it, and your future, as far as you want, you need an education that’s focused on developing your talents and putting you on the path toward the creative career that stirs your imagination. A collaborative education at The Art Institutes is Welfare, all about the work, the students who create it, and economic man the instructors who guide them.

Computer Animation, Digital Filmmaking Video Production, Digital Image Management, Digital Photography, Fashion Design, Game Art Design, Graphic Design, Industrial Design, Interior Design, Media Arts Animation, Visual Game Programming, Visual Effects Motion Graphics, Web Design Interactive Communications, Web Design Interactive Media (classes and programs may vary by location and are subject to organs are in, change without notice). In particular, keep careful records of: Open Day times Application and Portfolio due date/s . If you are currently studying Art at high school, check how the portfolio due dates compare to your own coursework deadlines and exam timetable. Economic? In some cases there may be issues with work needing to be in two places at one (i.e. submitted for vires doctrine assessment at high school and delivered to man, an art school in shelsilverstein, hardcopy at the same time). This occurs particularly for economic students studying international qualifications or applying to art schools in different countries, so you need to prepare for this in advance. Mark the deadlines of the schools that you are applying to clearly on your calendar. Define Mechanism? Size and format of work required Whether only finished pieces are expected, or whether sketchbooks, development and man process work are also welcome (some schools require only finished pieces, particularly in define mechanism, the US; others love to see development work as well). Whether submissions are digital, hardcopy reproductions or original artwork . If copies of work must be sent in, find out whether these should be colour photocopies, slides or photographs etc. Find out whether there are specific criteria for time based media (animation/moving image/video/interactive website design and so on).

Labelling and economic presentation requirements . Many art schools have precise portfolio presentation requirements, with work labelled or identified in certain formats, with details about titles, dates and materials used, for com example. Man? Digital portfolio submission may use online tools such as SlideRoom. Whether there are special requirements for Insurer in Florida international or out-of-state applicants . If you are applying from another location, there may be special application criteria for you. For example, some colleges may accept international portfolios via email, instead of delivered in person. Whether supplementary material is needed , for economic example, a personal statement or written essay (more on Welfare, this soon). Art schools typically have academic requirements set by economic man, the university or college as a whole, which may require a separate application form and a different deadline. Welfare System? You may also be asked to submit images of work or objects that have influenced your work or teacher recommendations, testimonials or reports (only include these if specifically requested). Man? Requirements about what to draw / include . Many art and design schools leave applicants free to select what to include within their portfolio.

Unless specifically stated, the portfolio should contain primarily visual artwork, not art history assignments, artist analysis or extensive annotation. You may have to submit a combination of personal artwork, work produced in high school classes and/or ‘home tests’, exams or assignments set by the art school you are applying to. Vires? In the RISD application portfolio, for example, applicants must respond to three set assignments, such as ‘observe and draw a bicycle, or an interior space’. Some stunning RISD bicycle drawings completed as part of this application portfolio process are shown below: Enlarged images are by economic man, Triye (middle left), Anetta Urmey (middle right), Boyung yeon Kim (bottom left) and Seraph (bottom right).

Top photograph by what organs are in system, Mikey Todd: These drawings are completed entirely in economic, graphite pencil or charcoal on malaysia, white paper and economic may be realistic or abstract. They may be derived from the ultra vires doctrine, whole or part of the bicycle, arranged alone or with any other object/s or scene. These examples show the exciting level of skill and creativity demonstrated by students applying to the Rhode Island School of Design. As another example, Parsons the New School for Design asks applicants to submit a portfolio as well as the ‘Parsons Challenge’. In the past, this challenge has included instructions such as:

Using any medium or media, explore something usually overlooked within your daily environment. Choose one object, location, or activity. Man? Interpret your discovery in three original pieces. Support each piece of malaysia art with an essay of economic approximately 250 words. Once you have collected the requirements for the particular degrees you are interested in, the next step is to in Florida, seek out existing portfolio examples. 2. Look at recent student art portfolio examples to gain a visual understanding of man what is expected. Seeing examples of real portfolios is ultra doctrine, one of the best ways to understand the standard you are aiming for (and to gain your own art portfolio ideas). Many university and college art portfolio examples can be found online or in campus libraries (some art schools retain hardcopy examples to help students the following year – these can be invaluable) and a large number of varied student art portfolio examples are featured in this article below.

These illustrate the range of different portfolio styles that are possible and help to economic man, show how submissions for particular specialisations or degrees might differ from one another. If you feel daunted looking at other portfolios, it is worth stressing that is usually the best candidates who display their work (this is indeed the case within this article). Do not despair if your technical skill is not as strong as the work you see: remember art portfolios are assessed upon doctrine, a wide range of criteria (more on economic man, this below). If you have a great academic background, innovative ideas and a passion for the subject, you can trump someone with technical skill who is lacking in kimball malaysia, creativity and personal drive. Economic? You might be surprised to realise how many famous artists do not have flawless observational drawing skill. Showcase your strengths and shelsilverstein com back yourself. These are some of the man, images that were submitted in Grace’s application portfolio. Most of define market mechanism these pieces are personal artwork; others were completed as part of a Foundation course (this is a one year course that many UK students take prior to starting university. A Foundation course can be an excellent way to prepare an art college portfolio and is a common path to art school for students in the UK). Grace was offered a place at Kingston, Brighton and economic man Goldsmiths – art schools in the UK.

Gray’s School of Art publish a document containing examples of sketchbook pages from student portfolios (some of kimball malaysia which are shown below): These examples show a beautiful range of mixed media and experimentation, as well as in-depth compositional exploration and development of ideas. A Kingston University application by man, William Govoni: This portfolio shows evidence of strong observational drawing skill and competence in a range of ultra different mediums. The inclusion of design drawings makes it clear that William is a well-rounded candidate with a wide skills base. A university application portfolio by Kirsty Mackenzie: These two images are from the Elam Fine Art portfolio examples shown on the University of Auckland website. This portfolio comprises of work that Kirsty completed in high school. A Kingston University application by Lily Grant: These captivating compositions show a breadth of skill and a contemporary approach to portraiture that is man, combined with observational drawing skill.

Open days are the ideal time to find out ultra doctrine, whether an art school is the right place for economic you (read more about this in how to find the best art school in the world – coming soon). Open days are also a great opportunity to find out more about the what are in system, admissions process and what is economic man, expected by a school in terms of application portfolios. (As mentioned above, some art schools have past portfolios on display at the school permanently – in shelsilverstein, the campus library, for example). 4. Plan your art portfolio, aiming to demonstrate a range of artistic skill and experiences, creative ideas/originality and passion/commitment. This is the most important section of economic man this article, because it is the shelsilverstein, area where people are most confused. Economic Man? All over the internet applicants beg to know: ‘what should I include in a college art portfolio?’ The answer is this: include a range of recent visual work (completed within the last year or two) that best communicates your artistic skills and experiences, creative ideas/originality and passion/commitment.

The detailed recommendations below explain this further: a) Emphasise observational drawing. Most art and design courses require applicants to have a certain level of System observational drawing skill. This is essential not just for Fine Art specialities, but for many others, such as Architecture and Fashion Design. Even degrees that do not seem to obviously focus upon drawing usually welcome the inclusion of this within an application portfolio. For example, Ringling College of Art and Design states: For majors without as much drawing involved, the submission of drawing in your portfolio is economic, always welcome but not required. An observational drawing is a realistic representation of an object or scene that has been viewed directly in real life (as opposed to something that has been imagined or drawn from a photograph) – read more about how to what are in the nervous, produce great observational drawings.

It can be produced using any medium or combination of mediums such as graphite pencil, charcoal, pen, ink and/or paint. For the economic man, majority of applicants, it is highly advantageous to demonstrate the vires doctrine, ability to observe something in real life and draw it accurately. Economic? It is recommended that observational drawing (or painting) from ultra first-hand sources form a substantial part of your portfolio. The aim is that you: Prove to admissions staff that you are able to competently record shape, proportion, tone, perspective, surface qualities, detail, space and form Draw in a personal, sensitive way, rather than in a mechanical way (i.e. not a laborious copy of a photograph – drawings from photographs are specifically discouraged). This might involve more creative, expressive, gestural mark-making or the economic man, addition of non-realistic elements, textures, materials. In other words, communicate a strong sense of realism, but in a way that also capture an essence of the subject, rather than an exact, rigid copy of in Florida a scene. It can help to think about ideas and meanings behind a drawing – selecting a subject that holds meaning or relevance for you, rather than just selecting any random object to draw.

Clara Lieu, Visual Artist and Adjunct Professor at the Rhode Island School of Design, explains the economic, importance of including original observational drawings in a university or college portfolio like this: Create original work from direct observation. This is on The System, hands down the number one, absolutely essential thing to do that many students fail to do. Just doing this one directive will put you light years ahead of other students. Accomplished drawings are above all else, the economic, heart of kimball a successful portfolio when applying at the undergraduate level. Economic? You might be a wizard in digital media, but none of Essay Welfare that will matter if you have poor drawings. Szivesen, a portfolio reviewer, explains:

Most schools emphasize drawing from man direct observation as their primary basis for the portfolio, no matter what aspect of what system art you want to man, study. That’s because basic drawing skills are fundamental and what organs are in system because drawing is man, a little more likely to be a uniform measure than other areas of art and design. Examples of observational drawings from shelsilverstein a university Foundation course application portfolio by economic, Sinead Kirby: People often assume that observational drawings must be meticulous and organs precise. This is not the case. Economic? These sketchbook pages show fluid, gestural, expressive observational drawings, which immediately capture a sense of movement and architectural space. It is worth remembering that you don’t need to attend a formal life drawing class to define, complete observational figure drawing (although attending such a class can be an economic man excellent experience for malaysia artists and man art students and define market mechanism is highly recommended if available). The drawings below by Curelea Loana Andreea (part of a university Foundation course application) show captivating examples of observational figure drawings that could take place in a home or classroom setting:

Sometimes admissions staff even report tiring of the man, standard ‘life drawing’ and that the freshness and originality of drawings like those above can be more interesting. Observational portraits in a university Foundation portfolio by Emma Hooper: It is important to remember also that observational drawing skill is often evident throughout your portfolio – even in Insurer Essays, works that are ‘non-representational’ and/or more creative and interpretative. In the man, works above, for example, we can see beautiful observation of human form and attention to the way light hits a face. b) Explore a range of subject matter – make art about malaysia (and of) lots of interesting things. If you are wondering what you should draw: the possibilities are limitless. You may, for example, draw a landscape, still life, portrait, animal, human figure, interior or exterior environment, hands and economic man feet, or any other interesting everyday object – focusing, perhaps, on subject matter that is relevant for your degree (see more about tailoring your application to your particular focus area below) and, more importantly, subject matter that has some meaning and relevance to you. Bad Faith Essays? You should try and economic man avoid common or cliche approaches and shelsilverstein include a range of different interesting objects and economic man scenes – and do not exactly replicate the work of market mechanism another artist. Dorian Angelo, of Ringling College of economic Art and Design, suggests: …if you’re not sure what to draw, draw the things in your room.

Draw your hands, draw your feet, draw your dog. That’s perfectly fine. Market? Try not to get into any cliches or any traps of drawing all the same thing. We don’t want to see a sketchbook full of horses. We don’t want to see a sketchbook full of just cartoons or anime. Show that you are looking at real life; that you’re looking at different subject matter… Please do not copy directly from another artist, or include such things as anime, tattoo designs, dragons, unicorns, etc. In the economic man, words of Clara Lieu, Rhode Island School of Design:

Do not copy your work from photographs or other sources. Market Mechanism? This means no fan art, no anime, no manga, nothing from another artist’s work. Admissions officers have seen hundreds, probably thousands of images from student portfolios. They are well trained to quickly spot artworks that have been copied from photographs or that have been lifted from other resources. It is man, never, ever good to have fan art in any portfolio. By fan art, I mean drawings of celebrities and other characters that are not your own. That’s basically the kiss of death, and kimball malaysia will immediately cause people to see you as nothing more than a hobbyist. If you are stuck for observational drawing ideas, these examples by economic, students in portfolio preparation courses at Ashcan Studio of Art may trigger some ideas. Artwork by Suyeon Moon (shoes, top left) (accepted into are in, the Parsons AAS Graphic Design program), Soojin Lee (crumpled clothes, top right), accepted into Parsons Fashion Design program with a 4 year scholarship, Insuk Kang (shelving scene, upper middle), accepted into Parsons Fashion Design with a 4 year scholarship, Kalene Lee (bottom left) accepted into Pratt, Industrial Design, with a 4 year scholarship and Jiwon Hwang (bottom right), Parson’s Fashion Design with a 4 year scholarship: Observational drawings completed as part of art school application portfolios.

c) Use a range of mediums, styles, art forms and techniques. Your art portfolio should show a diverse range of skill and visual experiences. Man? Demonstrate that you are able to malaysia, use and experiment with a range of styles, mediums and techniques and can control, apply and man manipulate mediums in a skilful, appropriate and kimball malaysia intentional way. Someone who is able to economic, create acrylic paintings, sculptures, prints and ultra pencil drawings, for example, is economic, infinitely more flexible than someone who is kimball, only able to sketch only with a pencil. The former applicant demonstrates growth, diversity and a breadth of skill, as well as an interest in man, learning new things. The latter may be a ‘one trick pony’. Choose a range of mediums that highlight your artistic strengths. Use wet and dry mediums (graphite, charcoal, ink, pastel, acrylic, watercolour, oil, ceramics, film etc and market other mixed mediums) and paint / draw upon a range of different surfaces (see here for great ideas about things to draw or paint on economic man, if you are looking for new ideas), but don’t include weaker work, just for shelsilverstein the sake of economic covering a greater range of mediums . Explore a range of appropriate styles . Choose artistic styles that showcase your skill, interests and strengths. Don’t try and guess what the university of Bad Faith art school would prefer (despite common misconceptions, they rarely favour one style of art-making more than another); choose those that align with your strengths. Experiment with a variety of man tools, techniques, processes and art forms . Welfare System? Unless otherwise specified, an economic man application portfolio may include drawings, paintings, photography, digital media, design, three-dimensional work, web design, animation, video and almost any other type of artwork.

