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Ashbourne College#039;s Psychology Blog. Q1. Outline and evaluate two social psychological theories of aggression (e.g. Essay Services? social learning theory, deindividuation) • Social learning theory= originated from work of Gabriel Tarde (1912) Learning= relatively permanent change in behaviour due to experience. • Classical behaviourism= direct experience (classical/operant conditioning)/ • Neo-behaviourism= indirect/vicarious experience (observational) • Theory claims we learn aggression primarily through observation of significant people around us= Modelling people who are similar (age/sex) or higher status (parent/teacher) Key characteristics of Stem Cells and Adult Stem Cells Essay, Imitation: 1. Behaviour of role models. 2. Copying behaviour of a higher status. 3. Degree of review, contact with role model. 4. How Was Parks Raised A Little Different? Degree of understanding of the behaviour. • Tarde= these are ways social behaviour and responses could be influenced by the actions of others. • Tarde combines both logic of social/cognitive psychology in social cognitive perspective of services review, human behaviour-= behaviour motivated by inherent psychological factors/ socio-environmental factors: • Individual and social environment linked= reciprocal determinism. SLT consists of four basic processes: 1. Attention= observation- watching the why english, behaviour. 2. Essay Review? Retention= cognitive process schema- storing the Stem Stem Cells, behaviour. 3. Reproduction= behaviour- copying behaviour.

4. Services? Motivation= state- having reason for displaying behaviour. • SLT= helps in explaining inconsistencies of is important, aggressive behaviour=where we learn to act/or not- be aggressive depending on different situations/contexts e.g. Essay Services Review? aggressive + domineering at Explanations in A Path by Eudora home/ meek + submissive at essay services review work. • Explanation of SLT based on research= ‘Bobo doll studies’ KEY STUDY-Bandura, Ross and Mechanisms: Protect Us from Reality!, Ross (1961) Experiment firstly involved: 72 child participants= different groups of essay services review, children: experimental group –witnessed adult model kick/punch Bobo doll/ control group- witnessed non-aggressive behaviour = After- different groups were put into how was rosa raised the toy room with Bobo doll- their behaviour was observed. They found children who had witnessed aggressive behaviour were more likely to show aggression. Essay Services Review? Experiment had a well-defined way of coding the behavioural responses of the children to a measurable outcome. Laboratory research- artificial setting/lacks ecological validity. Children’s behaviour- may have produced demand characteristics (wanting to ‘please the experimenter’) Confidentiality- names of those involved maintained private- but films widely available on why english, internet of experiment suggest compromise of confidentiality.

Lack of informed consent- parents/guardians of children were not fully informed + children would have been unaware they were being filmed. Study has face validity to services explain children copying through imitating role models/ the media influence on aggression- such as influence of behaviour from Symbolic Explanations Path by Eudora Welty Essay t.v. personalities/ celebrities: e.g. two boys (aged 10/11) murdered young boy Jamie Bulger-watched horror/violent film ‘Child’s Play 3’ before the murder. Bandura’s research focuses society’s attention on services review, the power of the media- in Explanations Worn Welty Essay areas of essay services review, aggression and is important, other related areas e.g. Essay? health (anorexia/bulimia) Criticism of Symbolic Explanations Worn by Eudora, imposed etic/generalisibility- by essay review, assuming that processes of learning are the how was raised a little, same for people in all countries/cultures universally. Cultural bias= Bandura: a western researcher working in a western society. Deterministic approach- to suggest child would passively absorb the observed behaviour and imitate it without logical thought for the implication of it. Process of decreased self-assessment/ awareness- in situations where individual identification is difficult/impossible= e.g. Review? child with a toy mask/individual football supporter amidst a large crowd of supporters/individual in a crowded music arena. Situations were individual identification is restricted ensures changes in why english the normal standards of behaviour/ inhibitions are lowered- Singer, Brush and Lublin (1965): Group situation-Inhibitions reduced- Change in normal standards of behaviour/anti-social behaviour: Milgram (1964/1965) study of the situational determinants of destructive obedience= found participants were more likely to give higher levels of electrical shocks when they could not see/be seen by their victim. Similar to this study: Zimbardo (1969)- study showed the effect of reduced inhibitions: He used female undergraduate participants in a ‘study of learning’. The female participants play teacher/ a stooge is used to play student. Services Review? ‘Student’ has to Mechanisms: Essay complete a set of tasks/ if completed wrongly= teacher gave electric shock to ‘student’. Half the participants wore large laboratory coats/hoods to cover their faces/never referred to by name= deindividuated group.

Other group wore their normal clothes/given large name tags/ introduced to each other formally. All participants could see ‘student’/were told she was either ‘honest’ or ‘conceited/critical’. Irrespective of essay services review, description- deindivuated participants gave twice as many shocks of individuated ones. Gender bias- can’t generalise findings universally when only female participants were used. Lacks ecological validity- artificial setting- actions may not be in accordance to real-life situation. Ethical issues- concerning psychological effects of experiment on participants. Diener (1979) = naturalistic observation of 1,300 ‘trick-or- treating’ children in the U.S. found that children in large groups/wearing costumes- more likely to perform anti-social actions e.g. stealing money/sweets. – the group ‘reduces the possibility of Freud’s Defense Mechanisms: Protect Reality!, personal identification’- behaviour may deviate from normal moral standards Limitations: Fundamental problem of review, this theory= doesn’t provide explanation for Embryonic Cells Essay the fact- not all crowds/groups perform aggressive actions: Evidence linked to deindividuation and anti-social behaviour- but evidence also suggests deindividuation may lead to ‘prosocial’ behaviour= Gergen et al. (1973)- study in which lowered levels of individuation didn’t result in aggressive actions= in a dark room – most participants were involved in intimate contact/at least half cuddled/ about services review, 80% of the group felt sexually aroused. Saying aggression is Explanations Worn Path by Eudora Essay caused by lowering one’s inhibitions is narrow/deterministic: Postmes and review, Spears (1998)= meta-analysis of over Embryonic Stem Essay, 60 studies investigating deindividuation= no consistent research to essay services review support argument- reduced inhibitions/anti-social behaviour more likely to be seen in Symbolic Worn Path Welty large groups/crowded situations where anonymity is maintained. = They suggest behaviour change of individuals in large groups- more influence from services ‘group norms’.

Relating this theory to groups e.g. football hooliganism is too stereotypical: Marsh et al. (1978)= found what might appear to Explanations Path by Eudora Welty Essay be an anti-social group actually consist of several different groups-with different places in the status ‘hierarchy’/ aggression was highly ritualised rather than physically violent. Evaluation: Challenges: Runciman (1966)= argues aggressive behaviour could be due to review one’s relative deprivation- perceived difference between what you have and what you think you should have. Dollard et al. (1939) = argues aggression is the result of frustration building up (psychoanalysis)/ presence of how was rosa raised, environmental cues (behaviourism) that signal aggressiveness. Social theories don’t take into account potential biological factors influencing aggression= genetic/bio-chemical or neuro-anatomical causes. Q2.

Outline and evaluate research relating to essay group display of Stem Cells and Adult Cells, aggression in humans. Psychologists /sociologists interested in how crowds operate. 2 disciplines differ in how they explain crowd disorder: Sociologists focus on role of the media as ‘amplifier’ of review, anti-social behaviour. Psychologists more concerned about factors within group that lead to anti-social behaviour. Freud: mindset of an individual in why english is important a crowd different form that of an individual on their own= merging minds/sharing the same opinion/inhibitions reduced. Methodological flaws: didn’t follow hypothetico-deductive method. Influence from the group: Freud criticised – idea ‘group’ had a soul of its own: Le Bon (1896)= ‘pathological’ viewpoint: Crowd behaviour the review, result of individuals’ personalities.

Atmosphere of a group causes contagion- ‘group members fall under the influence of a collective mind’ Group members are suggestible/views of on Soren And Trembling, group/imitating others ‘group mind’ Blummer (1939)= circular reaction causes individuals to reproduce behaviours/emotions-which intensifies/amplifies. Convergence theory/ emergent norm theory. Essay Review? Motive behind group behaviour- convergence upon Radio in the Essay a specific location by like-minded individuals e.g. Services Review? football crowd. Turner and Killian (1957)= crowd behaviour as such is ‘normless’- individual has no norms to follow they base behaviour on others around them. The distinctive behaviour- governs behaviour of the Radio in the Essay, group/ taken on as he norm of the group. Review? Convergence theory= View dictates that crowds aren’t a passive group of people- they#8217;re a logically thinking mass of individuals View doesn’t help to Protect Us from Reality! Essay explain unpredictable crowd behaviour- because its governed by the norms identified/ accepted by the group. Services Review? Theory focuses more on how individuals are rational/ the Radio 1930's, formation of crowd/ behaviour can be seen as rational/logical – more focused on irrational forces- contrasts to contagion theories. Emergent norm theory= Doesn’t take into account non-verbal processes that occur in crowds- incomplete. Criticised for not explaining how norms might emerge.

Berk (1974)= behaviour that looks irrational (crowd running out of building) may be rational (building on fire) Value-added theory- Neil Smelser (1963)= • Certain prerequisites (situations/conditions) are needed in order for a group /social movement to develop: stages he suggested were: Stage 1. Structural conduciveness- social situations/conditions must allow for collective action. Stage 2. Structural strain- parts of social system don’t function effectively. Stage 3. Growth/spread of generalised belief- shared view assigns casuses/determines a response/action. Stage 4. Services Review? Precipitating factors- collective belief strengthened search for how was rosa a little alternatives gathers pace. Stage 5. Mobilising the collective for action- leaders/workers emerge hierarchy of order is established.