This does not mean you should endeavour to include every different technique or art form possible (this would create a scattered and incohesive portfolio) but that you demonstrate that you are willing to experiment and try new art-making experiences, focusing on areas that interest you and highlight your strengths. A portfolio by the nervous system, Kisa Sky Shiga, completed as part of a portfolio preparation course at economic Ashcan Studio of Art: A wide range of mediums are shown in these three works by Kisa Sky Shiga, whose portfolio was accepted by RISD (Apparel Design, 4 year Scholarship), Parsons (Fashion Design, 4 year Scholarship), Pratt (Fashion Design, 4 year scholarship) and FIT: Fashion Institute of Technology (Fashion Design). Printmaking in a university Foundation application by Henry Richardson: In addition to Essay on The System, a range of expressive drawings and paintings, Henry’s portfolio is supplemented with dry point printmaking – providing evidence of a wide range of skills and economic man a commitment to exploring different techniques. A university Foundation application portfolio by Aqsa Iftikhar: This portfolio contains a great mix of mediums, including oil paintings and Essay Welfare ceramic sculptures, showing artistic skill in a range of man two and three-dimensional form. A university Foundation application portfolio by Ayse Kipri: This portfolio combines formal observational drawings with contemporary collage and installation work.

Ayse completing a Foundation degree in market mechanism, Art and Design at Camberwell College of economic man Arts and Insurer in Florida is now studying a Bachelor of Fine Arts at Central Saint Martins. e) Include a range of varied, well-balanced compositions – show an ‘eye for aesthetics’ All work – even observational drawings – should show that you understand how to economic, compose an image well, arranging visual elements such as line, shape, tone, texture, colour, form and colour in an pleasing way. Compositions should be well-balanced and varied – with a range of viewpoints/scales included throughout the portfolio. Avoid drawing items floating in centre of a page unless this is an ultra intentional, considered decision (see our Art student’s composition guide (coming soon) which explains more about how the formal visual organisation of artwork. Think about the shadows, spaces and economic man surfaces in and around objects. Think carefully about cropping of shelsilverstein images and positions of items within each work. Select and use appropriate colours, making sure that if multiple works are arranged on one page, the colours work well together too (more on this in the portfolio presentation section below) Make sure the proportions and spatial relationships between different elements in graphic designs (such as text, images and space) are carefully considered. f) Include process / development work if permitted.

Some art schools – particularly in the US – require that every piece in man, your application be a finished, realised work. Others – particularly those in kimball malaysia, the UK and NZ – love to man, see process, development or sketchbook work. If an art or design school specifically states that this material is permitted, this is an excellent opportunity to ultra, flaunt your skills, commitment and depth of knowledge. The research and economic man processes undertaken to develop your work are often as important as the final work itself and doctrine allow the selection panel to understand your work in man, context and see how it has been initiated and developed. Com? Process and development work helps colleges and universities to economic man, understand how you think (the ideas and meanings behind pieces, for example) and see that you are able to take an idea from concept and develop it through to a final resolution. It provides evidence that you are able to analyse / experiment / explore and trial different outcomes and make sound critical judgments. We want to see how you generate and on The Welfare System develop ideas from your visual research. It is man, important that we see how they progress from the starting point right through to the conclusion of your ideas / project. – Grays School of Art, Scotland. Images of pages from com your workbook/s can be very helpful to the selection panel. This could include: evidence of ideas, thinking processes, experimentation and man analysis. – Elam School of Fine Arts, University of Auckland, New Zealand. Development work might include sketchbook or workbook pages that show:

In depth investigations into kimball malaysia, subject matter (sketches / photography and other visual documentation of first-hand sources) Investigations into economic, mediums, materials and shelsilverstein com techniques and economic technologies Development of concepts, compositions or details Written analysis alongside visual work and annotation discussing ideas behind your work Evidence of links to the historical, contemporary and/or social context in which works have been made – i.e. connections to vires doctrine, artists and real world issues Annotated screen captures, contact sheets, and documentation of man digital processes. A university Foundation application by Lola: The sketchbook pages in this portfolio show the development process behind the on The System, finished portrait bottom right, making it clear that the project has original first-hand sources and a strong personal connection. A university Foundation application by economic, A Level Art student Heather Meredith: In this example we can see the contrast of finished pieces alongside development work. The layered sketchbook pages communicate a wealth of insight about vires doctrine working processes, a willingness to experiment, and the depth of thought that is put in to developing and refining ideas. A university Foundation application portfolio by Violet Volchok, who was offered a place on courses at man Kingston and Ravensbourne, United Kingdom: Part of an AS Art exam project, these images combine excellent technical skill with captivating and shelsilverstein striking compositions. Economic? This sequence of work shows initial artist analysis, original photography and composition development leading towards final pieces. Violet chose to malaysia, attend Ravensbourne, specialising in Media (Graphic Design). This video contains a good overview of what a portfolio might contain, particularly for universities that request process / development work:

Note: If development work is not permitted as part of the portfolio itself, it is usually appropriate to bring this to the interview. g) Communicate creative ideas: be original. It is important to remember that artistic skill must be accompanied by creativity, original ideas and some form of visual curiosity. Economic? In other words, technical skill is ultra vires, no use if you are unable to think of how to put this to use in a unique, interesting way. Economic Man? Someone who is shelsilverstein, able to generate original and economic man captivating ideas that rip into your heart and soul is far more appealing than someone who produces dull, predictable, yet technically excellent artwork. Although skill is an excellent asset – and vires a certain level is necessary – applicants to colleges and economic universities and art schools should not aim to be glorified ‘photocopiers’, but rather the creators of exciting, unexpected visual outcomes.

To achieve this within your portfolio, it may help to: Be experimental – try different things and Bad Faith Essays push techniques, materials and man technology in innovative and unexpected ways Make art about something (visually communicate ideas) rather than just laboriously depict a scene – demonstrate your intellectual potential. Be yourself – reveal your personality and interests . Never submit art that is an imitation of on The System someone else’s. Aim for artwork that is new, fresh and about something that matters to economic man, you. Don’t replicate any of the portfolios you see on this page or elsewhere. Your portfolio should be individual to you. Let your portfolio reflect your strengths, interests and experiences and represent who you are. On the whole, greater emphasis is put on evidence of your visual curiosity, idea generation and exploration, and define market your energy, engagement and man contextual awareness, than on high level technical skills and market mechanism finish. Man? – Edinburgh College of Art, Scotland. …[A good portfolio] demonstrates how you can think in innovative and contrasting ways, and shows originality, inventiveness and commitment to being creative. – Massey University, New Zealand. … stand out from the crowd by pushing the boundaries of a prescribed curriculum, personalising a theme or project to demonstrate their invention and creativity. Work that reflects an ultra vires applicant’s own enthusiasms, thought processes and ideas is always of interest to the selectors. – University of Dundee, Scotland.

It’s no good promoting house styles, as that makes all students’ work look the man, same. Com? If a student is man, showing a piece of work from a course, it’s important that it also shows a personal theme. Shelsilverstein Com? – Helen Heery, University of man Salford, United Kingdom. This is an define example of a successful double-sided drawing project completed for RISD (Rhode Island School of Design). Communicating confident observational drawing skills and bold, well-balanced colour, ideas about meat are communicated in a clear and captivating way. Amelia was accepted by man, RISD. A Fine Art portfolio by Karen Park, completed during a course at Ashcan Studio of Art: These two works from Karen’s art school portfolio combine both technical skill with creative, innovative visual ideas. Malaysia? Karen was awarded a Full Scholarship from Cornell University – Fine Art.

A university Foundation application by Anna Clow: This original A Level Art project and was completed during Anna’s final year of high school. Where many students paint or draw conventional portraits, Anna has created innovative, exciting works that combine dolls, human form and man interior body parts. Vires? Combined with exceptional technical skill, this helps to create an unforgettable portfolio that stands out from the crowd. A Fashion Design portfolio by Halim Ki, completed during a course at Ashcan Studio of Art: This is another example of captivating, exciting portfolio that communicates clever, surrealist ideas. Halim was accepted into Parsons – Fashion Design.

Some great tips are contained in this video by the University of the Arts London about the importance of ideas, enthusiasm and creativity – providing some excellent thoughts, especially for those who might not have gained a strong Art education at high school: h) Communicate passion, commitment and enthusiasm. Universities want people who will represent their school well – who will go on to do great things that will reflect positively upon economic man, their place of study. They want passionate, keen students who will cope with the workload and Essay on The System who intend to actually go on and make use of their degree. Economic? This means that you must convey a sense of passion, commitment and enthusiasm within the portfolio (as well as during the interview – more on shelsilverstein, the art school interview soon). Economic? To do this, you can: Ensure that work from on The classroom projects is thorough, personalised, self-motivated (goes the ‘extra mile’). Include some personal, independent, self-directed work that has been completed outside of the classroom. This helps to give an indication of your current involvement and man interest in the arts. During the process of reviewing portfolios, the Ruskin staff always look for work that goes beyond the mere fulfilment of organs the nervous School curricula.

We search for highly motivated activity, over and above any project-based work, and for a breadth of engagement, a sense of purpose and economic man a strength of opinion in the way the portfolio is edited. System? Important for us is to be able to discovering a sense of the temperament laying behind the work, and sense the deeper interests that inform the portfolio. We are not interested in finding a particular formula or a specific style, but in signs of man energy, ambition, critical reflection and creativity. – Ruskin School of Art, United Kingdom. Personal art is the work done outside of a classroom situation and reflects the artists’ unique interests in define, use of materials, subject matter and concept. Work can be completed in any media including (but not limited to) drawing, painting, photography, mixed media, digital/computer art, film/video, ceramics, sculpture, animation and performance art. Man? – Kavin Buck, School of Arts and Architecture at on The Welfare System the University of California Los Angeles, United States. Involvement in art must be more than casual. – Tom Lightfoot, Rochester Institute of Technology, United States. Emma Rose, who works in the faculty of arts and economic sciences at Lancaster University, advises that students include some self-generated work – not just the malaysia, projects that have been assigned on economic man, courses. “We want someone with that extra spark – perhaps you’ve gone off with a camera to take interesting photos.” – The Independent. Self-initiated projects (artwork created independent of classroom assignments/exercises) are especially encouraged. – UCLA Department of Art, United States.

Ultimately, it’s all about passion and ideas, and so if you include the kinds of things that you’re most excited about, that you’re most proud of, then chances are your portfolio submission will make a strong impression. Essay? – Ringling College of Art and Design, United States. i) Tailor your application to suit your degree. Portfolio guidelines for different areas of Art and Design are often similar, but it can be wise to modify your portfolio so that it is appropriate for the degree you are applying for. Rather than creating a completely different set of images for each specialisation or major, however, a submission can be tweaked slightly, so that it showcases relevant strengths and an interest in the area you are applying for (for example, submitting observational drawings of city scenes or building interiors for an architecture application etc ( although this is not necessary – more on architecture portfolios below). As an example, digital based degrees may like to see evidence of technological awareness and capability and the ability to work with a range of digital platforms, alongside traditional non-digital techniques. This might include time-based interactive work (film, animation, video, website design).

The following list gives some guidance about the sort of material that may be helpful for specific areas, in man, addition to Bad Faith Essays, the items discussed above, such as observational drawing. As with all recommendations in this article, you should refer to the university or college you are applying to for precise requirements. Graphic Design Portfolios: Graphic design print work or web graphics Font design or use of typography Graphic illustrations Video graphics Interactive web media and any other related projects. A university Foundation application portfolio by Jacob Wise: This portfolio shows an obvious strength in graphic design.

Along with evidence of economic strong observational drawing skill, the on The Welfare, work is supplemented by economic, original posters that show a good understanding of composition – with competent arrangement of line, colour, space, text and form. “The Bauhaus movement, Russian constructivism and the Swiss international graphic style are a source of massive inspiration for shelsilverstein com my work with the man, utilization of sharp edges, bold shape, colour and precision”. Many students assume that an architecture application portfolio must be filled with drawings of buildings or architectural designs. This is almost always not the case (as with all other recommendations made in this article, you should check the requirements of the Insurer Essays, particular course you are applying for). Admissions staff typically wish to see evidence of creativity with a range of media and strong observational drawing skill (as described in the first part of this article), including the ability to represent space, perspective and man 3D form. This can be achieved through exploration of completely unrelated subject matter, such as still life, landscapes and human form. If you have a choice, however, drawing buildings, manmade structures, interior/exterior spaces, furniture and/or mechanical parts and Insurer Essays so on, may help to demonstrate an interest in architectural design.

Architecture schools usually do NOT require formal technical drawings (instrumental or computer generated plans / orthographic projections etc) and if these are accepted as part of the application portfolio, they are often limited in quantity, so that you include a sufficient range of hand-generated work. Economic Man? You are not expected to understand how to design a building – this is kimball malaysia, what you learn upon the course. Three-dimensional sculptures, installations, casts and/or model constructions can be great to include, as these communicate spatial awareness and an interest in economic, working with 3D form. These might include conceptual models made from cardboard, paper, wire, wood and other found materials, for organs system example. Artwork in a wide range of mediums (printmaking / photography etc) are typically accepted. Note: Some universities and architecture schools specifically request that the portfolio is not filled with Design Technology work, preferring to see work that has been produced as part of high school Art courses. (Although some high school Design Technology courses provide excellent preparation for economic man architectural degrees, Art courses typically offer a stronger grounding in observational drawing and composition).

Examples of observational drawings submitted as part of an market application to economic, the University of Auckland, School of Architecture, New Zealand: Note that even the bottom drawing – an observational drawing of lights mounted upon a steel bar – communicates a clear interest in architectural form. Images from an Insurer Bad Faith architecture application portfolio by Irence K, completed while studying at Ashcan Studio of Art: Irence was awarded a four year scholarship and economic was accepted into RISD Architecture. These works communicate a clear interest in kimball malaysia, three-dimensional space and architectural form.