Stage 6. Reaction of agencies of social control- attempt to interfere the collective operation. Essay? Smelser argues social life/processes we follow within it affect how individuals behave= If society offers incentives/rewards that the individual is interest in- they may not think carefully about how they achieve the Explanations by Eudora Essay, goal. Value-added theory= Ethnocentric/lacks ecological validity/generalisibility= Provides a theoretical point-of-view based upon Smelser’s own ‘Western industrialised’ educational/socio-economic background- so not accounting for important cultural differences. Logical theory- but doesn’t take into account the complexities of review, crowd behaviour- theory difficult to test- Berk (1974) – “crowd events occur with great speed, are difficult to Radio in the 1930's anticipate#8230;” Elements from essay services review these theories can help to explain crowd behaviour- Hockling (1982) With groups e.g. lynch mobs= Zimbardo (2007)= argues dehumanisation is crucial to understanding ‘man’s inhumanity to man’: Inhuman aggression of lynch mobs in USA- torture/violent murder of black people was not seen as a crime against Cells Stem Cells Essay, humanity- it was seen across USA as a result of black people’s stigmatisation as ‘niggers’ so they weren’t seen as individuals= Ginzberg (1988) Most theories fail to acknowledge actions of essay services, positive crowd behaviour- Cassidy et al. (2007)=investigated crowd celebrations: Mela (1 month long Hindu festival): crowds behaved well/increased generosity/support. Shows how crowd behaviour/ collective living can promote good/ non-aggressive behaviour/ a strong sense of common identity/close proximity- beneficial instead of being causal factor for subsequent harm. Q3. Outline and Cells Stem, evaluate studies relating to biological explanations of human aggression.

Assumption that aggression is caused by internal factors (rather than external) Influences summarised as: Biochemical influences: hormones; the neurotransmitter serotonin. Brain structure influences. Services? Aggression is the by-product of complex internal physiological processes. Researchers approached investigation of genetic factors in aggression primarily through twin and adoptions studies= to try and establish whether aggression- a product of inherited characteristic (nature) or environmental influences (nurture) KEY STUDY- Rhee and Waldman (2002)- Meta-analysis of 51 twin and adoption studies = 87,000 individuals. Anti-social behaviour operationalised in terms of: Psychiatric diagnoses-e.g. 1930's? anti-social personality disorder. Calculated= genetic component of anti-social behaviour across the studies- approx.

40% Environmental contribution approx. 60% Self-report used in meta-analysis- limits reliability= as differences found as: Self-report individuals = assessed genetic component at 39%/ individuals assessed by another person= 53% Difficult to separate genetic/environmental effects in twin studies- MZ twins have more similar environmental experiences. Essay Services? Specific genes cause aggression- such as= Sandberg (1961)-identified (scientifically known as) the 47 XYY karyotype. Court-Brown’s research (1965 and 1967)- found that of Freud’s Mechanisms: Protect Us from Essay, a sample of 314 patients- those with XYY would be ‘best hospitalised due to an increased likelihood of essay services review, aggressive behaviour’= statement not substantiated with evidence. Media encouraged the belief XY phenomenon with films – XYY man/ Alien 3= limits potential for explaining aggression due to its deterministic focus. Aggression passed through genetic transmission- looked at through animal studies.

Nelson (2006)- noted selective breeding experiments can lead to is important more aggressive behaviour in animals. Essay Review? Theory supported by Cairns (1983)- in study of mice. Observational animal research has= Methodological issues: Evidence helps researchers to create more informed models. Difficult generalising findings from animals to humans/ no alternative-using humans in genetic research seen as unethical. Artificial settings/lacks ecological validity- to how aggression might occur in a real-life setting. Difficult to separate influence of biological genetic factors (nature) from environmental upbringing (nurture)- as extraneous variables could be causing aggression- unreliable.

She examined personality traits of a sample-XYY men compared these to a sample of Essay on Soren Fear And Trembling, XY men and XXY men(thought to be more feminine) Focused on levels of aggressiveness between 2 groups. Found= in all occurrences of X (about 1 in every 1,000) only essay, characteristic of height seemed to be linked to the XYY condition. Levels of aggressiveness between groups fluctuated-= no definite conclusion could be drawn. Basic measure of comparing XYY to XY male inmates in prison/ comparing evidence to general population= lacks validity. XYY research= found no consistent link between genotype/aggressive nature. Explanations In A Worn By Eudora Welty Essay? Using thematic apperception testing= showed XYY tend to give more aggressive/ less anti-aggressive interpretations of images- compared to XY men. Theilgaard concluded= issue is services too complex- XYY men might seem to be more aggressive/ but tendencies didn’t mean they would perform aggressive acts/ resulting in prison.

Hormones influence many parts of our lives: Court cases have shown that hormonal fluctuation-woman’s pre-menstrual tension can be used as grounds for claims of temporary insanity- to reduce a charge of murder to manslaughter= R v Smith (1979) 3 All ER 605,611 (CA) Nelson (1995)- reviewed research into how hormones influence aggressive behaviour= seems to be a positive correlation between level of androgens circulating in the body and aggressive behaviour in how was parks a little different female/male prisoners. Levels of androgens not measured a precise point when aggressive act performed. Testosterone= androgen produced by Leydig cells in male testes/in adrenal cortex= release of hormone is rhythmic following natural circadian rhythm. Essay Services Review? Increased levels of testosterone associated with increased levels of aggression= e.g. during puberty aggression increases when androgen levels are higher. Wagner, Beuving and Hutchinson (1979)= show if a male mouse is castrated- levels of aggression reduce/ if mouse receives testosterone aggression levels increase. Research graph correlating the number of biting attacks compared to the mouse (pre-castration=post-castration=given 150 microgm/day of testosterone) results show positive trend- increase in the number of Cells Cells Essay, biting attacks with increase of testosterone= post-castration/given testosterone. Essay Services? Research correlational- cannot establish cause+ effect= androgens encourage aggressive behaviour but- they could encourage social dominance/ impulsiveness/ competition. Pillay (2006)- high testosterone levels can be desirable for athletes= given link to high levels of competition/athlete’s need for more muscular bodies. “testosterone is only one myriad of factors that influence aggression and the effects of environmental stimuli have at times been found to Stem and Adult Essay correlate more strongly” Other environmental factors e.g. temperature/noise/overcrowding have an influential role in showing aggressive behaviour. Huston et al (2007)- basal model of essay services, testosterone= more testosterone/ more competitive/dominant. Freud’s Us From? Mazur and Booth (1998)- reciprocal model of testosterone= testosterone levels vary with person’s dominance.

It is the services review, effect not cause. Study= 2,100 air force veterans- over 10 year period- four medical examinations Methodological issues: No peer review- essential in validity of research. Longitudinal study- increased amount of data. Using veterans- unable to generalise findings- aggression could be influenced by external factors e.g. memories of the is important, war/ or psychological factors= post-traumatic stress disorder. Serotonin neurotransmitter important in essay services review the control of aggression= low levels of serotonin- less able to control impulsive/aggressive behaviour= Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine- 5HT)= Lenard (2008)- “low serotonin levels in the brain can result in impulsive behaviour/aggression/overeating/depression/alcohol abuse/violent suicide”. Essay On Soren Kierkegaard's Fear And Trembling? Normal levels of serotonin exerts a calming/inhibitory effect in the brain. = Cases (1995) Serotonin + aggression. Davidson, Putnam and Larson (2000)= suggested role of services, serotonin-‘inhibitory function’ of Radio in the 1930's, aggressive tendencies: Compared violent criminals to non-violent= low levels of serotonin in services review violent criminals. Animal research supports this= in why english mice- serotonin 1B receptor not functioning-found increase in aggressive behaviour. Tame domestic animals have higher levels of services review, serotonin. Russian researchers looked at silver foxes (animals have been tamed by humans- more than 30yrs)= Found= all had higher levels of how was raised a little, serotonin/5-HIAA.

Summers et al (2005)= observed that globally acting serotonergic drugs do modify aggressive behaviour- but cannot be singularly identified as the only cause of activity in regions of the brain- that could have serotonergic effects on essay review, aggression. Raised? Mann et al. (1990) = administered drug (known to deplete serotonin levels in the brain) to 35 healthy adults. Found= among males (but not females)- hostility/aggression levels increased after treatment with the drug. Study of the negative relationship between serotonin/aggression- correlational- doesn’t establish cause+ effect relationships. Ethical issues: when using human participants-research must look after (not use) – to further understand/make better our human existence. Neurotransmitters on their own-out of context to the wider physiology of the brain-ignore influence of brain structure on demonstrating aggressive behaviour. Brain structure/damage. Hypothalamus/amgydala associated with aggressive responses:

Bard and Mountcastle (1953)- looked at ‘rage’ in review cats caused by detachment of higher/lower brain through lesioning= Concluded: hypothalamus initiates aggressive behaviour/cerebral cortex reduces behaviour. Flynn (2006)- found stimulating= lateral hypothalamus in cats- more likely show ‘predatorial aggression’. Symbolic Explanations Worn By Eudora Welty Essay? = medial hypothalamus-more likely to show ‘vicious attack behaviour’. Amgydala= in 1930’s-careful lesioning of amgydala of essay review, aggressive animals showed taming effect.= harming/causing dysfunction to animal is unethical. Amgydalectomy- in humans reduces violent behaviour- but emotion is lost. Brain injury/damage to brain can alter the processing of information/ causes aggression. Frontal cortex closely connected to hypothalamus/amgydala- damage often show: impulsive behaviour/irritability/ short temper/easily provoked. Phineas Gage- railway worker- a tamping iron- entered left side of his face= passed through jaw/up+ behind left eye/ exited through top of his head- he survived for on Soren 11 years after: Noticeable changes in services review persona- formerly quiet/hard-working/shrewd character turned to very negative/aggressive individual – after result of brain injury. In The Essay? Convincing- but case study- one person- generalisibility limited/ relying on accuracy of medical notes made in essay services 1868 by 1930's Essay, Harlow (Gage’s physician).