An architecture portfolio example by Ken Liang, completed under the guidance of economic man Evangelos Limpantoudis from the Office of Insurer in Florida Essays Competitive Design who helps students gain admission to top architecture schools from around the world: Ken was accepted by all five architecture schools that he applied to: Cornell, Savannah College of Art and Design, Parsons, the Rhode Island School of Design and Columbia University. With no prior experience about art or design, his portfolio became a vehicle for Ken to learn about the design process, showing the economic, process of what the nervous system development of architectural forms derived from conceptual models using fabric and clay. Fashion Design Portfolios. Figure drawings – for example drawings of clothing on models Documentation of economic original sewing, textiles or fashion design projects. Part of a Kingston University Art Foundation application portfolio by Annabelle Holden: Studying Art History, Textiles and define market mechanism Photography at high school helped Annabelle prepare a great portfolio, including work from man a textiles project where she reinvented vintage items. A Fashion Design portfolio by Jinsoo Choi, prepared during a course at Ashcan Studio of Art: Jinsoo was accepted into Parsons Fashion Design (Scholarship), Pratt Fashion Design and FIT.

Note the market, outstanding observational drawing skill and clever linking of colours between the separate pieces within this portfolio. Product Design Portfolios: Subjects like product design often require strong practical, analytical and communication skills, as well as the technical and conceptual ideas and self-motivation required by other art-related degrees. This means that evidence of working with materials and in both 2D and 3D can be beneficial. Filmmaking may combine many different skills including performing arts, music, literature and economic writing. As a result, portfolio requirements may be quite different from a traditional art school application. Applications may include: Screen shots from original films, animations, videos or digital applications with video excerpts embedded (make sure these are short as admissions staff will not have time to view long reels of footage, and/or captured as a storyboard with screenshots). Define Mechanism? These may be submitted on DVD or flash drives or as URL links to YouTube, Vimeo or embedded on a personal website or blog (see why Art students should have their own website and how to make one) Fashion, costume or set design Storyboards Website design and multimedia work Evidence of involvement in theatre or performing arts Screenplays and creative writing may also be appropriate. 5. Economic? Take time to create new artwork and/or improve existing pieces (if required)

Once you have planned what you will include in your portfolio, you should set aside a period of Insurer Bad Faith in Florida time to produce this. If you have not taken high school Art classes, preparing a folio will take a lot of work – about 6 months to economic, complete a portfolio from scratch (remember it is ideal to create more work than is needed, so that you can carefully edit and remove the weaker pieces). See if your high school Art teacher can help (even if you don’t take Art). An experienced teacher will often have a long history of ultra helping / observing students apply and may have a good knowledge of what helped successful candidates in the past. If your own art teacher is not experienced with helping students apply to university – or you feel you need more help preparing your portfolio – find out economic, if there are local courses or workshops that address how to make a portfolio for art school.

Portfolio preparation classes are often run by the universities / colleges themselves. These may be relatively inexpensive weekend workshops or be yearlong, such as Foundation or Art portfolio courses. Making a portfolio can feel less daunting when you produce work with a class of on The others and man seeing others produce work can be motivating and inspirational. You will likely have to use a considerable portion of your holiday and vacation time to create work or improve existing pieces – as well as generate personal work outside of your curriculum or complete ‘home tests’ or assignments if required. The most important detail of preparing your portfolio for college admissions is to remember to give yourself plenty of time and have fun with it. It is almost impossible to create quality work if you are nervous and under a time constraint. Don’t wait until the last minute, and make enough work so you can edit together the best portfolio for each school you plan to shelsilverstein, apply to. – Kavin Buck, School of economic Arts and Architecture at the University of California Los Angeles, United States. When it says put together a portfolio of 12 pieces, it doesn’t necessarily mean just make 12 pieces. It’s easier to organs are in the nervous system, just make, make and make and economic man then narrow it down to 12 pieces.

Not only will you have more to Bad Faith, choose from, an admissions counselor during a portfolio review can help you decide what to submit for a final application. So don’t limit yourself, just create! Katie, Admissions Counsellor, Parsons, United States. A University Foundation application portfolio by Nina Cavaviuti: This quote from Nina illustrates the challenge in preparing a portfolio outside of an economic Art class: “I have had to ultra, prepare a portfolio around a fulltime degree course and a weekend job. Not being in economic man, a school environment where you are constantly supervised has meant I have had to work independently, I have learnt to take advantage of my surroundings and to use time effectively, such as using daily travel as an opportunity to create observational drawings and ultra doctrine attending regular life drawing classes to improve my technical drawing skills.” Once you have completed a significant body of work, seek feedback and modify / improve / redo pieces. Don’t leave this until the last minute, because you will run out of time if changes are needed. Build in reflective time – time to set it aside and come back to it with fresh eyes. This excellent video by Paul Stanford, Head of man Department of the Foundation Course in the nervous system, Art and man Design at kimball Kingston University, shows the evaluation of an average student portfolio to be offered a place.

It highlights the importance of man editing a portfolio carefully and eliminating weaker work, as well as ending a portfolio well, so that the kimball malaysia, final impression is a good one. Towards the middle of the portfolio, Paul begins to notice technical deficiencies – ‘ a bit of a boring drawing, you might say ’ – ‘ it’s not a great life drawing, is it? ’ – a reminder that students should only submit work that plays to their strengths. The student’s skill set as a whole and estimated potential is man, evaluated, with observational drawing skill only mechanism, one part of this equation. Most people become too close to their own work and cannot see it objectively. Man? Bring an unbiased person (not friends or family) to assist with your final portfolio selection, ideally someone who has a background in art or design. When selecting work, aim for Insurer Essays quality over quantity, avoid repetition and include variety of subject matter, skill and medium. Read the school’s suggestions for portfolio submission carefully. Most will say “10 to 20 pieces” and I can tell you that more is often not better.

If you have ten really strong works to submit, and then the quality level noticeably drops, better to show ten uniformly good works than a whole range. – Anonymous answer on Yahoo. Be selective. …don’t submit work that you are not proud of just for the sake of economic man having variety. – Virginia Commonwealth University. Select projects that show a range of media and subject matter, while still emphasizing your strongest work. – Carnegie Mellon University. It’s good to shelsilverstein, start with lots of economic work and then be super selective with what you put in the portfolio… – Charlotte Cook. Some institutions offer the opportunity to have your portfolio reviewed before submission (a ‘preliminary portfolio review’). US students are also able to doctrine, attend National Portfolio Day, where they are able to receive feedback on their portfolio-in-progress from economic man university and shelsilverstein com college representatives. These are held all over the US and economic are highly recommended.

Lines are long and you should arrive early to ensure that you are able to speak to the schools of your first choice. At this event, brace yourself for System harsh words. It’s not uncommon for students to be told at National Portfolio Day that they essentially have to start over from scratch because their portfolio is economic, headed in vires, the wrong direction. Man? Reviewers will be candid and direct about the quality and type of what organs are in work that their school is looking for, so don’t be discouraged if you get a tough critique. Rather, be glad that you got the feedback you needed to economic man, get yourself headed in on The System, the right direction. – Clara Lieu, Rhode Island School of Design, United States. Accept constructive criticism and economic advice – don’t be offended (you’ll need to get used to vires, this if you want to man, go to art school!) – Virginia Commonwealth University, United States. What Should be In a Portfolio? This video from the University of Arts London explains how a good portfolio should have a sense of com journey or ‘story unfolding’. It is a good video that helps you understand which pieces to select. It is economic, a good reminder to show a range of creative skills and techniques and well as communicating your personality, interests and mechanism a sense of man your own experiences. 7. Organise, photograph and present your art portfolio.

Presentation of your portfolio is very important. The organisation and arrangement of your portfolio has a direct impact upon Welfare, the way the work is perceived. A good layout helps to communicate an eye for composition, a professional approach, shows your commitment and desire to attend a university or college: it leaves a positive, memorable impression. Poorly cared for work that is economic man, thrown together in a sloppy, thoughtless layout, or is overly decorative and laboured in presentation, significantly detracts from the vires, quality of the artwork. Admissions staff may spend less than five minutes looking at economic your portfolio, so first impressions count. This video about preparing a portfolio by University of the vires, Arts London contains some great reminders about presenting a portfolio. In particular, they suggest that you should ‘ put nothing in man, your portfolio that you can’t talk about’ and organise it so that it is easy to navigate. It also explains that while a portfolio should not be crammed full of everything a student has produced, it should not be over-edited: ‘ pared down so much that we can’t actually see little glimpse of potential ‘. Carefully photograph work for digital submissions and any work that is three-dimensional/sculptural or that exceeds size specifications for hardcopy submissions (see our guide to Essay on The Welfare System, photographing art like a pro – coming soon). Man? Reread portfolio presentation requirements carefully to make sure that you present exactly what is shelsilverstein com, required by man, the admissions departments of each of the schools that you are applying to com, (especially size and weight restrictions). Here are some general portfolio presentation tips: a) Select a simple, professional format that allows your work to be viewed easily.

If a portfolio size isn’t specified, choose something that works well for your own work and that can be transported easily. A3, A2 or A1 is usually fine. From my own experience, I find A3 is the most ideal (both in economic, education and com beyond). A3 marks the economic, perfect balance because you can sufficiently display your artwork effectively, while making it easier to transport. – Recent UK art school applicant from the shelsilverstein com, StudentRoom. Choose a flat type of art portfolio case or folder that opens and close easily, while protecting work so that it doesn’t get creased. (Avoid rolling work up, as it will be hard to get it to lie flat). The portfolio case may be a spine-mounted leather art portfolio (usually found in all good art retailers – see examples on Amazon) or a clear non-reflective clear file folder, for example. It doesn’t need to be overly expensive: avoid extravagant folders and choose one that is simple, clean and practical. Although presentation is important for your portfolio, don’t spend loads of time and money buying flashy folders advises Wendy Rochefort, who is studying a foundation degree in Fine Art at economic Cornwall College. “Simple mounts and a tidy finish are fine.” – The Independent.

Have all sheets securely bound in such a way as to Essay on The, allow all sheets to lie flat when the portfolio is economic, open. Be able to be easily and safely handled. There should be no exposed metal binders, staples or similar fittings. Sheet metal or other heavy or sharp materials should not be used for portfolio covers. – School of Architecture, University of Auckland, New Zealand. Choose plain, neutral portfolio colours (black, grey, white etc) and avoid busy, decorative or patterned presentations (you want emphasis to remain on com, your artwork). Similarly, avoid reflective surfaces that hamper vision (for example, glazing paintings or clearfiles with shiny plastic).

Keep the presentation format uncluttered and relevant. Avoid over decorating your portfolio as this can detract from the content. – University of the Arts London, United Kingdom. b) Order the work in a logical and aesthetically pleasing way . Start and end with a great piece of work, so that you create a great initial and final impression. Economic Man? Space other great work evenly throughout your portfolio (avoiding a clump of weaker work). Think about grouping similar work together, by medium, subject or style – perhaps as a series of projects – or chronologically. An assessor must be able to ‘understand’ your portfolio and see any connections between pieces (for example, show the creative journey between development work/sketchbook pages and final outcomes). Aim to make it appear coherent, rather than a whole lot of scattered, disconnected pieces. Narrative is an important element to consider when preparing a portfolio. How work is shelsilverstein, laid out and economic man displayed changes how it is read, meaning the placement of pieces is vital to showing tutors your best ability in the shortest amount of time. – The Guardian.

Think about the composition of each page – which images are facing each other, whether the colours work well together etc. Consider the relationships between pieces, especially the in Florida Essays, relationship between sizes, colours and format of work. Add greater contrast, crop tighter to make more dramatic compositions. Add a little more intense color. You’d be surprised how much stronger your work can look with just a few careful additions. – Karen Kesteloot, a portfolio development coach from PortPrep. c) Avoid unnecessary repetition. If you are asked to submit a specific number of images, ensure that each of these is a different piece of work. Economic Man? Where a certain number of sheets are asked for, it may be possible to mount smaller works onto a single sheet.

If you want to submit different angles of one piece of define work, it is usually best to digitally submit these on one sheet, or as one image. Read the guidelines of the particular university or college you wish to apply to carefully to find out what is expected. There is no virtue in quantity alone and candidates should not include multiple colour variations of prints, for example. Duncan of Jordanstone College of economic Art and Insurer in Florida Essays Design, United Kingdom. Do not include detail photos of work in your portfolio unless you consider them absolutely necessary.

Under no circumstance should more than two detail shots be included. – Yale School of Art. d) Trim / crop everything in a clean environment and attach to the portfolio (if submitting in hardcopy) Make sure work is thoroughly dry and economic that pages will not stick together Make sure work is define market, secured well, with no loose work falling out when pages are opened Use fixative to stop charcoal, chalk or graphite drawings smudging and ensure that these are not directly facing other artworks in the portfolio. Existing smudges can be erased from drawings using a putty rubber, prior to spraying with fixative. Economic Man? Avoid fold out flaps, and organs system other irritating formats that may distract or irritate the viewer Make sure photographs are focused, free of fingerprints, printed on matt (non-reflective) paper and are large enough to see details clearly Don’t mount things with distracting borders (it is not usually necessary to mount or mat your work); faming work is unnecessary. Let the work stand on its own. A clean, professional and minimal style is economic man, usually ideal, as described above. e) Presentation of digital work (if submitting online or upon DVD or memory stick)

If you wish to include digital material with a hardcopy submission, ensure that the art school you are applying to doctrine, is able to view work digital material in economic, particular format (video / CD etc). Check carefully what type of new media presentations they accept and accompany this with a printed hardcopy version (screenshots etc) and a note about the programmes used, in case difficulties arise. Label all digital files sensibly, such as firstname-lastname-application.pdf rather than 4690243fxz.pdf Ensure images reflect the what, true colour and appearance of the artwork and are cropped correctly, without unrelated, disctracting background items Ensure moving image or video footage is cropped to a sensible length (admissions staff usually have tight time limitations) Consider embedding videos upon your own website, rather than as a link to youtube / vimeo. This creates a much more professional backdrop to your application (see how to man, create your own website). As with physical submissions, think carefully about the organisation and grouping of images. Save a record of kimball all digital submissions as a backup! f) Label work clearly but unobtrusively. Use small, clear writing to man, label work in define, a way that doesn’t detract from the artwork. If labelling guidelines are not given (sometimes a separate sheet containing details of each image is required), label work in the corner or on the reverse with the title, mediums, dimensions, dates and additional info as required. Avoid decorative font and excessively large headings. Proof for spelling errors and inaccuracies (get someone else to check this too).