Evidence supports the idea that the essay review, Amygdala- has influential effect on mediating aggressive responses. Animal studies- cats/rats/hamsters- show neural processed surrounding amgydala functioning= can explain aggressive changes in behaviour. Difficult to generalise- animal studies to how was rosa parks a little humans- human brain more complex than many animals. Potegal et al. (1994)= argue generalisation between animals and humans should be more viable- human/animal differences are qualitative ( i.e. basics the same/ details different): Underlying neural circuitry related to emotional expression seems more similar- allowing for more avenues of generalisation. Blair et al. (2001) = shows in essay services review cases – humans hospitalised for psychopathic tendencies- often caused by damage to Stem and Adult Stem Essay amgydala. Supported by various findings in non-human animals.

Biological explanations are reductionist as it ignores: Influence of culture in essay review aggressive behaviour- socialisation- (e.g. Arapesh tribe= Mead (1935) Aggression learned through observation of in the 1930's Essay, various forms of media- Freedman (2002) Situational factors- e.g. temperature/overcrowding/noise • Showing of aggression may simply be result of services, frustration- ultimately becomes aggressive actions through the identification of aggressive cues in environment. Q4. Outline and Radio 1930's Essay, evaluate research studies into essay evolutionary explanations of human aggression. Aggressive behaviour by animals= Craig (1921)- provided 1st attempt understanding aggression from raised a little ethological p.o.v.- since Darwin’s work- late 1800’s.

Craig- made clear- that animals- ‘even when the essay services, animal does fight, he aims not to destroy enemy, but only get rid of his presence and why english is important, interference’ = Van Der Dennen (2005) Lorenz (1966)-ethologist- stressed humans are animals- show similar behaviour patterns to essay services animals: • Four main drivers behind behaviour of animal= fear/reproduction/hunger/aggression. Functions of aggression= Help to ensure fittest/strongest were selected (females select male- who offer greatest survival- form them/offspring) Ensure survival of young (parents show aggression- protecting offspring) Help to distribute a species in balanced way- animals have own territories. Lorenz- idea of ritualised aggression- to explain aggressive animal behaviour e.g. stags rutting. Analysis furthered- stating animals know when to stop being aggressive (few ever kill enemy)= Gross (1998)- jackdaw behaviour= 2 jackdaws about to Embryonic attack each other- if 1 displays- appeasement tactic – (showing a behaviour indicating defeat/submission)- the other jackdaw wont attack. Lorenz- criticised by other ethologists/academics: Lehrman (1953)- questions whether correct to make comparisons between species/assume findings for animals to humans- suggest even though 2 behaviours seem similar- cant assume underlying mechanisms the same. Aggressive behaviour by humans: • Fromm (1973)- questions Lorenz’s view= states human aggression comprises 2 forms: benign aggression/malignant aggression e.g. malignant= organised violence-gang warfare- ethnic ‘cleansing’-eradication of Jews in WW2 / benign= parent defending their child from harm by attack/ threat. Nelson (1974)- states Lorenz misses 3 basic factors that can affect aggression: Process of learning: Bandura shows people may learn aggressive behaviour through observation.

Structural causes: Nelson- suggests structural causes relate to nature of social- e.g. society without norms/rules- aggression likely to spread. Psychological causes of aggression: highlight failings of biological approach= in essay services animal kingdom-aggressive action directed to ‘actual enemy’- threat/challenge. Protect Us From Essay? In humans- aggression can be motivated by many different personal factors e.g. mood/feelings + situational factors e.g. heat/overcrowding. In some cases of human aggression- victims aren’t seen as fellow humans= Fromm (1964)/ Erikson (1956)- might be case in situations of unprovoked random attacks: Rapoport (1965)- suggests ‘man by essay services review, virtue of his ability to manipulate symbols, attaches the label ‘enemy’ to entire categories of things: other animals, other people, even inanimate objects and ideas#8230;accordingly aggression ceases to be leads by the situation.’ Differences between animal and human aggression: Human aggression= might be adaptive/useful i.e. product of evolution. Use of weapons means aggression is destructive/not ritualistic: Tinbergen (1968)-suggest humans only species- aggression not part of ritualistic system e.g. mating- but is rooted in desire to harm another. Evolutionary explanations of human aggression.

Acts of terrorists e.g. 9/11 or ware in general= explained through Tinbergen’s ideas/evolutionary theory= as advances in on Soren Kierkegaard's weapon technology distancing means that aggressor doesn’t need to be physically close to essay review the recipient of Freud’s Defense Mechanisms: Reality!, aggression: Means that appeasement/distress signals that would stop acts of aggression no longer apply e.g. Services Review? plane crews who are eager to drop bombs on ‘targets’- would not be eager to in the stab/burn children/adults with their own hands. Krueger et al. (2002)- evolutionary approach concerned with how skills/methods of dealing with environment have evolved into essay services review behaviours used in is important today’s society= Many evolutionary changes seen in Pleistocene era- since then evolution has been static- Brody et al. Essay Services? (2004) Evolutionary psychologists believe- series of psychological mechanisms affect behaviour/don’t vary much between individuals- universal= they think behaviour witnessed linked to reproductive success of individual= likely to suggest aggression is result of sexual competition: Females invest in parental issues e.g. time/energy/food etc. Essay Kierkegaard's? Males compete for females- to services pass on their genes= ensure reproductive success: Kenrick, Trost and Sheets (1996). Dominant image for men nowadays is ‘provider of valuable resources’- men need to be assertive/aggressive. On Soren Kierkegaard's Fear And Trembling? Waller (2002)- applied approach to explain mass killings/genocide= humans have evolved living in groups- need to define boundaries- formulating ‘in’ group (us) and essay, ‘out’ group (them)= likely to result in aggression. Could be caused by 1930's, ancestral past- xenophobia- need for services review people to feel socially dominant= holding ethnocentric perspectives- lead to acts of aggression/violence. Buss (1999)- foolish to assume aggressive behaviour just male versus male: in women physical violence limited- partly due to physiological differences/strength- but verbal aggression is common. Female to female verbal aggression- often aimed at reducing ‘attractiveness’ of competitors- in why english eyes of males= strategy – evolutionary advantage for ‘name-caller’

Influence of services, infidelity on aggressive behaviour. Infidelity- process unfaithful to partner/ sexual relationship with another person= infidelity had impact on relationship + quality of interpersonal communications between partners/others. • Psychologists argue- act of Essay on Soren Kierkegaard's, infidelity triggers emotional state within individual- as perceived threat to relationship/current status quo: Buss, Larsen, Western and Semmelroth (1992)- argue- would naturally lead to show behaviours to reduce/ eliminate threat e.g. act of violence/aggression • Sexual infidelity for men/women- triggers sexual jealousy= psychologists suggest cues/ triggers are different for males/females: Brunk et al. (1996)- suggest from essay services review male’s p.o.v- infidelity by female- brings uncertainty of Freud’s Defense Mechanisms: Protect Us from Reality!, paternity- profound sexual jealousy/ For female who becomes pregnant after act of infidelity- associated sexual jealousy influenced not by parental uncertainty- but lack of time/economic resources- given to review her/ offspring by her mate. = lack of emotional support that makes women aggression/ men’s anger/subsequent aggression- based upon Embryonic Stem Cells and Adult Cells Essay suspicion of review, wife’s infidelity. Embryonic Stem Essay? Evolutionary psychologists- look at essay services review infidelity from male and female perspectives to avoid gender bias into their research into explanations of aggression. Influence of jealousy -n ot unusual to witness violence/ acts of aggression influenced by jealousy= Harvey, Sprecher and Wenzer (2004) Cascardi and Vivian (1995)- participants asked explain cause of why english, aggression in relationship- jealousy most commonly attributed cause. Canary, Spitzberg and Semic (1998)- argue couples with relationship conflicts- reported anger/ aggression contributed by jealousy.

Violent males lack effective ways of mediating/ responding to situation of essay, jealousy/ compared to how was rosa parks raised different non-violent males- Holtzworth- Monroe and Anglin (1991). Haden and Hojjat (2006)- differences in essay review sexual jealousy of young women/men= focus on Explanations Worn Path, aggressive responsiveness in partner rivalry situations. 2 separate studies found= men more likely than women- to consider aggressive action against rival/ women more emotionally/ behaviourally reactive. In USA- Morenz and Lane (1996)- Evolutionary theory- explains jealousy as desire to services review keep one’s mate= males have tendency to show mate tending/guarding activities – aggressive activities to avoid sexual infidelity- Buss and Shackelford (1997)/ females display behaviours less frequently. Limitations- evolutionary approach fails to explain why individuals might react in different ways when faced with same adaptive problem: different men react in different ways when confronted with their wife’s infidelity e.g. violence, debasement, or avoiding issue (by getting drunk) Cultural differences- fails to in A Worn Welty explain why some cultures seem to require male violence to review attain social status/ other cultures (peaceful)- aggression leads to irreparable damage to reputation of the aggressor= Buss and Shackelford (1997)

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o essay The Vietnam in Me. Z GATOR, VIETNAM, FEBRUARY 1994 -- I'm home, but the house is gone. Not a sandbag, not a nail or a scrap of wire. On Gator, we used to essay, say, the wind doesn't blow, it sucks. Maybe that's what happened -- the wind sucked it all away. My life, my virtue. In February 1969, 25 years ago, I arrived as a young, terrified pfc. on this lonely little hill in Quang Ngai Province. Back then, the place seemed huge and imposing and permanent. Defense Protect Us From! A forward firebase for the Fifth Battalion of the 46th Infantry, 198th Infantry Brigade, LZ Gator was home to 700 or 800 American soldiers, mostly grunts. I remember a tar helipad, a mess hall, a medical station, mortar and artillery emplacements, two volleyball courts, numerous barracks and offices and essay supply depots and machine shops and entertainment clubs.

Gator was our castle. Not safe, exactly, but far preferable to the bush. How Was Rosa Parks Raised! No land mines here. No paddies bubbling with machine-gun fire. Maybe once a month, for three or four days at a time, Alpha Company would return to Gator for stand-down, where we took our comforts behind a perimeter of essay review, bunkers and Freud’s Protect concertina wire. There were hot showers and hot meals, ice chests packed with beer, glossy pinup girls, big, black Sony tape decks booming We gotta get out of this place at decibels for essay review the deaf.

Thirty or 40 acres of Stem Cells Essay, almost-America. With a little weed and services a lot of beer, we would spend the days of stand-down in flat-out celebration, purely alive, taking pleasure in our own biology, kidneys and livers and lungs and Path Welty legs, all in their proper alignments. We could breathe here. We could feel our fists uncurl, the pressures approaching normal. Services Review! The real war, it seemed, was in another solar system. By day, we'd fill sandbags or pull bunker guard. In the evenings, there were outdoor movies and sometimes live floor shows -- pretty Korean girls breaking our hearts in Essay Kierkegaard's, their spangled miniskirts and high leather boots -- then afterward we'd troop back to the Alpha barracks for some letter writing or boozing or just a good night's sleep. So much to remember. Essay Services Review! The time we filled a nasty lieutenant's canteen with mosquito repellent; the Embryonic Stem Stem, sounds of choppers and artillery fire; the slow dread that began building as word spread that in a day or two we'd be heading back to the bush. Pinkville, maybe. The Batangan Peninsula.

Spooky, evil places where the land itself could kill you. Now I stand in this patch of services, weeds, looking down on Radio what used to be the old Alpha barracks. Amazing, really, what time can do. You'd think there would be something left, some faint imprint, but LZ (Landing Zone) Gator has been utterly and review forever erased from the earth. Nothing here but ghosts and Mechanisms: Protect Us from wind. t the foot of Gator, along Highway 1, the little hamlet of Nuoc Man is going bonkers over our arrival here. As we turn and walk down the hill, maybe 200 people trail along, gawking and chattering, the children reaching out to touch our skin. Through our interpreter, Mrs. Le Hoai Phuong, I'm told that I am the first American soldier to review, return to this place in the 24 years since Gator was evacuated in 1970.

In a strange way, the occasion has the feel of a reunion -- happy faces, much bowing. Me Wendy, says a middle-aged woman. Another says, Flower. Wendy and Flower: G.I. nicknames retrieved from Symbolic in A Worn by Eudora Essay a quarter-century ago. An elderly woman, perhaps in her late 70's, tugs at my shirt and says, My name Mama-san. Dear God. We should've bombed these people with love. AMBRIDGE, MASS., JUNE 1994 -- Last night suicide was on my mind. Not whether, but how. Tonight it will be on my mind again. Now it's 4 A.M., June the 5th.

The sleeping pills have not worked. I sit in essay review, my underwear at this unblinking fool of a computer and Essay on Soren try to wrap words around a few horrid truths. I returned to essay, Vietnam with a woman whose name is Kate, whom I adored and have since lost. She's with another man, seven blocks away. This I learned yesterday afternoon. My own fault, Kate would say, and she would be mostly right. Not entirely. Symbolic Worn Path Welty Essay! In any case, these thoughts are probably too intimate, too awkward and embarrassing for public discussion. But who knows? Maybe a little blunt human truth will send you off to church, or to confession, or inside yourself.

Not that it matters. For me, with one eye on these smooth yellow pills, the world must be written about as it is or not written about at all. Z GATOR, FEBRUARY 1994 -- By chance, Kate and I have arrived in Nuoc Man on a day of annual commemoration, a day when the services review, graves of the local war dead are blessed and Radio Essay repaired and decorated and wept over. The village elders invite us to a feast, a picnic of sorts, where we take seats before a low lacquered table at an outdoor shrine. Children press up close, all around. The elders shoo them away, but the shooing doesn't do much. I'm getting nervous. Services Review! The food on display seems a bit exotic. Not to my taste.

I look at Kate, Kate looks at Symbolic Explanations by Eudora Welty, me. Number one chop-chop, an old woman says, a wrinkled, gorgeous, protective, scarred, welcoming old woman. Number one, she promises, and nudges Kate, and essay smiles a heartbreaking betel-nut smile. I choose something white. Fish, I'm guessing. I have eaten herring; I have enjoyed herring. This is not herring. There are decisions to be made.

The elders bow and execute chewing motions. Do not forget: our hosts are among the maimed and widowed and orphaned, the bombed and Stem Cells Essay rebombed, the recipients of white phosphorus, the tenders of review, graves. Chew, they say, and by God I chew. Kate has the Fear, good fortune to find a Kleenex. She's a pro. She executes a polite wiping motion and it's over for her. Essay Services! Eddie Keating, the Times photographer whose pictures accompany this text, tucks his portion between cheek and gum, where it remains until the feast concludes. Me -- I imagine herring.

I remember Sunday afternoons as a boy, the Vikings on TV, my dad opening up the crackers and Embryonic Stem Essay creamed herring, passing it out at halftime. Other flashes too. LZ Gator's mortar rounds pounding this innocent, impoverished, raped little village. Eight or nine corpses piled not 50 yards from where we now sit in review, friendly union. I prepare myself.

Foul, for sure, but things come around. Why English Is Important! Nuoc Man swallowed plenty. HE SONG TRA HOTEL, QUANG NGAI CITY, FEBRUARY 1994 -- It's late in the evening. The air-conditioner is at full Cuban power. Review! Kate's eyes sparkle, she's laughing. Swallowed! she keeps saying. In 1969, when I went to war, Kate was 3 years old.

Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon, McNamara, Bunker, Rogers, Bundy, Rusk, Abrams, Rostow -- for her, these names are like the listings on a foreign menu. Some she recognizes not at all, some she recalls from books or old television clips. But she never tasted the dishes. She does not know ice cream from Kierkegaard's And Trembling Brussels sprouts. Three years old -- how could she? No more than I could know the services, Southern California of her own youth. Still, it was Kate who insisted we come here. I was more than reluctant -- I was petrified, I looked for excuses. Bad dreams and so on.

But Kate's enthusiasm won me over; she wanted to share in my past, the why english, shapes of things, the smells and essay review sunlight. As it turns out, the sharing has gone both ways. In any other circumstances, I would have returned to this country almost purely as a veteran, caught up in memory, but Kate's presence has made me pay attention to the details of here and now, a Vietnam that exists outside the old perimeter of war. She takes delight in things alive: a chicken wired to in A Worn Path by Eudora Welty, someone's bicycle, an old woman's enormous fingernails, an infant slung casually on the hip of a tiny 7-year-old girl. Essay! Kate has the Defense Protect Us from, eyes and spirit of an adventurer, wide open to the variety of the world, and these qualities have pushed me toward some modest adventurism of my own. Now I watch her fiddle with the air-conditioner.

Swallowed! she keeps saying. Later in essay services review, the night, as on many other nights, we talk about the in the, war. Essay! I try to explain -- ineptly, no doubt -- that Vietnam was more than terror. For me, at in the 1930's, least, Vietnam was partly love. With each step, each light-year of a second, a foot soldier is always almost dead, or so it feels, and in such circumstances you can't help but love. You love your mom and dad, the Vikings, hamburgers on the grill, your pulse, your future -- everything that might be lost or never come to be. Intimacy with death carries with it a corresponding new intimacy with life.

Jokes are funnier, green is greener. Essay Services! You love the musty morning air. You love the miracle of your own enduring capacity for love. You love your friends in Alpha Company -- a kid named Chip, my buddy. He wrote letters to my sister, I wrote letters to his sister. In the rear, back at Gator, Chip and I would go our separate ways, by color, both of us ashamed but knowing it had to be that way. In the bush, though, nothing kept us apart. Black and Explanations in A Worn by Eudora White, we were called. In May of 1969, Chip was blown high into a hedge of bamboo.

Many pieces. I loved the guy, he loved me. I'm alive. He's dead. An old story, I guess.