Make sure all links to digital moving images work. Want more help with applying to Art school? This article is economic man, accompanied by our Guide to the Art school interview (coming soon) – packed with advice from those who have recently applied. To make sure that you don’t miss out on this article, please make sure that you are subscribed to our newsletter using the com, sign up form below! This article was written by Amiria Gale. Man? Amiria has been a teacher of Art Design and a Curriculum Co-ordinator for seven years, responsible for vires doctrine the course design and assessment of Art and Design work in two high-achieving Auckland schools. Amiria has a Bachelor of Architectural Studies, Bachelor of Architecture (First Class Honours) and a Graduate Diploma of Teaching. Economic Man? She is a CIE Accredited Art Design Coursework Assessor. Follow Student Art Guide on Pinterest.

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1. Which comes first, the video or the Halen? Before starting your job search, you need to ensure that your career documents are in order. Updating your work history, education, and contact information is one of the first and easiest things you can do with your resume, cover letter, and economic LinkedIn profile. These are all the kimball core components of your “Triumphant Video.” But in order to make it truly triumphant, there are a few extra steps you can take that will go a long way towards helping you land your dream job. Ensure that your LinkedIn profile, resume, and man cover letter are “Key-word optimized.” By using the same key-words employers are searching, your resume is more likely to pass through their screening software be read by an actual person. Here at Personal Touch, we use our Key Element Detector™ to identify these industry-specific key-words and work them into our resumes.

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We live in a day and age of amazing technology that allows us to connect with people around the world in seconds. Take the time and make those connections, and you won’t regret it. Who knows? You might actually get Eddie Van Halen! Armed with a most excellent resume and a collection of righteous dudes from around the man world to vouch for you, your job search will be easier and smoother than you could have possibly hoped. Shelsilverstein Com? In the economic words of the great President Abraham Lincoln: “Fourscore and… seven minutes ago… we, your forefathers, were brought forth upon shelsilverstein com a most excellent adventure conceived by our new friends, Bill… and Ted. These two great gentlemen are dedicated to a proposition which was true in economic man, my time, just as it’s true today. Be excellent to doctrine, each other.

And… PARTY ON, DUDES!” -Bill Ted’s Excellent Adventure (1989,) Orion Pictures. There is profound wisdom in that. “Be excellent to economic man, each other,” as a philosophy, is a similar statement to “Do onto shelsilverstein, others…” or the Golden Rule. To strive for excellence and to economic man, treat others with excellence and respect is a noble pursuit. Applying that same philosophy to define market mechanism, a job search allows you to cultivate positive attitudes with the economic man people whom you associate with, in turn increasing the likelihood that they do the same for you.

While looking for a job, having persons wishing excellence for you and actively trying to help you achieve it is a rare commodity these days. It’s that time of vires doctrine, year again. Jobs will soon be flooding the market like a sudden invasion by the First Order. Economic? Now that the Essay on The holidays are over, employers are looking to revitalize their staff with new people. Some even go as far as to hire recruiters for their skills as bounty hunters. Man? During a job search, employers often feel like faceless entities or insurmountable empires.

So, how does the average job seeker face these kinds of odds (approx. 3720 to 1) and compete with other job seekers in a busy, fast paced market? How does one person outwit the cunning hiring manager and kimball malaysia their advanced computer screening systems? How do you awaken your career and get the job you really want? Answers, you shall find, young Padiwan.

1. Economic Man? Preparation and Tools of the Jedi Job Seeker. Before tearing off into what are in the nervous, the frontier of job postings, work on your job searching tools, including your resume, social media profiles and man employment website settings. Your resume is your lightsaber, one of the most crucial tools of the Jedi. Your social media profiles, including LinkedIn, are your Millennium Falcon, able to get you in on The, contact with actual hiring managers of the economic man companies you are applying to in less than 12 Parsecs. If any of these are in a poor state, you will be cut down by vires doctrine, the insidious HR department long before you ever speak to a single person at man, the target company.

The January hiring surge is short – learn everything you can about the hiring process itself to become a competitive candidate. Remember, you are literally fighting hundreds, if not thousands, of applicants for every job. Make the malaysia most of every opportunity. 2. Know the Mission. Economic Man? Know the Enemy.

The rebels never would have blown up both Death Stars if they had not known the weaknesses of the shelsilverstein com Empire and their engineering. The key for economic man you and what are in the nervous the job search is to actually research your target employers. The more you know about the economic man company, the better off you will be when it comes time to interview with them. Not to mention that research is the define market best way to discover and contact the key managers involved in the hiring decision. Plus, research give you clarity about the company’s culture and work environment. Start off by selecting and economic man researching at least 10 potential employers each week, even if they don’t have any posted jobs yet. Research includes finding out about their business, the size, where they post jobs and key managers and employees. Welfare System? Of course, add companies that have posted positions that peak your interest as well.

Work on building your LinkedIn network to create some connections within these target employers. Your social network is essentially your rebel alliance. This is your support, your connections, and sometimes direct lines to your target companies. “There is no emotion, there is peace…” First of all, don’t let your emotions rule your job search. This can be a challenge, as finding a great position can be invigorating. Economic Man? Similarly, receiving the mechanism rejection email can be a devastating blow. Try to economic man, keep an even keel during your job search so you don’t lose your perspective. “There is no ignorance, there is knowledge…” Just blinding applying to jobs without research is to barrel forward in ignorance.

Take the time to learn about your targets to make the most of every single job application and submitted resume. Similarly, educate yourself about the hiring process to empower your own job search. Knowing the tricks and traps is the best way to avoid HR’s sarlacc pit that consumes most resumes. “There is no passion, there is serenity…” Sorry, Jedi, but here I have to shelsilverstein, disagree. Passion is economic man paramount in the job search. Essay On The Welfare System? Smart managers hire people who are passionate about what they do. Traditionally speaking, the passionate employee with produce better work, stay longer, be more committed, call in less, and economic man is in general a better hire. Don’t be afraid to express your passion in organs are in the nervous, your cover letter, your resume, and the interview.

“There is no chaos, there is economic harmony…” A job search conduct in chaos is not effective. This means that frantically applying to jobs over Insurer Bad Faith, your lunch hour is economic not going to work. Set aside time every day to work on your search, including creating a space within your home dedicated to this purpose. Still the mind and let go of your anxieties and stresses of the organs are in the nervous system day before tackling something like writing your resume or starting a complex online application. Just a few calming breaths to reset the mind can make a world of difference.

“There is no death, there is the economic Force.” Death is but a transformation, including job changes, career transitions, and new opportunities. To be effective, we have to vires doctrine, let go of the former life to experience the new one. In many ways, this is aligning ourselves with our higher selves – if we work towards it and allow it to happen. Hungry for a new job this holiday season? Follow this simple recipe for a tasty new resume and enjoy a main course of great interviews that lead to your next sweet job. 1 Microsoft Word document. 3 – 4 relevant job postings. 800 – 2000 words. 3 cups experience. 1 cup relevant skills.

1 cup previous achievements. 1 bottle Key Word marinade. 3 tbls contact information. 2 tbls education. Season to taste. Preheat brain to economic, 350 degrees. Lay out ingredients on Word Document in the following order: 3 tbls contact information, 50-70 words introductory paragraph, 1 cup relevant skills, 3 cups experience, 1 cup previous achievements, 1 tbls education. Combine ingredients in document.

Place resume in warm brain for market mechanism 20 minutes. Lay out relevant job postings on cutting board. Find key elements by cutting away fat, keeping only desired skills and experience. Combine to economic, create the key word marinade. Remove resume from brain and add key word marinade. Return resume to brain and bake for Insurer Essays 20 minutes. Season to economic, taste with personal flavor to capture your unique personality. Garnish with cover letter and serve to on The Welfare System, potential employer. All metaphor aside, a good resume starts with a basic understanding of economic, what goes into making one. Define Market? When writing a resume, most people ignore some essential elements. Just like a failed souffle, missing the essential ingredients will make the resume fall flat.

Without the right key words, it can’t pass the screening process. Economic Man? Not enough spice and it will bore the hiring managers. Don’t forget to do a taste test before sending your resume out to potential employers. Show it to colleagues, friends, and family to get their opinion. Remember to put more credence on Insurer Bad Faith Essays the opinions of economic, people within your industry, but multiple reviews can also spot the simple grammar or spelling error that can ruin a resume. If you are working with a recruiter you trust, they can provide some guidance as well. Remember, your resume should be a representation of you on paper. You want the employers to savor it, not just screen it. While key words can get you through the door, you still have to impress the hiring manager with your relevant knowledge, skills, and experience to land the interview. I just saw “Mad Max: Fury Road” (George Miller / Village Roadshow Pictures, 2015) for organs are in the nervous system the first time yesterday. (I know, it hit theaters forever ago, but I never took the chance to go see it in the theater.) It reminded me of some people’s job search when they call our office.

Often times, these job seekers have been looking for a job for months with little success, leaving many to economic man, wonder if, in fact, there are any jobs at what organs the nervous, all. Economic Man? The job market for them feels like the apocalyptic wasteland, where they race with the competition for the best prospects. It seems like only the strongest, smartest, or most ruthless survive the on The Welfare furious chase. Granted, they aren’t wearing distressed leather jackets, driving supped up V8 engines, and man spearing each other’s vehicles with bombs, but the mentality has some striking similarities: 1. The market crash and the Great Recession is shelsilverstein com still fresh in people’s minds, giving them a survivor’s mentality. Many job seekers are still scared from the brutal unemployment rates and overall hiring landscape after the market crashed.

Many people were forced to economic, learn new professions just to keep their heads above water, all while dreading the Insurer Bad Faith Essays possibility of getting laid off. A survivor’s mentality permeated the population. Some, such as myself, worked for temp agencies or had to take odd jobs in order to pay for simple things like food or a roof over their head. Like huddled groups of War Boys, many Millennials took up residence with multiple roommates just because they couldn’t afford their own place, or worse, had to move back in with their parents. Economic Man? Meanwhile, older generations of the organs are in system American workforce were under constant threat of economic, a layoff just because of Essay Welfare, changing market conditions. By my words and economic deeds, I totally qualify for this job. (© Village Roadshow Pictures, 2015)

As the lone job hunter, I felt like the job boards such as and transformed into Bad Faith in Florida Essays, a vast wasteland where no jobs existed, with an occasional oasis of opportunity springing up just to be closed within a matter of man, days. Insurer In Florida? Even though the economic market has greatly recovered these days, people still remember being in Bad Faith in Florida Essays, that position. These are the hardened survivors of the wasteland. Plus, we still see the proverbial roving gangs of revheads swooping in to take the man best jobs, hoarding and distributing them to their network like a coveted resource. If you can’t take care of yourself out in the wasteland, you will quickly be trampled over by someone that can. The same is true in organs system, job hunting. Granted, you are not ever truly alone in real life and can use services such as ours to help you, but you can’t take those resources for granted. Ultimately, you are responsible for economic getting the job you want, no one else.

If you are not motivated and self-starting when it comes to looking for a job, you will find yourself in a very similar situation that faces a wasteland wanderer every day. If they are not doing everything in shelsilverstein, their power to survive, they quickly fall by the wayside and economic are consumed by the harsh sands. (© Village Roadshow Pictures, 2015) If you don’t keep yourself moving with a proactive job search strategy, you will likely miss out on the best opportunities. This goes beyond just looking at the employment websites. Bad Faith In Florida Essays? Even today, it is necessary to research companies, reach out to key managers, network within your industry, and contact recruiters to find the best jobs. 3. Have the right tools and keep them maintained. In any apocalyptic film, the protagonist always has some kind of economic, tool, car, weapon or some other advantage in the wasteland. For Mad Max, it was his Interceptor. Furiosa had the War Rig. Kimball? For countless others, it was simply their intelligence, skills, or even the economic man simple will to live that gave them a distinct advantage.

I mean, just imagine having to repair this monster war rig while on the run from gangs of vires doctrine, psychopaths. (© Village Roadshow Pictures, 2015) For you, your tools include your resume, LinkedIn Profile, cover letters, and economic references. Define Mechanism? You want to man, be sure to maintain these resources and make sure they are always up to ultra vires doctrine, date with your current work history and relevant key words for your field. Economic Man? Without them, your resume is Welfare System often never seen by economic man, a real person and is screened out by computer programs. Most people will invest the time to shelsilverstein com, create a strong resume at the beginning of their job search.

However, it must be maintained as well. If you aren’t getting many interviews or if the interviews don’t reflect your true target jobs, you need to revise your tools. Economic? Generally speaking, give it about 30 – 45 days to evaluate the effectiveness of your resume and LinkedIn profile. This allows for enough time for com the HR hiring cycle to complete. The real message behind “Mad Max: Fury Road” is not the chase, the economic explosions, or even reaching Valhalla: it is redemption.

By the end of the movie, our heroes turn away from the on The wasteland to man, risk going against the odds to open up opportunities not only for Welfare themselves, but for the entire population under Immortan Joe’s control. When you approach your own job search with courage, solid tools, determination, and a strong, supportive network, you too can reap the shiny and chrome rewards of your own job search. (© Village Roadshow Pictures, 2015) What a lovely day! Have You Noticed That There Have Been More Job Postings Lately? Because of the time of year it is, there are more job postings. Summer is almost officially over, the man kids are back in school and employers are ready to vires, hire. September always sees a surge in posted jobs that last into October. When you take that into account, it becomes absolutely critical if you are looking for economic a job to make sure that your resume and other important factors are up to snuff. Whenever hiring season comes around, many applicants are using tired old resume formats and kimball malaysia strategies that simply do not work. As a job seeker, you owe it to yourself to learn more how employers interpret resumes and applications.

Plus, your social media presence should portray you as a strong candidate. Obviously, your resume is the most important factor to any job search, it needs to be clean and professional to economic man, optimize results. Com? You should have a strong summary that attracts the attention of the Hiring Manager and a work history that highlights your achievements as well as relevant duties and economic responsibilities. Malaysia? Your resume should be loaded with keywords for your industry. Key words are used to economic man, cut most candidates by the HR department. If you do not have the Welfare System right ones, the screening computers could cut you before a human being even has the chance to economic, read your resume. Even when you get your resume to a person, you need to make sure it is engaging for the reader in the first 30 seconds. If you do not get their attention fast enough, you will be rejected. (For more information on how to write your resume, check out shelsilverstein com our article on Fluffy Resumes.)

LinkedIn is one of the greatest tools available to the modern job seeker. The HR department and managers often look up a candidate on LinkedIn before calling them for the interview. On LinkedIn, you can attain a strong and powerful network of coworkers and friends that can endorse your skills. This gives the HR department additional information that helps a candidates chances. For example, most recruiters won’t consider a candidate with less than 3 recommendations. All of that amounts to man, exactly zero if you do not have a profile or if your current profile does not look clean and vires professional. Fixing this is easy, when you know how. You can also access these following articles for economic some helpful tips on constructing the ideal profile: Now that you have a tailored resume and Insurer profile it is important to note other survival tools available to you. Cover letters, job board accounts, a strong network and an understanding on how the modern hiring process works are all critical elements to add to your toolkit.

A cover letter is one of the more important elements to have. Without one, you miss out on an opportunity to highlight specific skills crucial to the job. It’s important to do a little bit of research into the company and reference specific details about them in the cover letter. Man? You should walk into define market mechanism, an interview as if you have known the company for years, and a cover letter is economic man your chance to demonstrate that knowledge of the on The Welfare company itself right off the bat. It’s also your chance to tell them why you are the best person for economic man the job. Like your resume, your cover letter is not about you, it is about the employer’s needs. Having a strong network is the ultra vires doctrine next important element. Man? Without it, you miss out on job leads, endorsements and even recommendations. LinkedIn is a great place to build a strong network by connecting to people in your industry and being able to be found by employers more easily.

Lastly, you want to have an understanding of the new hiring process in use these days. First, you submit your resume. Then you are screened by computers that cut 50-70% of the candidates. Then, you might have a simple read through by a person in the HR department – one that lasts about 30 seconds. Essays? Lastly, your resume ends up in the hands of the Hiring Manager after you have been checked out economic man online and researched. This means out of 100 applicants, only 1-5 people make it through the process to get called in for market interviews. Man? That is a pretty high cut rate. Without keywords in your resume, cover letter and profile, you will be screened out before a person even reads your resume. After that cut, you only have 30 seconds to impress a stranger. Many employers are still relying on employment websites to advertise their jobs. You want to manage your account to kimball malaysia, make sure it is accurate and man up to date.

Indeed Monster, Jobing, HelpWanted and other sites are great resources, but people rarely update their basic profile information. This is not the same as uploading a new resume. Look for what organs are in the nervous the profile settings to make sure that you aren’t sending detrimental old information. Fluffy Resumes: Why they are terrible and what you can do instead. Are you prepared for the fall hiring season? Benchmarks of success in every job search. How Your Goals Affect Your Strategy. (Almost) Everything You Need to Know About Resumes. What Really Happens in the HR Department. Fluffy Resumes: Why they are terrible and man what you can do instead.

Writing a resume can be a rough business. Ultra Doctrine? Obviously you want to impress the employers, but how do you do that? In an attempt to look impressive, many applicants submit “Fluffy Resumes.” A fluffy resume is filled with extra adjectives that don’t add real value. Many HR departments won’t even really read them thoroughly. In a 30-second read, clarity is more important than fluff. Fluffy resumes are verbose and filled with excessive language. Let’s start with this example: Fluffy resumes are, at first glance, very long-winded. In the past, these were actually considered the best way to write resumes, as they added descriptors to the key thoughts. Economic? However, modern resumes are more streamlined and to-the-point to convey a message quickly.

Fluffy resumes water-down your skills and achievements with words like outstanding, amazing, keen and what organs are in system so on. Employers want to see the meat of your resume. Let’s look at an edited version of that example, with all of these problems removed: The essence of the important info and keywords are still there. This time, we make sure the key words are used in a way that actually describes the candidate instead of just packing in general terms with fluffy adjectives. Follow the tips below, and you can be sure to avoid falling into the fluffy resume trap. The best way you can help yourself is to get to the point.

Lengthy descriptions feel like a waste of time to the HR department. HR sees these kinds of resumes every day, and the odds of them reading or caring about man, your resume over others becomes drastically reduced. Many make this mistake in System, their summary, which is supposed to highlight certain skills and abilities you have. If you do not get to the point, those skills and abilities are lost to man, excessive word use. Speaking of word use…. You may remember in System, high school English the importance of action verbs. They should be playing a pivotal role in your resume as they make your resume more interesting and intriguing. When you ignore action in your writing, you create something very passive and boring to read. If you want to generate interest, write interestingly.

It is also important to note repetition in a resume. When it is unnecessary, you ought to avoid it (unless it is a keyword.) When you repeat yourself over and over again, you end up with the same issue of blandness. Economic? Try to avoid reusing those good action verbs as much as you can; even using a thesaurus when necessary if you must. What The Nervous System? Most word processing programs have thesaurus features built-in (Just hit shift + f7 to pull it up in Word.) One of the most critical things to remember is making sure that the actual meat of man, your resume is easy to see, follow and market digest for economic the reader. When I say meat I mean actual metrics, achievements and other quantifiable figures that are easy to understand. For many jobs, the HR department does not have expertise on your desired position, but rather a list of desirable qualities from the Hiring Manager.

When you start talking about responsibilities and vires doctrine duties, often times you end up using jargon that may not be understood. Man? If you put actual numbers on paper, the HR department can understand them more easily. Highlight your achievements. Your resume should be a flavorful entre, not some microwave dinner. Cliches are awful. Really you should avoid them at all costs unless they are included in kimball, the job description. Everyone who submits a resume is a fast learner, has good communication skills and team-oriented.

If you can quantify a cliche with metrics and achievements then by all means use it. Economic? If it is organs there for filler, then there is economic no reason for it to be there in the first place. The goal here is to get you to stand out above the competition, not join them in a sea of similar resumes where you can be easily forgotten. If the cliche is in the job description, you should use it, but don’t draw unnecessary attention to on The Welfare System, it. Man? You should be focusing your attention on the actual meat of the resume, action terms and the point of why you are the best fit to the company’s needs over anyone else. Using the skills section of your resume is a good opportunity to pack in some of the key word cliches without damaging your resume quality (See our sample resumes for examples.)

Follow these steps, and you will see better results than you ever thought possible with your old resume. All content and images ©2012, 2015 Donna L. The Nervous System? Shannon, The Personal Touch Career Services.

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Advanced Directive Essays (Examples) Advanced directive may be one of the most important and underutilized tools in estate planning and health planning. This is economic, partially due to kimball, the stigma that people have about advanced directives, as if, by planning how to deal with health issues, they are somehow going to cause health problems. However, the reality is economic man, that most people will encounter at organs are in the nervous least one medical emergency during their lifetime. In the event that the health event renders a person unable to economic man, communicate his or her wishes, the advanced directive is a method of ensuring that the shelsilverstein, patient is still able to communicate his or her wishes. This is specifically relevant in scenarios where third parties may have to make decisions about man, whether to provide or withhold life-saving treatments. However, it does mean that some things will be different from the system, normal line of treatment. (Advance Medical Directives., n. d.); (Feldman, Mitchell D; Christensen, John F. (2007) For example, Wissow and colleagues (2004) collected gender, age, ethnicity, and levels of clinic/ED use. This information may provide valuable insight into who is economic man, most likely to create an advanced directive in response to the intervention. The time frame for the study was not mentioned or how long after the intervention the survey instrument would be presented to intervention participants.

This could be relevant because some individuals exposed to the intervention may decide to create an advanced directive right away, while others may wait weeks or months before finally making the decision to what system, put into writing their care preferences.#8230; [Read More] According to this second view, contemporaneous autonomy trumps precedent autonomy because honoring precedent autonomy imposes preferences and values of a different person, the formerly competent self (Buccafumi, p. 14). The main finding sof the study were in addition to correlate identification the development of a more clear idea of the real limitations of prevalence of existing PADs, in that 4-13% of study participants had already created PADs of man one or both types and that this same study group had a very high statistical desire to create their own PADs (66-77%) but would like and subsequently lack appropriate assistance in Bad Faith in Florida, doing so. Care Planning Analysis. Supervision: When to Use Directive Control Behaviors. Professional Roles and Values. failure to provide informed consent is usually analyzed under negligence principles. Some states view the standard as to what a reasonable patient would want to man, know, whereas others view the standard as to what a reasonable physician would provide. Which standard is preferable? Why?

In any case, patients can set out defined clause in what organs the nervous system, the Power of Attorney telling operators how they might like them to act with respect to deathbed issues (Edge Krieger, 2008). With regard to economic man, the medication administration itself, in a life saving circumstance, which this clearly is not the weight of the potential for depression of malaysia respiration and cardiac status is clearly indicated, yet it would seem unethical under these circumstances, if the review of the man, documentation proves its validity and clearly indicates the patients wishes, to Welfare System, deny at economic least the smallest dosage (2mg) of ordered Morphine to shelsilverstein, reduce the pain and potentially allow the patient to regain calm, which will clearly improve his status with regard to short-term treatment. I do not believe that wearing glasses or make-up is wrong, even though this is an enhancement of the human body by improving one's life by being able to see, or covering blemishes and economic man, unsightly birthmarks that might make an individual self-conscious. Is selecting the the nervous system, best sperm donor really so much different than a man or a woman basing his or her choice of a mate upon that individual's appearance, intelligence, and man, lack of unpleasant 'skeletons' in the genetic closet? Svaulescu's idea that one has a moral obligation to screen for genetic defects or to personally improve the human race through reproduction makes one queasy, but the vires doctrine, idea of leaving everything up to nature, in theory, would mean an end of folic acid for pregnant women or even birth control. Informed consent signifies one of the economic, protections in studies on kimball mental illness. Consent is a procedure that permits for the free choice by a knowledgeable and competent person to or not to partake in investigative procedures. Capacity for consent is not a stationary experience.

It can transform with the economic, circumstance of the person. The theory of informed consent was established on shelsilverstein two distinctive legal philosophies. Every patient has the right to figure out what will or will not be completed on them and in regards to a fiduciary character of the patient physician affiliation it has to be articulated with the economic, main purpose of endorsing individual self-rule while endorsing balanced decision formulation. Health Care Provider and Faith Diversity. Ethics in shelsilverstein com, EOL Decisions. For elderly patients who have no one to appoint as their proxy, completing a living will that outlines their wishes is preferable to economic, not providing any information at all about doctrine, care preferences. This is equally so for patients who want to provide their proxy with some guidance about their treatment preferences and end-of-life care wishes, including artificial nutrition, ventilator support, and pain management. A living will (LW) provides specific instructions to man, health care providers about particular kinds of health care treatment that an individual would or would not want to prolong life.

Living wills are often used to declare a wish to refuse, limit, or withhold life-sustaining treatment when an individual is unable to communicate. All but three states (New York, Massachusetts, and Michigan) have detailed statutes recognizing living wills. The usefulness of LWs is limited, however, to those clinical circumstances that were thought of before the person became incapable#8230;#8230; [Read More] It is also wise to have it reviewed by a doctor or attorney, the Family Doctor Web site suggests; that way you can be assured that what you wish to have done with you and to you if you become incapacitated is System, understood exactly as you intended (Family Doctor). Man? Nursing and Ethical Choices. An adult do not need to malaysia, make all decisions in advance, but educating oneself is a vital first step. (Death with Dignity: Planning Ahead for End-of-Life Care) few guidelines for man, signing a DNR order are given here. A Do Not Resuscitate Order - DNR is com, a physician's order to not to employ cardiopulmonary resuscitation - CPR in case of cardiac or pulmonary arrest. Competent adult patients may relinquish CPR for medical or non-medical reasons. The patient may make such requests verbally irrespective of whether or not he/she is fatally ill. An appeal to relinquish CPR may also be part of an Advance Directive. When it has been determined that the patient is short of decision-making capacity, the suitable substitute decision-maker should be recognized to make treatment decisions, including decisions to relinquish CPR, if no such person has been appointed by an Advance Directive. If the economic, patient is organs are in the nervous system, out of action,#8230;#8230; [Read More] The hospital should always defer to the patient and family that has an advanced directive in place, and if the patient cannot speak for themselves but has an advanced directive, then a proxy must make the decision.

The only case where the hospital should be allowed to make the economic man, decision on futile care is in the absence of a proxy, in the absence of an market, advanced directive, and only if it is in the best interest of the patient. Internal and external consistency was tested. A pilot study showed that there was internal consistency. However, the results of the larger study indicate that more work on the KAESAD to improve the internal consistency of the man, scales used to measure the kimball, responses was needed. Data were statistically analyzed with an accepted value of statistical significance set at p.

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Essay: A Report on E-Commerce Industry. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Following report has been made on the ‘Indian E-commerce Industry’. All the data has been collected from the economic internet, research papers and surveys. The e-commerce is one of the define mechanism biggest things that have taken the Indian business by storm. Economic. It is creating an entire new economy, which has a huge potential and what are in system, is fundamentally changing the way businesses are done. It has advantages for both buyers as well as sellers and this win-win situation is at the core of its phenomenal rise. Rising incomes and a greater variety of goods and services that can be bought over the internet is making buying online more attractive and economic man, convenient for consumers all over the country.

The report gives information on different aspects of the ultra vires Indian E-commerce industry. For simplicity it is divided into various chapters. Chapter 1 ‘ Introduces to the Indian E-commerce industry and defines its importance to the economy. Economic. The objective of the study is set in this chapter. Chapter 2 – Briefs about the Global and Indian scenario. Comparison of U.S and Indian E-commerce.

Chapter 3 ‘ Provides a brief insight into kimball malaysia the Structure of the industry with the HHI index the Chapter 4 ‘ Has the macro environmental analysis of E-Commerce industry which includes the PESTEL analysis. Chapter 5 – Briefs the economic man Competitive analysis using Porters 5 Forces. Chapter 6 ‘ Performance Analysis using 4 key metrics on major players of on The System, E-commerce industry. Economic. Also included the Internet users traffic comparison on top 10 e-commerce sites in on The System India. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.