AMBRIDGE, JUNE 1994 -- It's 5:25 in the morning, June 7. I have just taken my first drug of the day, a prescription drug, Oxazepam, which files the edge off anxiety. Services Review! Thing is, I'm not anxious. I'm slop. Stem And Adult Essay! This is despair. This is essay services review, a valance of horror that Vietnam never approximated.

If war is hell, what do we call hopelessness? I have not killed myself. That day, this day, maybe tomorrow. Like Nam, it goes. For some time, years in fact, I have been treated for depression, $8,000 or $9,000 worth. How Was Parks Raised! Some of it has worked. Or was working. I had called back to memory -- not to memory, exactly, but to significance -- some pretty painful feelings of rejection as a child.

Chubby and friendless and lonely. I had come to services review, acknowledge, more or less, the dominant principle of love in my life, how far I would go to is important, get it, how terrified I was of losing it. I have done bad things for love, bad things to stay loved. Essay! Kate is one case. Vietnam is another.

More than anything, it was this desperate love craving that propelled me into a war I considered mistaken, probably evil. In college, I stood in peace vigils. I rang doorbells for Gene McCarthy, composed earnest editorials for the school newspaper. Rosa Parks Raised A Little! But when the draft notice arrived after graduation, the old demons went to work almost instantly. I thought about services Canada. Symbolic Explanations In A Worn Welty! I thought about jail.

But in the end I could not bear the prospect of rejection: by my family, my country, my friends, my hometown. I would risk conscience and rectitude before risking the loss of love. I have written some of this before, but I must write it again. I was a coward. I went to Vietnam. Y LAI, QUANG NGAI PROVINCE, FEBRUARY 1994 -- Weird, but I know this place. I've been here before. Literally, but also in my nightmares. One year after the massacre, Alpha Company's area of operations included the essay review, village of My Lai 4, or so it was called on American military maps.

The Vietnamese call it Thuan Yen, which belongs to a larger hamlet called Tu Cung, which in turn belongs to an even larger parent village called Son My. But names are finally irrelevant. I am just here. Twenty-five years ago, knowing nothing of the homicides committed by Embryonic Cells and Adult American troops on the morning of March 16, 1968, Alpha Company walked through and around this hamlet on numerous occasions. Now, standing here with Kate, I can't recognize much. Essay Review! The place blends in Embryonic Cells Stem, with all the other poor, scary, beleaguered villes in this area we called Pinkville. Even so, the feel of the place is as familiar as the old stucco house of my childhood. The clay trails, the cow dung, the blank faces, the unknowns and essay review unknowables.

There is the smell of sin here. Smells of Freud’s Us from, terror, too, and enduring sorrow. What happened, briefly, was this. At approximately 7:30 on the morning of March 16, 1968, a company of roughly 115 American soldiers were inserted by helicopter just outside the village of My Lai. They met no resistance.

No enemy. No incoming fire. Essay Services Review! Still, for the next four hours, Charlie Company killed whatever could be killed. They killed chickens. They killed dogs and cattle. They killed people, too. Freud’s Defense Mechanisms: Protect Us From! Lots of people. Women, infants, teen-agers, old men.

The United States Army's Criminal Investigation Division compiled a list of 343 fatalities and an independent Army inquiry led by Lieut. Gen. William R. Peers estimated that the essay services review, death count may have exceeded 400. At the Cells and Adult, Son My Memorial, a large tablet lists 504 names. Essay Review! According to in the, Col.

William Wilson, one of the essay services review, original Army investigators, The crimes visited on the inhabitants of Son My Village included individual and group acts of murder, rape, sodomy, maiming, assault on Stem and Adult Essay noncombatants and the mistreatment and killing of detainees. The testimony of one member of Charlie Company, Salvadore LaMartina, suggests the systematic, cold-blooded character of the slaughter: Q: Did you obey your orders? Q: What were your orders? A: Kill anything that breathed. Whether or not such instructions were ever directly issued is a matter of dispute. Either way, a good many participants would later offer the explanation that they were obeying orders, a defense explicitly prohibited by the Nuremberg Principles and the United States Army's own rules of war. Other participants would argue that the civilians at My Lai were themselves Vietcong.

A young soldier named Paul Meadlo, who was responsible for numerous deaths on that bright March morning, offered this appalling testimony: Q: What did you do? A: I held my M-16 on them. A: Because they might attack. Q: They were children and babies? Q: And they might attack? Children and babies? A: They might've had a fully loaded grenade on essay them.

The mothers might have throwed them at us. Q: Were the babies in their mothers' arms? Q: And the raised a little different, babies moved to attack? A: I expected at any moment they were about to essay review, make a counterbalance. Eventually, after a cover-up that lasted more than a year and after the Embryonic Stem Cells and Adult Essay, massacre made nationwide headlines, the Army's Criminal Investigation Division produced sufficient evidence to charge 30 men with war crimes.

Of these, only a single soldier, First Lieut. William Laws Calley Jr., was ever convicted or spent time in prison. Found guilty of the premeditated murder of essay services, not less than 22 civilians, Calley was sentenced to life at hard labor, but after legal appeals and sentence reductions, his ultimate jail time amounted to three days in a stockade and how was rosa parks different four and a half months in prison. In some cases, judicial action was never initiated; in other cases, charges were quietly dropped. Essay Review! Calley aside, only a handful of men faced formal court-martial proceedings, either for why english war crimes or for services review subsequent cover-up activities, with the end result of five acquittals and four judicially ordered dismissals. Stem Cells Stem Essay! Among those acquitted was Capt. Ernest Medina, who commanded Charlie Company on the morning of March 16, 1968. All this is review, history.

Dead as those dead women and why english is important kids. Review! Even at 1930's Essay, the time, most Americans seemed to shrug it off as a cruel, nasty, inevitable consequence of war. There were numerous excuses, numerous rationalizations. Upright citizens decried even the small bit of review, justice secured by the conviction of Lieutenant Calley. Now, more than 25 years later, the villainy of that Saturday morning in in the Essay, 1968 has been pushed off to the margins of memory. In the colleges and high schools I sometimes visit, the mention of My Lai brings on null stares, a sort of puzzlement, disbelief mixed with utter ignorance.

Evil has no place, it seems, in our national mythology. We erase it. We use ellipses. We salute ourselves and take pride in America the White Knight, America the services review, Lone Ranger, America's sleek laser-guided weaponry beating up on Saddam and his legion of devils. t's beginning to rain when Kate and how was raised a little different I sit down to talk with two survivors of the slaughter here. Mrs. Ha Thi Quy is a woman of 69 years. Essay! Her face is part stone, part anguish as she describes through an interpreter the events of that day.

It's hard stuff to hear. Americans came here twice before, Mrs. Quy says. Nothing bad happened, they were friendly to us. Kierkegaard's! But on that day the soldiers jumped out of their helicopters and immediately began to shoot. I prayed, I pleaded. Review! As I take notes, I'm recalling other prayers, other pleadings. A woman saying No VC, no VC, while a young lieutenant pistol-whipped her without the least expression on Freud’s Protect Us from Essay his face, without the least sign of distress or moral uncertainty.

Mad Mark, we called him. But he wasn't mad. He was numb. Services! He'd lost himself. Embryonic Stem Cells And Adult Essay! His gyroscope was gone. He didn't know up from down, good from bad. Mrs. Essay Services Review! Quy is crying now. I can feel Kate crying off to my side, though I don't dare look. The Americans took us to a ditch. I saw two soldiers with red faces -- sunburned -- and they pushed a lot of people into the ditch.

I was in the ditch. I fell down and many fell on top of me. Soldiers were shooting. I was shot in Defense Mechanisms: Protect Reality!, the hip. The firing went on and on. It would stop and then start again and services then stop. Now I hear Kate crying, not loud, just a certain breathiness I've come to recognize. This will be with us forever.

This we'll have. My notes take a turn for Essay on Soren Kierkegaard's Fear the worse. I lay under the dead in the ditch. Around noon, when I heard no more gunfire, I came out of the ditch and saw many more. Brains, pieces of body. My house was burned.

Cattle were shot. I went back to the ditch. Essay Services Review! Three of my four children were killed. I'm exhausted when Mrs. Quy finishes. Partly it's the sheer magnitude of horror, partly some hateful memories of my own.

I can barely wire myself together as Mrs. Truong Thi Le, another survivor, recounts those four hours of murder. Out of her family of 10, 9 died that day. Kierkegaard's And Trembling! I fell down, Mrs. Le tells us.

But I was not shot. I lay with three other bodies on me, all blood. Services Review! Did not move at all. In The 1930's! Pretended dead. Essay Services! Saw newborn baby near a woman. Woman died. Infant still alive. Soldiers came up. Shot baby. Outside, the rain has let up.

Kate, Eddie and I take a walk through the hamlet. We stare at foundations where houses used to stand. We admire a harsh, angular, defiant, beautiful piece of sculpture, a monument to why english is important, the murdered. Mrs. Quy accompanies us for a while. Services! She's smiling, accommodating. Impossible, but she seems to parks a little, like us. At one point, while I'm scribbling in my notebook, she pulls down her trousers. She shows Kate the scarred-over bullet hole in her hip.

Kate nods and makes sounds of essay services, sympathy. What does one say? Bad day. Freud’s Us From Reality!! World of hurt. ow the rain is back, much harder. I'm drenched, cold and essay something else.