Since from few years, Growth of internet has changed the man world in terms of expectations of. the consumer and consumer behaviour. Online websites for product purchasing concentrate. on consumer behaviour pattern and shopping patter with drastic change. Company are now a. days willing to change their marketing strategies as they have understood traditional selling. practices won’t work with changing technology world. ‘Buying and selling products online’ was a new chapter introduced in the internet world in. year 1991. played a significant role to create a revolution in the online ecommerce. Till that time nobody thought that purchasing all kind of products online will become a trend. in world and India will share a good part of success.

In the late 1990’s, and gave a first-hand experience for Indians towards E-retail. Initially when it use to come for weekly shopping of groceries, clothes, shoes and cosmetics, majority of the people preferred to get into their cars and drive to the supermarket to get the. groceries, shops or malls for other basic products. Now it is becoming common news that. people even buy their groceries online in India. 1.2 Business Model of E-commerce Industry.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 1) Flash Sales Sites: A Flash Sales e-Commerce Website is a B2C type business model. where the website sells the products directly to the end customers. They normally. manage the entire process of the e-Commerce lifecycle on their own or through their. partners and the consumer make the organs system payment directly to the business owning and. managing the man website. The consumers take the benefit of huge discounts, which at. times ranges from 50% to 90%, and prefer to buy the products they always aspired to. own.

They are normally unaware or do not really care even if the product they are. buying from such websites are obsolete or no longer in fashion. 2) Daily Deals Sites: A Daily Deals Website also operates as a B2C website and. typically showcases a very lucrative sale on a single or a set of products for the. customers. Com. Unlike the Flash Sales website, such a deal is time bound (usually for a. day) which compels the user to make immediate decisions for that product purchase. 3) Group Buying Sites: A group buying website is quite a unique B2C business model.

where the website invites the buyers to buy the products / services at a discounted or. at a wholesale price. Man. Like the Daily Deals site, the products advertised on organs are in system, the group. buying sites are also time bound, but usually not limited to a day. An online subscription website works in economic a similar manner like an offline subscription. for any kind of service. Such websites showcase the entire catalogue of subscription. options for the users to choose from and subscribe online. There are a number of B2C e-Commerce websites offering a range of products and.

services to customers across different brands and categories. Such websites buy the. products from the brands or their distributors and define, sell to the end customer on market. competitive prices. Though their modus operandi is same like a flash sales website, but their business objective is to offer the economic latest products to the end customers online. at the best possible prices. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Another business model gaining attracting in Bad Faith India recently is the online marketplace. model which enables the buyers get in economic man touch with the sellers and makes a transaction. In this business model, the website owners do not buy the Insurer in Florida product from the sellers but. act as mediators to facilitate the entire e-commerce transaction.

They do assist the. sellers in various services like payment collection, logistics, etc. but do not prefer to. hold inventory in their own warehouse. 1) C2C Marketplace. A C2C Marketplace or a Consumer to Consumer marketplace means an online. marketplace where individual consumers can sell products to individual buyers. As a seller, even if you do not run a business, you are free to sell your product.

through such marketplace to the end customers. 2) B2C Marketplace. A B2C Marketplace or a Business to Consumer marketplace means an online. marketplace where only business owners can sell their products to economic the end. customer. The process is mechanism more or less the same like that of a C2C Marketplace. with the man exception that it does not allow individual users to sell their products. A Study on what organs are in, Indian E-Commerce Industry.

online. Best example of this kind of economic, a website would be which has. now become a B2C Marketplace. 3) B2B Marketplace. In a Business-to-Business E-commerce environment, companies sell their online. goods to other companies without being engaged in sales to consumers. B2B web.

shop usually contains customer-specific pricing, customer-specific assortments and. customer-specific discounts. and market, TATA groups are few. popular sites in India. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Exclusive Brand Stores.

This is the latest business model of its kind recently started in India. In this business. model, the economic man various brands setup their own exclusive brand stores online to what the nervous system enable. consumers buy directly from the brand. Man. A few examples of Insurer Bad Faith, brands operating through. an Exclusive Online Brand Store are Lenovo, Canon, Timex, Sennheiser, HP, Samsung, etc. 1.3 Role of Internet in E-Commerce. Large and small business companies both use internets for promotional activities. Some of. the advantages of E-Commerce are:-

1. Availability- The availability of economic man, internet is widespread these days and hence is easily. accessible to people which has increased the online purchases of goods and. 2. Open to All- Internet open page allows everyone to access and transact from any. global location. Moreover it provides an extension of product choice to the customers.

which in turn is not possible at local retail stores, etc . A Study on kimball, Indian E-Commerce Industry. 3. Global Presence- Having a global presence it is very easy to access from economic man any world. location just by having a laptop and an internet connection. All such happenings have. encouraged E-Commerce as any commodity is doctrine just a step away from oneself. 4. Economic. Professional Transaction- Internet allows professional transaction with just one click a. professionalism that consists of decision making.

5. Low Cost, More Earn- E-commerce can be easily done with more earnings and less. expenses. Bad Faith In Florida Essays. The easiest approach is to replace sales person with a well informative and. designed web page that could easily help the customers to have their like items at. their doorsteps with a click of a mouse. 1.4 Changes due to online shopping in India. According to report BCG (Boston consultancy Group), by 2016, Indian economy will reach. $10.8 trillion. In global chart India’s rank is 8th. India ranks top in services and economic, china occupies. top position in goods in terms of export through internet.

As of Bad Faith in Florida, now, June 2014, India has. user base of about 250.2 million. It is estimated that by 2024-26, e-commerce market in India. will be $260 billion. At an Exponential rate, E-commerce is growing in economic man India. According to recent online retailing. report by Forrester, twenty eight percentage of growth is experienced by every retailer year. after year in 2012.

As per the study digital consumers spend alomostaround$1.46 billion on. cyber cafes. This indicated that year after year there will be increasing number of online. users. Consumer behaviour is one of the biggest reasons of e-commerce boom in India. Major reasons for online shopping growth in India. ‘ There is increase in broadband connection and 3G penetration in India. ‘ Much wider range of products are available then what is ultra vires doctrine available in economic brick and mortar. ‘ Living standard is rising for middle class people and disposal income is also getting.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. ‘ Online products are usually available at discount which is market mechanism less than the products. available in man normal shops. ‘ Lack of Essay Welfare System, time and busy lifestyle for offline shopping. ‘ Evolution of the online marketplace model with websites like ebay, flipkart, snapdeal. ‘ Takes less time for purchasing as there is no need to economic stand in the queues which usually. done in offline shopping. 1.5 Advantages of ultra doctrine, E-Commerce. ‘ With E-Commerce as an alternative shopping is no longer a barrier for the customers. in terms of time, distance and place as customers can shop at any time and from. anywhere they prefer to.

‘ E-Commerce has satisfied and provides certified branded products to economic the customers. that even typical Indian customers are ready to buy products such as clothes, shoes, etc. without even touching or trying them for fitness. ‘ All extra expenditures that were initially done on labour, etc are avoided and a lot of. funds get saved. ‘ Shopping through web is the most feasible options for metro city residents. ‘ Transaction time has reduced. ‘ Alternative products offered by different brands are also availed to the customers if by. chance the current product in a particular brand is unavailable. ‘ 1-Day delivery along with door-door delivery has caught a boom in the market with. the evolution of E-Commerce. 1.6 Disadvantages of E-Commerce.

‘ Unprofessionalism has increased as any company gets a chance to make their business. portal out of trust or belief. ‘ Customer interaction is very less so the product quality and satisfaction to the. customer remains a matter for kimball concern. ‘ Hackers and crackers are day in and day out searching for a chance to hack into.

customer personal details that they share at the time of online payments. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. ‘ E-commerce go discouraging for the purchasing of precious items just by having a. glance of them rather than getting a chance to wear them or check product quality. such as jewellery etc. ‘ E-commerce concept is economic man under a mess as many online sites do not deliver services as. promised at the time of placing the order. ‘ Authenticity for the product is market mechanism untrustworthy.

1.7 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY. ‘ To study the global and Indian scenario with respect to the E-commerce Industry. ‘ To study the structure of the Indian E-commerce industry. ‘ To study the macro environmental factors affecting the Indian E-commerce industry. ‘ To analyze the industry using Porters 5 Forces. ‘ To study the performance of economic, major players in the industry. ‘ To compare the Essay Welfare System U.S and economic, Indian E-commerce industry. ‘ To study the future opportunities and prospective growth in define market the industry.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. GLOBAL AND INDIAN. A Study on economic, Indian E-Commerce Industry. 2.1 Status of the global e-commerce industry. Middle class in many of the shelsilverstein com developing countries, including India, is rapidly embracing. online shopping. Economic. However, India falls behind not only US, China and com, Australia in terms of. Internet density, but also countries like Sri Lanka and man, Pakistan.

Sri Lanka has an internet. penetration of 15 percent. Better internet connectivity and the presence of an internet-savvy. customer segment have led to growth of organs system, e-commerce in man Sri Lanka with an existing market. size of USD 2 billion. Pakistan, with an internet penetration of Essays, 15 percent has an existing. market size of consumer e-commerce of USD 4 billion. Economic. Incidentally FDI in kimball inventory-based. consumer ecommerce is allowed in both these countries. (IAMAI-KPMG report, September. A.T.

Kearney’s 2012 E-Commerce Index examined the top 30 countries in the 2012 Global. Retail Development Index’ (GRDI). Using 18 infrastructure, regulatory, and retail-specific. variables, the economic man Index ranks the top 10 countries by Insurer Bad Faith Essays, their e-commerce potential. Following are some other major findings of the Index: i) China occupies first place in the Index. The G8 countries (Japan, United States, United. Kingdom, Germany, France, Canada, Russia, and Italy) all fall within the Top 15. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. ii) Developing countries feature prominently in man the Index.

Developing countries hold 10 of. the 30 spots, including first-placed China. These markets have been able to shortcut the. traditional online retail maturity curve as online retail grows at the same time that physical. retail becomes more organized. Consumers in these markets are fast adopting behaviors. similar to kimball malaysia those in more developed countries. iii) Several “small gems” are making an impact.

The rankings include 10 countries with. populations of economic, less than 10 million, including Singapore, Hong Kong, Slovakia, New. Zealand, Finland, United Arab Emirates, Norway, Ireland, Denmark, and Switzerland. Market Mechanism. These. countries have active online consumers and sufficient infrastructure to support online retail. iv) India is not ranked.

India, the world’s second most populous country at 1.2 billion, does. not make the economic Top 30, because of low internet penetration (11 percent) and poor financial and. logistical infrastructure compared to other countries. It is seen that countries making in ultra doctrine the top list of the table of e-commerce have required. technologies coupled with higher internet density, high class infrastructure and suitable.

regulatory framework. India needs to economic man work on these areas to realize true potential of ecommerce. business in the country. 2.2 Comparison of E-Commerce in US and India. The Indian e-commerce market will reach as high as USD 6 Billion by the year 2015. This. implies that if we compare the e-commerce market with the statistics from the year 2014, there is a substantial growth of kimball malaysia, 70%. It is evident that India is slowly becoming like the US in.

the area of e-commerce. It is stated that India has started doing well in man the market of e-commerce because of the. growing number of people who have access to mobile Internet. Broadband usage has. increased by Insurer Bad Faith in Florida Essays, about three times in the last two years (2013 #038; 2014). A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 2.2.1 Cash on Delivery (COD) system in India.

Cash on Delivery is an Indian thing. US consumers mainly transact online using Credit Cards. or through PayPal. Economic. Indians are known to be price sensitive. Even though with heavy. discounting e-retailers are trying to kimball lure them to buy online, consumers are still wary of.

making prepaid orders. The situation is different in economic US. Even though the discounting games continue, users generally. go with prepayment. This is also because the what penetration of credit cards and economic man, electronic. payments is on The Welfare System highly evolved in that market, while in man India, despite the estimated 1.252 billion. strong population of India, only 18.8 million credit cards existed in the country, with. approximately 331 million debit cards till last year. The popularity of CoD is directly. dependent on define mechanism, the trust issues consumers have on the online retailers. 2.2.2 Offers and excitement created among customers.

The trend of mega online shopping festivals started in the West. From offline trends of. Macy’s Day parade and Black Friday to taking these festivals online, and economic, creating further. new trends like Cyber Monday. India is still naive, even the three editions of the Great Online Shopping Festival have not. been able to make the impact they were expected to. The festive season of Diwali is a time. when Indians indulge in spending, and while the Indian retailers were busy creating their. respective versions of ‘mega sales’, US based Amazon was the first to what step on this.

opportunity with ‘Diwali Dhamaka Sale’. Also, the consumer shopping behaviour is economic different. in the two countries. The Indian online retails brings up offers and excitement into the consumers, but it is not big. like how it is in US.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 2.2.3 Type of Product that People Buy Online. Nowadays people buying real estate and even automobiles online even in India is becoming. common. But in general, Apparel and electronics remain the organs are in the nervous system most popular categories people. buy online, and the same is seen in the US as well. These two categories dominate both the.

An area where India is lacking is online grocery retail. Grocery retail and logistics is highly. evolved in US. In India, it was a taboo, and wasn’t touched for a long time even though the. sentiment was strong. Players are emerging now in this segment, with start-up’s like. BigBasket, LocalBanya etc. and mature players like Reliance Fresh taking the man lead. The local Indian ‘banya’ is still stronger than online stores. The unorganised retail in India is. an area where the shelsilverstein com e-commerce would be able make a difference and economic man, eventually take over.

2.2.4 Logistics and Regulations. The logistics infrastructure is still not up to the mark in India. While India Post is vires doctrine doing a. great job in helping the e-commerce players, no dedicated e-commerce company has been. able to scale up its operations to reach all the postal codes. The penetration of internet in. India is 18% as against man, 87% in Essay Welfare US, is a big hindrance. When it comes to technology, site crashes, issues in ERP systems etc. are commonly heard. things in India.

Whereas in US, the technology is man very strong. The Government bodies in India haven’t yet matured to the online businesses that are. operational. There hasn’t been any clear guidelines for on The Welfare System FDI until recently, even there the. Government has decided to treat both online and offline retail alike. Some of the other online. marketplace keeps running into economic man warehousing policy issues.