Eddie and I stand at the ditch where maybe 50, maybe 80, maybe 100 innocent human beings perished. I watch Eddie snap his pictures. Here's the something else: I've got the guilt chills. Years ago, ignorant of the massacre, I hated this place, and places much like it. Two miles away, in an almost identical hamlet, Chip was blown into his hedge of bamboo. A mile or so east, Roy Arnold was shot dead, I was slightly wounded. A little farther east, a kid named McElhaney died. Freud’s Defense Protect Us From! Just north of here, on essay a rocky hillside, another kid, named Slocum, lost his foot to a land mine. It goes on. I despised everything -- the soil, the Embryonic Stem Essay, tunnels, the paddies, the poverty and myself.

Each step was an act of the purest self-hatred and self-betrayal, yet, in truth, because truth matters, my sympathies were rarely with the Vietnamese. Essay Review! I was mostly terrified. I was lamenting in advance my own pitiful demise. After fire fights, after friends died, there was also a great deal of anger -- black, fierce, hurting anger -- the Cells and Adult Essay, kind you want to take out on whatever presents itself. This is not to justify what occurred here. Justifications are empty and outrageous.

Rather, it's to say that I more or less understand what happened on that day in essay, March 1968, how it happened, the wickedness that soaks into your blood and heats up and starts to sizzle. I know the boil that precedes butchery. Fear And Trembling! At the same time, however, the men in Alpha Company did not commit murder. We did not turn our machine guns on civilians; we did not cross that conspicuous line between rage and homicide. I know what occurred here, yes, but I also feel betrayed by a nation that so widely shrugs off barbarity, by a military judicial system that treats murderers and common soldiers as one and the same.

Apparently we're all innocent -- those who exercise moral restraint and essay review those who do not, officers who control their troops and officers who do not. In a way, America has declared itself innocent. I look away for Stem and Adult Essay a time, and then look back. By most standards, this is services, not much of a ditch. A few feet deep, a few feet wide. The rain makes the greenish brown water bubble like a thousand tiny mouths. The guilt has turned to a gray, heavy sadness. I have to take my leave but don't know how. After a time, Kate walks up, hooks my arm, doesn't say anything, doesn't have to, leads me into a future that I know will hold misery for both of us. Different hemispheres, different scales of atrocity. Freud’s Mechanisms: Protect Us From Reality! Essay! I don't want it to happen.

I want to tell her things and be understood and live happily ever after. I want a miracle. Essay Review! That's the final emotion. The terror at this ditch, the Radio in the 1930's Essay, certain doom, the need for God's intervention. AMBRIDGE, JUNE 1994 -- I've been trying to perform good deeds. I bought a Father's Day card three days early. Essay! I made appointments for a physical exam, dental work, a smoke-ender's program. I go for why english is important walks every day.

I work out, draw up lists, call friends, visit lawyers, buy furniture, discharge promises, keep my eyes off the essay services review, sleeping pills. The days are all right. Now the Explanations Worn Path by Eudora Welty Essay, clock shows 3:55 A.M. I call NERVOUS and listen to an automated female voice confirm it. The nights are not all right. I write these few words, which seem useless, then get up and pull out an album of photographs from the Vietnam trip.

The album was Kate's parting gift. On the review, cover she inserted a snapshot that's hard to look at but harder still to Freud’s Defense Mechanisms: Us from Essay, avoid. We stand on China Beach near Danang. Side by side, happy as happy will ever be, our fingers laced in a fitted, comfortable, half-conscious way that makes me feel a gust of hope. It's a gust, though, here and gone. Numerous times over the past several days, at essay, least a dozen, this piece has come close to hyperspace.

Twice it lay at the bottom of a wastebasket. I've spent my hours preparing a tape of songs for Kate, stuff that once meant things. Corny songs, some of them. Happy songs, love-me songs. Today, scared stiff, I deposited the Essay, tape on her doorstep.

Another gust of hope, then a whole lot of stillness. HE SONG TRA HOTEL, QUANG NGAI CITY, FEBRUARY 1994 -- Kate's in services, the shower, I'm in history. I sit with a book propped up against the air-conditioner, underlining sentences, sweating out my own ignorance. Twenty-five years ago, like most other grunts in Alpha Company, I knew next to nothing about this place -- Vietnam in general, Quang Ngai in particular. Freud’s Protect! Now I'm learning. Review! In the years preceding the murders at My Lai, more than 70 percent of the is important, villages in this province had been destroyed by air strikes, artillery fire, Zippo lighters, napalm, white phosphorus, bulldozers, gunships and other such means. Roughly 40 percent of the population had lived in refugee camps, while civilian casualties in review, the area were approaching 50,000 a year. These numbers, reported by the journalist Jonathan Schell in 1967, were later confirmed as substantially correct by Government investigators.

Not that I need confirmation. Back in 1969, the wreckage was all around us, so common it seemed part of the geography, as natural as any mountain or river. Wreckage was the rule. Brutality was S.O.P. Scalded children, pistol-whipped women, burning hootches, free-fire zones, body counts, indiscriminate bombing and harassment fire, villages in ash, M-60 machine guns hosing down dark green tree lines and any human life behind them. In a war without aim, you tend not to aim. You close your eyes, close your heart. The consequences become hit or miss in the most literal sense. With so few military targets, with an in A Worn Path Welty Essay, enemy that was both of and among the essay services, population, Alpha Company began to regard Quang Ngai itself as the true enemy -- the physical place, the soil and paddies.

What had started for us as a weird, vicious little war soon evolved into something far beyond vicious, a hopped-up killer strain of Radio 1930's Essay, nihilism, waste without want, aimlessness of deed mixed with aimlessness of spirit. Services! As Schell wrote after the how was rosa, events at essay review, My Lai, There can be no doubt that such an atrocity was possible only Cells Stem Cells Essay because a number of essay review, other methods of killing civilians and destroying their villages had come to be the rule, and not the exception, in our conduct of the war. I look up from my book briefly, listen to Kate singing in the shower. A doctoral candidate at Harvard University, smart and sophisticated, but she's also fluent in joy, attuned to the pleasures and beauty of the world. She knows the how was rosa parks, lyrics to Hotel California, start to finish, while here at the air-conditioner I can barely pick out the simplest melodies of Vietnam, the most basic chords of services, history. It's as if I never heard the song, as if I'd gone to Embryonic Stem Cells Cells, war in some mall or supermarket. I discover that Quang Ngai Province was home to one of Vietnam's fiercest, most recalcitrant, most zealous revolutionary movements. Independent by review tradition, hardened by poverty and rural isolation, the people of Quang Ngai were openly resistant to French colonialism as far back as the 19th century and were among the first to how was parks, rebel against France in the 1930's.

The province remained wholly under Vietminh control throughout the war against review France; it remained under Vietcong control, at least by night, throughout the years of war against why english is important America. Even now, in the urbane circles of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, the people of Quang Ngai are regarded as a clan of stubborn country bumpkins, coarse and insular, willfully independent, sometimes defiant of the very Government they had struggled to install. Like a different country, our interpreter told us after a long, frustrating session with representatives of the Quang Ngai People's Committee. These people I don't like much, very crude, very difficult. I think you had horrible bad luck to fight them. At noon, by appointment, a Vietnamese journalist named Pham Van Duong knocks on essay review our door. It's a secret meeting of sorts. Nothing illegal -- a couple of writers, a couple of beers -- but I've still got the buzz of Radio in the, some low-level paranoia. Earlier in the day, our joint request for this interview had been denied by essay review a stern, rather enigmatic functionary of the on Soren Kierkegaard's Fear, People's Committee. Impossible, we were told.

Not on essay the schedule. The official offered little sympathy for why english our interpreter's reminder that schedules are man-made, that blocks of time appeared wide open. Essay! Logic went nowhere. Bureaucratic scowls, stare-into-space silence. A few minutes later, just outside the why english, provincial offices, we quietly huddled to make our own unsanctioned arrangements. Now, as Mr. Duong sits down and accepts a beer, I'm feeling the vigilant, slightly illicit anxiety of a midday drug buy. Review! Kate locks the door; I close the drapes.

Ridiculous, or almost ridiculous, but for the first 10 minutes I sit picturing prison food, listening for footsteps in the hallway. Our interpreter explains to Mr. Duong that I will happily guard his identity in Embryonic Stem Essay, any written account of this conversation. Mr. Duong snorts at the suggestion. Services Review! Only a problem in Quang Ngai, he says.

Officials in Hanoi would be glad for Freud’s Mechanisms: Protect Us from Reality! Essay our talking. Essay! They wish good relations with America -- good, new things to happen. Maybe I get a medal. Sell the Defense Us from Reality!, medal, buy Marlboros. We click beer bottles. For the next two hours we chat about review books, careers, memories of Mechanisms: Protect Us from Reality! Essay, war. I ask about My Lai. Essay! Mr. How Was A Little! Duong looks at the wall. There is a short hesitation -- the services review, hesitation of tact, I suppose.

He was 8 years old when news of the massacre reached his village nearby. He recalls great anger among his relatives and friends, disgust and Essay Fear And Trembling sadness, but no feelings of shock or surprise. Essay! This kind of news came often, he says. We did not then know the scale of the why english, massacre, just that Americans had been killing people. But killing was everywhere.

Two years later, Mr. Duong's brother joined the 48th Vietcong Battalion. He was killed in 1972. My mother fainted when she heard this. She was told that his body had been buried in a mass grave with seven comrades who died in the same attack.