The heavy discounting is another. questionable area, since the organs are in system Government has clear guidelines for Maximum Retail Price, there is no lower bar set. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. STRUCTURE OF THE. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 3.1 HERFINDAHL – HIRSCHMAN INDEX. A commonly accepted measure of market concentration. It is economic calculated by Bad Faith, squaring the. market share of economic man, each firm competing in a market, and then summing the resulting numbers. The HHI number can range from close to zero to 10,000. The HHI is Insurer Bad Faith Essays expressed as: HHI = S1^2 + S2^2 + S3^2 + … + Sn^2 (where Sn is the market.

share of the Ith firm) the closer a market is to being a monopoly, the higher the market’s. concentration (and the lower its competition). For the e-commerce industry, the HHI, based on the market share is calculated as follows. Company Sales(in cr) market. Flipkart 2846.13 53.89683186 2904.868484. Jabong 202 3.82525044 14.63254093. Myntra 441.58 8.362148958 69.92553519. Snapdeal 830 15.7176132 247.0433646. Amazon 168.99 3.20014392 10.24092111. Ebay 107 2.02624652 4.105674961. naptol 460 8.710966349 75.88093474.

Yebhi 120 2.272426004 5.163919944. Yepme 80 1.514950669 2.295075531. bewakoof 25 0.473422084 0.22412847. total sales 5280.7 100 3334.38058. The HHI can have a theoretical value ranging from close to man zero to 10,000. If there exists. only a single market participant which has 100% of the market share the Welfare HHI would be. 10,000. Man. If there were a great number of market participants with each company having a. market share of almost 0% then the mechanism HHI could be close to zero.

‘ When the HHI value is less than 100, the economic market is highly competitive. ‘ When the HHI value is between 100 and 1000, the market is define market mechanism said to be not concentrated. ‘ When the HHI value is between 1000 and 1800, the market is said to be moderately. ‘ When the HHI value is man above 1800, the malaysia market is said to be highly concentrated. So the HERFINDAHL – HIRSCHMAN INDEX of the E-commerce industry is greater than. 1800. Hence it is highly concentrated. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.

4.1 PORTER’S FIVE FORCE ANALYSIS. The huge competition in economic man the e commerce market allows to win as companies have to. keep their prices in check to attract buyers. Customer can choose from a wide range of offline as well as online players. Customers can always buy from some other website or some other store in com case they. are not satisfied with any one player. Buyers in this industry are customers who purchase products online. Since this. industry is flooded with so many players, buyers are having lot of options to choose.

Switching costs are also less for customers since they can easily switch a service. from one online retail company to other one. Same products will be displayed in. several online retail websites. So, product differentiation is almost low. So, all these. factors make customers to possess more power when compared to economic man online retail.

Also the E-commerce aggregators sites makes it transparent to the consumer to see which. site offers the Bad Faith in Florida product in economic the least price. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 4.1.1 Bargaining Power of Buyers. The huge competition in the e commerce market allows to win as companies have to. keep their prices in shelsilverstein check to attract buyers. Customer can choose from a wide range of offline as well as online players.

Customers can always buy from some other website or some other store in case they. are not satisfied with any one player. Buyers in this industry are customers who purchase products online. Since this. industry is flooded with so many players, buyers are having lot of options to choose. Switching costs are also less for customers since they can easily switch a service. from one online retail company to other one.

Same products will be displayed in. several online retail websites. So, product differentiation is almost low. Economic Man. So, all these. factors make customers to possess more power when compared to the nervous online retail. Also the E-commerce aggregators sites makes it transparent to the consumer to see which. site offers the product in the least price. 4.1.2 Bargaining Power of suppliers. Tens of millions of man, sellers list their products on ecommerce marketplaces; hence.

their individual bargaining power is limited. However, sellers can also list their products on multiple platforms and sites, including Amazon, and various international e-commerce sites. Hence, if. eBay introduces policy and System, pricing changes that are unsatisfactory to man sellers, then it. could result in lower number of product listings on its marketplace. There are relatively fewer number of postal and kimball, delivery services as well as. shipping carriers; hence any pricing change or disruption in their services could. hamper eBay’s ability to economic deliver products on time.

Hence, these carriers hold some. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. The sources that generate traffic on ecommerce site can also be classified as. suppliers. Search engines hold significant leverage as they account for over 20% of. traffic on eBay if we account for both organic and paid search (according to Similar. Web estimates). Changes in Google SEO (search engine algorithm) have a negative. impact on traffic. eBay’ seller marketplace model leads to large amounts of.

unstructured data on the site, which is detrimental to com its SEO efforts. Additionally, several referring sites such as, and social. networks also bring considerable traffic to man ecommerce and any changes in their. policies could adversely affect the vires doctrine company’s top-line and profitability. In this industry, suppliers are the manufacturers of finished products like Nike, Dell,

Apple etc. Online retail companies sell various products ranging from economic books to. computer accessories to apparels to footwear. Since there are many suppliers for any. particular category, they can’t show power on online retail companies.

For example, if you take computers category, there are many suppliers like Dell, Apple, Lenovo, and Toshiba who wants to sell their products through these online retail companies. So, they won’t be having power to control the online retail companies. Online. customers can select the malaysia products on their own and the switching costs in this case is. zero. It is economic very difficult for manufacturers of finished products to come into this. industry because of challenges in what are in the nervous Logistics. Online retail industry is important to.

suppliers because it acts as one of the economic channel to sell the shelsilverstein com products. Now, with most. of the customers in economic man India purchasing online through online retail companies, they. can’t afford to lose this channel. Define Market. So, they can’t dictate terms with online retail.

companies. So, in this industry the supplier power is low. 4.1.3 Competitive Rivalry within the Industry. E-commerce faces competition in economic man its marketplaces segment from vires both offline and online. players. Customers can buy products from a wide range of retailers, distributors, auctioneers, directories, search engines, etc and hence the competition is intense. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.

Various factors such as price, product selection and services influence the purchasing. decision of customers. Economic. E-commerce companies frequently engage in price-based. competition to woo buyers, which limits their ability to raise prices. In the kimball payments business, there is competition from sources such as credit and. debit cards, bank wires, other online payment services as well as offline payment. mechanisms including cash, check, money order or mobile phones. Considering the economic entry of newer players such as Apple Pay and doctrine, Alibaba, the. competition is expected to heighten in the online payments space.

Competition is very high in this industry with so many players like Flip kart, Myntra, Jabong, Snap deal, Amazon, India plaza, Homeshop18 etc. 4.1.4 Threat of economic, New Entrants. Given the nature of the business, there is Insurer Bad Faith in Florida always a threat of new entrants as it is. relatively less costly to enter the market and setup operations. There is no additional. cost incurred to set up any physical stores and locations. In addition, traditional. established physical stores can easily move into economic man online retailing and bring with them. their substantial consumer base.

These stores such as Target or Wal-Mart, already enjoy. economies of scale, have recognizable brands and what organs are in the nervous, a strong supply chain. So they do. pose strong competition to Amazon. That said, the threat from economic brand new entrants remains low as it would be nearly.

impossible for a new company to match the cost advantages, economies of scale and. variety of offering as These advantages will deter most brand new. entrants to the market. Substantial Economies of Scale. Ecommerce like Amazon works with over 10,000 vendors and boasts an impressive 75. percent repeat purchasers. Its market capitalization is Bad Faith in Florida substantially ahead of its nearest. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.

First Mover Advantage. As the pioneer online retailer, Amazon , flip kart has the necessary brand awareness and. credibility as a strong reliable presence in the market. Massive product Variety. Way beyond a bookstore now, , Flipkart provides any type of product. there is in its online stores. Economic. This means that there is a strong supplier base relationship. that cannot be replicated. In addition, as a bookseller and shelsilverstein, a provider of man, other. entertainment channels such as movies, videos and doctrine, music, ecommerce has established.

relationships with publishers, producers, movie studies and music producers which are. not easy to form and economic man, replicate. The e-commerce market is characterized by shelsilverstein com, low barriers to entry. It is relatively easy. for newer players to enter the market and start selling products. Having said that, it’s. difficult for newer players to economic gain brand recognition and attain high ranking on search. Newer players require significant marketing budgets to compete on a large scale and. this restricts entry of com, newer players to an extent. The online payments market has relatively higher barriers to entry as there is intense. competition between established players; additionally, security is a paramount during.

online payments and hence newer players which do not have the necessary brand. recognition will find it difficult to economic attract new customers. However, established players such as Apple, Amazon and Alibaba have the potential. to make a dent in PayPal’s strong market position. ‘ Indian government is going to allow 51% FDI in multi-brand online retail and. 100% FDI in single brand online retail sooner or later. So, this means foreign. companies can come and start their own online retail companies. ‘ There are very less barriers to entry like less amount of money required to ultra vires start a. business, less amount of infrastructure required to start business. All you need is. to tie up with suppliers of man, products and you need to develop a website to display.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. products so that customers can order products, and a tie up with online payment. gateway provider like bill desk. ‘ Industry is ultra doctrine also going to grow at a rapid rate. It is going to touch 76 billion $ by.

2021. Industry is going to experience an exponential growth rate. So, obviously no. one wants to man miss this big opportunity. 4.1.5 Threat of substitute products. The threat of substitutes for ecommerce is high.

The unique characteristic Amazon has is. the patented technology (such as 1-Click Ordering), which differentiates them from other. possible substitutes. However, there are many alternatives providing the same products. and services, which could reduce Amazon’s competitive advantage. Therefore, Amazon. does not have absolute competitive advantage on their product offerings, but they. definitely have the advantage when it comes to the quality of customer service and.

There is no technology that can substitute the Internet so far in Bad Faith the market. Even, analog. signal that use to send the television signal or radio signal are not the main threat. The main substitute that exists is the brick and motor store, which they change or move. their place to be on economic, the Internet. Therefore, the e-commerce industry has low threat of. substitutions. When we compare relative quality, relative price of product that he/she. buys online with physical store, both are almost same and in some cases, online discounts. will be available which makes customers to kimball buy products online. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.

Porters 5 Force Model of E-Commerce Industry. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. This industry analysis, also known as the macro environmental analysis is basically done to. determine the conditions in which the industry is operating in. The analysis of these factors. becomes very important for a company operating in that particular industry for the growth. 5.1 POLITICAL AND LEGAL FACTORS:

E-commerce has introduced many changes in economic man the Indian consumers and malaysia, customers. However, e-commerce in India has also given rise to many disputes by the consumers purchasing the. products from e-commerce websites. In fact, many e-commerce websites are not following. Indian laws at all and they are also not very fair while dealing with their consumers.

Allegations of predatory pricing, tax avoidance, anti competitive practices, etc have been. levelled against economic man, big e-commerce players of India. As a result, disputes are common in India. that is Essay Welfare not satisfactorily redressed. Man. This reduces the confidence in ultra the e-commerce segment.

and the unsatisfied consumers have little choice against the big e-commerce players. At a. time when we are moving towards global norms for e-commerce business activities, the. present e-commerce environment of India needs fine tuning and regulatory scrutiny. In fact, India is exploring the possibility of regulation of e-commerce through either Telecom. Regulatory Authority of economic, India (TRAI) or through different Ministries/Departments of Central.

Government in a collective manner. It is obvious that e-commerce related issues are not easy to manage. E-commerce disputes. resolution is even more difficult and challenging especially when Indian Courts are already. overburdened with court cases.

Of course, establishment of e-courts in India and use of online. dispute resolution (ODR) in India are very viable and convincing options before the Indian. Many Indian stakeholders have raised objections about the way e-commerce websites are. operating in India. These websites are providing deep discounts that have been labeled as. predatory by offline traders and on The Welfare, businesses. Further, Myntra, Flipkart, Amazon, Uber, etc. have already been questioned by the regulatory authorities of economic, India for violating Indian laws. A Study on kimball, Indian E-Commerce Industry. 5.1.1 NEED FOR HUMORIZED TAXATION LAWS: Laws regulating ecommerce in India are still evolving and lack clarity.

Favorable regulatory. environment would be key towards unleashing the potential of ecommerce and help in. efficiency in operations, creation of jobs, growth of the industry, and economic, investments in back-end. infrastructure. Furthermore, the interpretation of intricate tax norms and complex inter-state. taxation rules make ecommerce operations difficult to manage and to stay compliant to the. laws. With the System wide variety of audience the ecommerce companies cater to, compliance. becomes a serious concern. Companies will need to have strong anti-corruption programs for. sourcing and vendor management, as well as robust compliance frameworks.

It is important. for the E-Commerce companies to keep a check at every stage and adhere to the relevant. laws, so as to economic man avoid fines.Myntra, Flipkart and many more e-commerce websites are under. regulatory scanner of Enforcement Directorate (ED) of malaysia, India for violating Indian laws and. policies. There are no taxation laws for economic man these websites so the malaysia products are being sold at huge. discounts in man these sites. Some of the define mechanism major causes not keeping taxation laws over man ecommerce. are that the government is not having proper knowledge about the define market structure of. industry and the limitations that has to be given to the e commerce industry and what are the.

rights that should be given to them for selling the product Security of the information. provided during the online transaction is a major concern. Under section 43A of the I T Act. the ‘Reasonable practices and procedures and sensitive personal data or information Rules, 2011’ have been proposed, which provide a framework for economic the protection of data in Essay India. A Study on economic, Indian E-Commerce Industry. 5.2 ECONOMIC FACTORS: Mass usage of internet: The usage of internet is increasing rapidly in INDIA, it is said that India is shelsilverstein said to be the 3rd. largest internet population country after USA and CHINA. Economic Man. Current India internet users are.

205 millions .The total no of users are expected to be 330-370 millions in Bad Faith in Florida Essays just 3 years. The. internet usage in cities has been increased rapidly. Increased aspiration levels and availability. The aspiration of the Indian youth and middle class while the coming year will be even more. promising both for the consumer as also the entrepreneurs, with average annual spending on. online purchases projected to increase by man, 67 per cent to Rs 10,000 from Rs 6,000 per person. In 2014, about 40 million consumers purchased something online and number is expected to. grow to 65 million by organs system, 2015 with better infrastructure in terms of logistics, broadband and. Internet ready devices will be fuelling the economic demand in ecommerce. Are In The Nervous System. The smart phones and.

tablet shoppers will be strong growth divers, mobile already accounts for economic 11% of mechanism, e commerce. sales, and its share will jump to 25% by economic man, 2017. Computer and consumer’s electronics as well. eral and accessories account for the bulk of India retail ecommerce sales will contribute 42% A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.

Liberal policies (FDI in Retail and Insurance) The E-commerce Association of India (ECAI) is looking for a positive response from Essay on The the. government on critical reforms like permitting FDI for the B2C inventory led model. This has. been industry’s demand for a long-time, especially as many small and man, medium sized.

ecommerce players face obstacles on easy access to capital and technology. The industry has. been hoping that the government would at least review a partial opening of the sector to define market mechanism FDI. In 2015 budget the FDI has been increased to 51 %. So there is a positive response from the. international e commerce industry that is trying to enter into India.

Even is also. trying to enter into India with the help of But on economic man, the other side the Bad Faith in Florida Essays small e. commerce companies are finding it difficult because may face difficulty in the future when. the MNC e commerce companies enter India. Supply chain and the productivity growth. The most important impact of ecommerce is man maintained supply chain and the productivity of. the products. The buying and selling of goods’continues to undergo changes that will have a. profound impact on the way companies manage their supply chains.

Simply put, e-commerce. has altered the practice, timing, and Insurer Bad Faith in Florida, technology of business-to-business and business-toconsumer. commerce. It has affected pricing, product availability, transportation patterns, and. consumer behavior in developed economy in India. Business-to-business electronic. commerce accounts for the vast majority of total e-commerce sales and plays a leading role in. supply chain network.

In 2014, approximately 21 percent of manufacturing sales and 14.6. percent of wholesales are done in India. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. From the moment the economic online order is placed to when it is picked, packed, and shipped, every. step in the process must be handled efficiently, consistently, and cost-effectively. In ecommerce, the distribution center provides much of the customer experience. Simply.

delivering the goods is no longer an adequate mission for the fulfillment center’customer. satisfaction has to be a critical priority. The typical e-commerce consumer expects a wide. selection of SKU offerings, mobile-site ordering capability, order accuracy, fast and kimball, free. delivery, and free returns. Understanding how online consumers shop and man, purchase across. channels is critical to shelsilverstein the success of online fulfillment. More consumers are browsing the. Internet for features and economic, selection, testing products at Bad Faith in Florida brick-and-mortar stores, acquiring. discounts through social media, and then purchasing the product online through the.

convenience of their mobile device. Some retailers,’including those that also sell through. catalogs’have been in economic the direct-to-consumer marketplace for some time. These companies. have fulfillment facilities established and information technologies in place to manage orders. with speed and efficiency, doing it well and profitably. But to define market mechanism many distribution executives, online fulfillment poses a significant challenge to economic their existing knowledge, experience, and.

5.3 SOCIAL FACTORS: A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Better comfort level and trust in online shopping: ‘ Consumers feel easy to access the ecommerce sites 24?7 support. Customer can do. transactions for the product or enquiry about any product/services provided by a company. anytime, anywhere from any location.

Here 24?7 refers to 24 hours of each seven days of a. ‘ E-Commerce application provides user more options and quicker delivery of in Florida, products. ‘ E-Commerce application provides user more options to economic man compare and select the cheaper and. ‘ A customer can put review comments about a product and can see what others are buying or. see the ultra vires doctrine review comments of other customers before making a final buy. ‘ E-Commerce provides option of man, virtual auctions.

‘ Readily available information. A customer can see the relevant detailed information within. seconds rather than waiting for days or weeks. Advantages to the society: ‘ Customers need not to travel to shop a product thus less traffic on road and low air pollution. ‘ E-Commerce helps reducing cost of products so less affluent people can also afford the. ‘ E-Commerce has enabled access to services and define, products to economic man rural areas as well which are.

otherwise not available to them. ‘ E-Commerce helps government to deliver public services like health care, education, social. services at reduced cost and in improved way. ‘ E-Commerce increases competition among the organizations and as result organizations. provides substantial discounts to customers.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 5.4 Technological factors: Cloud computing in e commerce: According to ultra vires doctrine analysts, within 10 years’ time 80% of all computer usage worldwide, data. storage and economic, e-commerce will be in the cloud. It is called the third phase of the Insurer in Florida Essays internet.

During the first phase software and man, operating systems were combined to create a simple flow. of communication through ‘ for instance ‘ email. Com. The second phase brought the user to the. World Wide Web, where he had access to millions of websites. This increased internet usage.

by a factor of economic man, one hundred in only 2 years’ time. In the doctrine third phase everything is in the cloud, both data and software. There are several types of cloud computing, of which Software-as-a-Service is probably the. best-known. The others are Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) and Infrastructure-as-a-Service. The ability to economic lower costs, accelerate deployments and respond quickly.

to market opportunities and challenges are just a few reasons why so many IT leaders are. leveraging cloud based e commerce applications. Given the variety of mechanism, solutions, IT leaders. must research their options carefully in order to select the one that best meets their needs. Following are the top four impacts of cloud computing on economic man, e-commerce applications and. steps IT leaders should take during their evaluation process. It’s easy for Insurer Bad Faith business leaders to man focus on the benefits of cloud computing without considering. the time and ultra, effort involved in implementing a viable solution. Man. However, whatever cloud. computing solution they select, the application will need access to what organs are in customer data, product.

data, fulfilment systems and other operational systems in order to man support e-commerce. Cue. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Consumerization of the online customer experience requires closer scrutiny. While many B2C companies use e-commerce platforms for direct sales, B2B organizations. are also leveraging them to add transactional capabilities to their informational sites. In.

addition, the online experience is becoming more ‘consumerized,’ meaning that B2B buyers. expect a retail-like customer experience ‘ even when visiting non-retail sites. Cloud solution. providers (CSPs) that focus solely on shelsilverstein, creating retail models are often not well-versed in B2B. requirements which can be more complex. As a result, their offerings don’t include B2B. functions, such as easy entry of large orders and repeat orders, segmented product catalogues. that are based on a client hierarchy and man, buying privileges, configure price quote capabilities. and extended payment terms. IT leaders have an unprecedented number of CSPs from which. to choose.

However, they need to carefully evaluate ones that have experience meeting their. industry-specific needs, whether it’s B2B, B2C, or a combination of malaysia, both. Usage of bandwidth for E-commerce: Transmission capacity of a communication channel is a major barrier for products that. require more graphical and video data. For this e commerce companies need higher. bandwidth than usual. These all depend on the no of the customers visiting websites, the. type of the products the e commerce industry is man selling and the location at which the online. users are mostly visiting the website. These all are some of the factors that affect the usage.

of bandwidth. Web processing is also some of the key factors that make e commerce. industry to run. Shelsilverstein. Another key factor is: High cost of developing, purchasing new software, licensing of software, integration into man existing systems, costly e business solutions for. Benefits of using cloud computing over E-commerce: ‘ Trust.

Cloud computing enables online store owners to use the kimball malaysia same platform and use. the same functionality. That means that new features can be made available to. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. everyone with a simple modification. Moreover, the maintenance is taken care of. centrally, which means that store owners can rely on a stable platform. ‘ Cost saving. In many cases this is the most important reason for companies to choose. cloud computing.

Since companies do not need to purchase hardware or bandwidth, costs can be decreased by 80%. ‘ Speed. Man. A company can activate an ecommerce application five times faster and sell. directly through a platform that is shelsilverstein com managed remotely. ‘ Scalability. Cloud computing makes a company more elastic and able to respond to. seasonal changes or sudden increases in demand due to special promotions. ‘ Security. Economic Man. Many cloud computing suppliers have been certified so more security can be.

guaranteed to customers. ‘ Data exchange. Insurer. The explosive growth of cloud ecommerce will lead to more data. exchange between the clouds. Suppliers will offer more and more possibilities to add. features to their clouds for users, partners and others. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 6. FIRMS UNDER STUDY.

Four key metrics have been used to evaluate the performance of. E-Retailers in India. 2. Subscriber Growth Rate. 3. Average Order Size: 4. Percentage of Mobile Visits.

6.1 Gross Margin (Financial year 2013-2014) Online shopping in India is growing at a very fast clip. Economic. At the com same time, there is an intense. competition in economic ecommerce space, especially among the top 3 players. There is aggressive. pricing and discounts are being paid by Venture Capitalists’ pockets. Flipkart, Amazon and Snapdeal, all of them have raised investments or have commitments of. $1 Billion or more. This money is being burned to acquire new customers, offer discounts. and pump up products on kimball, offers.

At the same time these sites are losing money, the quantum. of loss these ecommerce players have incurred for every Rupee spent is displayed in the. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. The revenue figures above are not the price of products sold (GMV), as these are all. marketplaces, and their revenues come from commissions they get from sellers or listing fees. that they charge to list the products on man, their site. GMV or Gross Merchandize Value represents the price of Insurer Bad Faith, products sold and net revenues are. just a fraction of that. Flipkart leads the race with net revenue of 179 crore followed by Amazon at economic man 168.9 crore and.

Snapdeal at 154.11 crore. However, when it comes to losses, Flipkart leads by a much bigger margin and their loss for. 2013-14 stands at Rs. 400 Crore. Comparatively, Amazon losses are pegged at Rs. 321.3. crore and Snapdeal had least losses of 3 with 264.6 crore. The figure below shows the loss each player incurs for every rupee in net revenues. A Study on malaysia, Indian E-Commerce Industry. Flipkart leads the race to losing 2.23 rupees for every 1 rupee of revenue.

Amazon loses 1.90. and Snapdeal has least amount of losses at Rs. Economic. 1.72. This cannot be judged as a low performance by the players as after a certain time when they. gain major part of market.

Every product they sell would be a profit for them. 6.2 Subscriber Growth Rate. Flipkart was founded in the year 2007. Ultra Vires. By the economic man end of year 2013 they have acquired 22. million registered users and handles 5 million shipments every month while Snapdeal was. founded in the year 2010 and has 20 million registered users by malaysia, the end of year 2013.

Snapdeal has acquired customers in economic a quicker pace when compared to Flipkart, but this. cannot be considered to be low performance shown by Flipkart, because when they founded. e- retail in India, the people were not much familiar to ultra e-commerce and online purchasing at. 6.3 Average ordering size of Flipkart for man Financial year 2011-2012. Flipkart, has hit a milestone clocking Rs 100 crore in gross merchandise value shipped in a. month for the first time in June 2012. The jump is from an average of around Rs 42 crore. financial year 2010-2011. Flipkart had clocked Rs 500 crore for the 12 months ended March.

In the year 2012 the number of shelsilverstein, daily orders has hit 25,000 mark (or seventeen orders per. minute), a five-fold rise after the company clocked 5,000 orders a day for the first time in. May 2011. Economic. Flipkart first clocked 1,000 orders a day in March 2010. Average order size= Total Revenue/Number of kimball malaysia, Orders. =Rs.5000000000 / 25,000 x 365. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 6.4 Percentage of Mobile Visits. Mobile is now one of our most strategic channels for economic driving revenue and customer acquisition.

The eretailers. are investing to vires doctrine build strong technology and marketing platforms that will allow them to. accelerate their growth on economic man, mobile. Shopping online through smartphones is expected to be a game changer shortly. In the year 2014. there were nearly 123 million smartphone users in India. Affordability of smartphones is.

leading to the growth in mobile Internet users, hence generating fresh consumer base for vires doctrine the. online players. Mobile Internet users in India are estimated to be 120 million compared to man 100 million. users using Internet on Essay on The, their personal computers. 60 percent of economic man, Snapdeals orders are coming over mobile in Insurer the end of year 2014. Economic. It is growing really fast.

They get more traffic from the mobile than they get from personal computers. Flipkart a year ago, less than 10 percent of their orders, transactions and visits used to come from mobile. Now those numbers are greater than 50 percent for Insurer Bad Faith in Florida them. It is accelerating at a very rapid pace. Flipkart. is seeing more than 2 times or 3 times growth from the mobile front compared to economic desktop, where Flipkart is growing overall but mobile is growing at a much faster pace.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 6.5 Top 10 Indian E-Commerce Sites Traffic Comparison. Stats have been taken for month of April 2014. Flipkart topped the charts with over 62 million visits in the month of April with Myntra. coming shade lower at 59.5 million. Given that both of them have now come together, purely.

based on the traffic, they clock more traffic than the rest 8 players combined. While we expected either Amazon or Snapdeal to grab the 3rd place in terms of traffic, Jabong took the kimball malaysia bronze position with 42.5 million visitors followed by Snapdeal (31.4. clocked a respectable 27.6 million visits in month of April (Remember, they have. not even completed a year since launch as yet). Also, if you combine Junglee, which is. owned by Amazon, their traffic bulges to close to 40 million visits. Infibeam and Tradus both have not been doing too well in terms of economic, traffic.

They clocked 3.4. million #038; 3 million respectively. Also, according to similar web, their traffic has been. steadily dropping over last 6 months. What Organs Are In. Both of them had close to 5 million visits at the start of. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Stats have been taken for economic man month of April 2014. When it came to define market user engagement, Flipkart again reigned supreme with each visitor spending. an average of 8:35 minutes per visit.

Ebay also had very high levels of engagement with 8:15. mins followed by Snapdeal (7:49 mins). Myntra had surprisingly low (in fact lowest of all) visitor time spent at 3:04 minutes. Junglee. and Jabong were other two sites who had low visitor time spent. Given that Flipkart had highest time spent by visitors, they also got the maximum pageviews. per visitor (8.53) followed by Ebay (8.04).

Surprisingly, Tradus did quite well in terms of. page views with a average of 7.57 views per visit. Ecommerce industry in India is in their blooming stage now. E-commerce including online. retail in India constitutes a small fraction of total sales, but is set to grow to a substantial.

amount owing to a lot of factors such as rising disposable incomes, rapid urbanization, increasing adoption and economic, penetration of technology such as the internet and mobiles, rising. youth population as well as increasing cost of running offline stores across the country. A Study on kimball, Indian E-Commerce Industry. MACRO ENVIONMENTAL ANALYSIS. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. MARKET SHARE VALUE. GLOBAL AND INDIAN SCENARIO. Search our thousands of man, essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Business essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?

There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of ultra vires, us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and man, you could have your customised Business work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Business essay was submitted to us by shelsilverstein, a student in order to man help you with your studies. This page has approximately words.

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