This made it much worse for my mother -- no good burial. After liberation in review, 1975, she began to and Adult Essay, look for services my brother's remains. She found the mass grave 20 kilometers south of Quang Ngai City. On Soren Kierkegaard's! She wished to dig, to rebury my brother, but people told her no, don't dig, and in essay services review, the beginning she seemed to accept this. Then the Americans returned to search for their own missing, and my mother became very angry. Why them? Not me? So she insisted we dig. We found bones, of course, many bones mixed together, but how could we recognize my brother? How could anyone know? But we took away some bones in Embryonic Stem Cells Essay, a box.

Reburied them near our house. Every day now, my mother passes by this grave. Essay! She feels better, I think. Better at least to tell herself maybe. Kate looks up at me. Freud’s Defense Protect Reality!! She's silent, but she knows what I'm thinking. At this instant, a few blocks away, an services review, American M.I.A. search team is headquartered at the Quang Ngai Government guesthouse. Rosa Parks Raised Different! With Vietnamese assistance, this team and others like it are engaged in precisely the essay services review, work of Mr. On Soren And Trembling! Duong's mother, digging holes, picking through bones, seeking the couple thousand Americans still listed as missing.

Which is splendid. And which is also utterly one-sided. Essay! A perverse and outrageous double standard. What if things were reversed? What if the Vietnamese were to Fear, ask us, or to require us, to locate and identify each of their own M.I.A.'s? Numbers alone make it impossible: 100,000 is a conservative estimate. Maybe double that. Maybe triple. From my own sliver of experience -- one year at war, one set of eyes -- I can testify to the lasting anonymity of essay review, a great many Vietnamese dead. I watched napalm turn villages into ovens. I watched burials by Essay Fear bulldozer.

I watched bodies being flung into trucks, dumped into wells, used for target practice, stacked up and burned like cordwood. Even in the abstract, I get angry at the stunning, almost cartoonish narcissism of American policy on this issue. I get angrier yet at essay review, the narcissism of an American public that embraces and breathes life into the policy -- so arrogant, so ignorant, so self-righteous, so wanting in the most fundamental qualities of sympathy and fairness and mutuality. Stem Cells And Adult Stem! Some of this I express aloud to Mr. Duong, who nods without comment. We finish off our beers. Neither of us can find much to say. Maybe we're both back in history, snagged in brothers and bones.

I feel hollow. So little has changed, it seems, and so much will always be missing. AMBRIDGE, JUNE 1994 -- June 11, I think -- I'm too tired to find a calendar. Almost 5 A.M. Essay Review! In another hour it'll be 5:01. I'm on war time, which is the time we're all on at one point or another: when fathers die, when husbands ask for how was rosa parks divorce, when women you love are fast asleep beside men you wish were you. The tape of songs did nothing. Essay! Everything will always do nothing. Kate hurts, too, I'm sure, and did not want it this way. Parks Raised Different! I didn't want it either.

Even so, both of us have to live in review, these slow-motion droplets of now, doing what we do, choosing what we choose, and in different ways both of us are now responsible for why english is important the casualty rotting in the space between us. If there's a lesson in this, which there is not, it's very simple. You don't have to be in Nam to be in Nam. HE BATANGAN PENINSULA, QUANG NGAI PROVINCE, FEBRUARY 1994 -- The Graveyard, we called it. Littered with land mines, almost completely defoliated, this spit of land jutting eastward into the South China Sea was a place Alpha Company feared the way others might fear snakes, or the dark, or the bogyman. We lost at least three men here; I couldn't begin to review, count the rosa parks raised a little different, arms and legs. Today our little caravan is accompanied by essay review Mr. Ngu Duc Tan, who knows this place intimately, a former captain in the 48th Vietcong Battalion.

It was the Freud’s Mechanisms: Protect Reality! Essay, 48th that Alpha Company chased from village to village, paddy to services review, paddy, during my entire tour in Vietnam. Chased but never found. They found us: ambushes, sniper fire, nighttime mortar attacks. Essay On Soren Kierkegaard's Fear! Through our interpreter, who passes along commodious paragraphs in essay review, crisp little packets, Mr. Tan speaks genially of military tactics while we make the bumpy ride out Worn by Eudora Welty, toward the Batangan. U.S. troops not hard to see, not hard to fight, he says. Much noise, much equipment. Services Review! Big columns. Nice green uniforms.

Sitting ducks, in other words, though Mr. Tan is too polite to Stem Cells and Adult, express it this way. He explains that the United States Army was never a primary target. We went after Saigon puppet troops, what you called ARVN. Review! If we beat them, everything collapse, the U.S. would have nothing more to fight for. You brought many soldiers, helicopters, bombs, but we chose not to fight you, except sometimes. America was not the main objective.

God help us, I'm thinking, if we had been. All those casualties. All that blood and terror. Radio In The 1930's! Even at review, this moment, more than half a lifetime later, I remember the Stem Stem Cells Essay, feel of a bull's-eye pinned to my shirt, a prickly, when-will-it-happen sensation, as if I alone had been the main objective. Meanwhile, Kate is taking her own notes, now and then asking questions through the essay services review, interpreter. She's better than I am at human dynamics, more fluid and spontaneous, and after a time she gets Mr. Is Important! Tan to display a few war scars -- arms, legs, hands, cheek, chest, skull. Sixteen wounds altogether. The American war, he says, was just one phase in his career as a soldier, which began in review, 1961 and encompassed combat against the South Vietnamese, Khmer Rouge and Chinese.

Talk about on Soren Kierkegaard's Fear And Trembling bad dreams. One year gave me more than enough to essay, fill up the nights. My goal on the Batangan peninsula is to show Kate one of the prettiest spots on earth. Radio In The! I'm looking for a lagoon, a little fishing village, an impossibly white beach along the South China Sea. First, though, Mr. Tan attends to his own agenda. Services Review! We park the van in one of the inland hamlets, walk without invitation into a small house, sit down for lunch with a man named Vo Van Ba. Instantly, I'm thinking herring. Kate and Eddie have the sense to decline, to tap their stomachs and say things like Full, full, thanks, thanks. Cans are opened. The house fills up with children, nephews, nieces, babies, cousins, neighbors.

There are flies, too. Many, many flies. Many thousand. Mr. Tan and Mr. How Was Rosa Parks Raised! Ba eat lunch with their fingers, fast and hungry, chatting amiably while our interpreter does her best to essay review, put the gist of Symbolic Explanations in A by Eudora Welty, it into essay, English.

I'm listening hard, chewing hard. I gather that these two men had been comrades of a sort during the war. Mr. Ba, our host, was never a full-time soldier, never even a part-time irregular. Symbolic In A Worn Path Welty! As I understand it, he belonged to essay review, what we used to call the Stem Cells and Adult Essay, VC infrastructure, offering support and intelligence to services, Mr.

Tan and his fighting troops. I lean forward, nod my head. Defense Essay! The focus, however, is on the substance I'm swallowing, its remarkable texture, the flies trying to get at it. For five years, Mr. Services! Ba explains, he lived entirely underground with a family of eight. Radio In The! Five years, he repeats. Cooking, bathing, working, sleeping. He waits for essay services review the translation, waits a bit longer, then looks at me with a pair of silvery, burned-out, cauterized, half-blind, underground eyes. On Soren! You had the services review, daylight, but I had the why english, earth. Mr.

Ba turns to Mr. Services Review! Tan. Freud’s Protect Reality! Essay! After a second he chuckles. Services! Many times I might reach up and Embryonic Cells and Adult Stem take this man's leg. Many times. Very easy. I might just pull him down to where the essay services, war was. e're on foot now. Even at 59, Mr.

Tan moves swiftly, with the and Adult Stem Cells, grace and authority of a man who once led soldiers in combat. He does not say much. He leads us toward the ocean, toward the quaint fishing village I'm hoping to show Kate, but along the way there is one last item Mr. Tan wishes to essay services review, show me. Essay On Soren Fear And Trembling! We move down a trail through two or three adjacent hamlets, seem to circle back for review a time, end up in front of another tiny house. Mr. In The 1930's! Tan's voice goes into review, command tone -- two or three sharp, snapping words.

A pair of boys dart into a little different, the house. No wasted time, they come out fast, carrying what's left of a man named Nguyen Van Ngu. They balance this wreckage on a low chair. Both legs are gone at services, the upper-upper thigh. We shake hands. Rosa Raised A Little Different! Neither of essay services, us knows what to say -- there is nothing worth saying -- so for a few minutes we exchange stupidities in our different languages, no translator available to wash away the helplessness. We pose for photographs. We try for smiles.

Mr. Tan does not smile. He nods to himself -- maybe to me. But I get the point anyway. Here is your paradise. 1930's! Here is your pretty little fishing village by the sea. Two minutes later, we're on the beach. It is beautiful, even stunning. Kate wades out into the water. She's surrounded by kids. They giggle and essay services splash her, she splashes back, and Embryonic Stem and Adult I stand there like an idiot, grinning, admiring the view, while Mr.

Tan waits patiently in the shade. AMBRIDGE, JULY 1994 -- Outside, it's the Fourth of July. Lovely day, empty streets. Kate is where Kate is, which is elsewhere, and I am where I am, which is essay services review, also elsewhere. Someday, no doubt, I'll wish happiness for myself, but for now it's still war time, minute to minute. Not quite 11 A.M. Already I've been out for two walks, done the laundry, written a few words, bought groceries, lifted weights, watched the Fourth of July sunlight slide across my street-side balcony.

The beach, maybe? A backyard cookout? The hardest part, by far, is to make the rosa parks a little different, bad pictures go away. On war time, the world is one long horror movie, image after image, and if it's anything like Vietnam, I'm in for a lifetime of wee-hour creeps. Meanwhile, I try to plug up the leaks and carry through on some personal resolutions. For too many years I've lived in paralysis -- guilt, depression, terror, shame -- and now it's either move or die. Over the past weeks, at profound cost, I've taken actions with my life that are far too painful for any public record. But at least the limbo has ended. Starting can start. There's a point here: Vietnam, Cambridge, Paris, Neptune -- these are states of mind. Minds change.

Y KHE, QUANG NGAI PROVINCE, FEBRUARY 1994 -- There is one piece of services review, ground I wish to revisit above all others in this country. Essay On Soren Kierkegaard's Fear! I've come prepared with a compass, a military map, grid coordinates, a stack of after-action reports recovered from a dusty box in the National Archives. We're back near Pinkville, a mile or so east of My Lai. Services Review! We are utterly lost: the interpreter, the van driver, the People's Committee representative, Eddie, Kate, me. I unfold the map and place a finger on the spot I'm hoping to find. A group of villagers puzzle over it. They chatter among themselves -- arguing, it seems -- then one of them points west, another north, most at the heavens.

Lost, that was the Vietnam of 25 years ago. The war came at Essay on Soren And Trembling, us as a blur, raw confusion, and my fear now is that I would not recognize the right spot even while standing on it. For well over essay services an hour we drive from place to place. We end up precisely where we started. Essay On Soren Kierkegaard's Fear And Trembling! Once more, everyone spills out of the van. The thought occurs to essay, me that this opportunity may never come again. I find my compass, place it on the map and look up for Freud’s Defense Mechanisms: Protect Reality! Essay a geographical landmark. A low green hill rises to services, the west -- not much, just a hump on the horizon. I'm no trailblazer, but this works.

One eye on the compass, one eye on some inner rosary, I lead our exhausted column 200 yards eastward, past a graveyard and out along a narrow paddy dike, where suddenly the world shapes itself exactly as it was shaped a quarter-century ago -- the curvatures, the tree lines, the precise angles and proportions. I stop there and wait for Kate. This I dreamed of giving her. This I dreamed of sharing. Our fingers lock, which happens without volition, and we stand looking out on a wide and very lovely field of rice.

The sunlight gives it some gold and yellow. There is no wind at all. Before us is how peace would be defined in a dictionary for the speechless. I don't cry. I don't know what to do. At one point I hear myself talking about what happened here so long ago, motioning out at the rice, describing chaos and Explanations in A Worn Path by Eudora horror beyond anything I would experience until a few months later. Essay Review! I tell her how Paige lost his lower leg, how we had to on Soren, probe for McElhaney in essay review, the flooded paddy, how the gunfire went on and on, how in the course of two hell-on-earth hours we took 13 casualties. I doubt Kate remembers a word. Maybe she shouldn't.

But I do hope she remembers the sunlight striking that field of why english is important, rice. I hope she remembers the services, feel of our fingers. I hope she remembers how I fell silent after a time, just looking out at how was parks, the golds and yellows, joining the peace, and how in those fine sunlit moments, which were ours, Vietnam took a little Vietnam out of me. O CHI MINH CITY, FEBRUARY 1994 -- We hate this place. Even the names -- Saigon, Ho Chi Minh City. A massive identity crisis. Too loud, too quiet.

Too alive, too dead. For all the review, discomforts of Quang Ngai Province, which were considerable, Kate and is important I had taken pleasure in those qualities of beauty and equanimity that must have vanished from Saigon when the first oil barge steamed into port. But we give it our best. An hour in essay services, the Chinese market district, which is Freud’s Mechanisms: Protect Essay, like an hour in combat. Two hours at the old presidential palace -- as tawdry and corrupt as its former inhabitants.

We risk periodic excursions into essay services review, streets where the American dollar remains more valuable than oxygen, of which there is precious little. Maybe we've hit some interior wall. Maybe it's the diesel-heat. We visit a war-crimes museum, the old American Embassy and order lunch by way of room service. Western pop music blares at full volume from Government loudspeakers just outside our hotel. For hours, even with earplugs, we listen to As Tears Go By and My Way. In The 1930's Essay! What happened to Ho Chi Minh? What happened to revolution? All we've heard comes from the review, Beatles. In midafternoon, the music ceases. We go out for a short walk, do some shopping, then retreat to Defense Essay, the rooftop swimming pool of the services review, Rex Hotel.

It could as well be Las Vegas. We don't say so, not directly, but both Kate and I are ready to evacuate, we're humming We gotta get out of Essay Fear And Trembling, this place. Pretty soon we'll be singing it over loudspeakers. For now, Kate lounges at the pool. Essay Review! She writes postcards.

She catches me watching. She snaps pictures to show her children someday. Tim O'Brien is the Protect Us from, author of essay review, several novels, some of them based on his experiences in the Vietnam War. His latest book, In the Lake of the Woods, is due out Symbolic Explanations Welty Essay, this month.

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An Analysis of Oroonoko by essay services, Aphra Behn Essay. Oroonoko is a short work of prose fiction by Aphra Behn (1640–1689), published in 1688, concerning the love of its hero, an enslaved African inSurinam in the 1660s, and the author#8217;s own experiences in the new South American colony. Behn worked for Charles II as a spy during the outset of the how was rosa parks, Second Dutch War, ending up destitute when she returned to England, and essay review even spending time in a debtors#8217; prison, because Charles failed to Embryonic Stem Cells pay her properly, or at all. She turned her hand to essay services writing in order to survive, with remarkable success. She wrote poetry that sold well, and and Adult Cells Essay had a number of plays staged, which established her fame in her own lifetime. In the 1670s, only John Dryden had plays staged more often than Behn. She began to write extended narrative prose toward the end of her career. Published less than a year before she died, Oroonoko is essay review, one of the earliest English novels. Interest in it has increased since the 1970s, critics arguing that Behn is the foremother of British women writers, and that Oroonoko is a crucial text in the history of the novel.

Plot summary and analysis. Essay? Oroonoko: or, the Royal Slave is a relatively short novel concerning the Coromantin grandson of an African king, Prince Oroonoko, who falls in love with Imoinda, the daughter of that king#8217;s top general. #8220;Coromantee people#8221; were Akan slaves brought from present-day Ghana, a polyglot band known for their rebellious nature. the sacred veil, thus commanding her to become one of his wives, even though she was already married to Oroonoko. After unwillingly spending time in the king#8217;s harem (the Otan), Imoinda and Oroonoko plan a tryst with the review, help of the sympathetic Onahal and Aboan. Why English? They are eventually discovered, and because she has lost her virginity, Imoinda is essay services review, sold as a slave. The king’s guilt, however, leads him to falsely inform Oroonoko that she has been executed, since death was thought to be better than slavery. Later, after winning another tribal war, Oroonoko is Symbolic Worn Path by Eudora Essay, betrayed and captured by an English captain, who planned to sell him and his men as slaves. Both Imoinda and Oroonoko were carried to Surinam, at that time an English colony based on sugarcane plantation in the West Indies.

The two lovers are reunited there, under the new Christian names of Caesar and Clemene, even though Imoinda#8217;s beauty has attracted the unwanted desires of other slaves and of the Cornish gentleman, Trefry. Upon Imoinda’s pregnancy, Oroonoko petitions for their return to the homeland. But after being continuously ignored, he organizes a slave revolt. The slaves are hunted down by the military forces and compelled to surrender on deputy governor Byam#8217;s promise of amnesty. Yet, when the slaves surrender, Oroonoko and the others are punished and whipped. To avenge his honor, and to express his natural worth, Oroonoko decides to kill Byam. But to protect Imoinda from violation and subjugation after his death, he decides to kill her. The two lovers discuss the essay review, plan, and with a smile on her face, Imoinda willingly dies by Freud’s Mechanisms: Protect Reality! Essay, his hand. A few days later, Oroonoko is found mourning by essay services review, her decapitated body and is kept from killing himself, only to be publicly executed. Freud’s Defense Protect Us From Essay? During his death by dismemberment, Oroonoko calmly smokes a pipe and services review stoically withstands all the pain without crying out.

The novel is written in a mixture of first and third person, as the narrator relates actions in Africa and portrays herself as a witness of the actions that take place in Surinam. Radio 1930's? In the novel, the narrator presents herself as a lady who has come to Surinam with her unnamed father, a man intended to be a new lieutenant-general of the colony. He, however, dies on essay review the voyage from England. Radio In The Essay? The narrator and her family are put up in the finest house in the settlement, in accord with their station, and essay review the narrator#8217;s experiences of meeting the indigenous peoples and slaves are intermixed with the Embryonic Stem Cells Stem Cells Essay, main plot of the love of Oroonoko and Imoinda. At the conclusion of the love story, the narrator leaves Surinam for London. Structurally, there are three significant pieces to the narrative, which does not flow in a strictly biographical manner. The novel opens with a statement of veracity, where the author claims to be writing no fiction and no pedantic history. She claims to be an eyewitness and to be writing without any embellishment or theme, relying solely upon reality.

What follows is a description of Surinam itself and the South American Indians there. She regards the locals as simple and living in a golden age (the presence of gold in the land being indicative of the epoch of the people themselves). It is only afterwards that the essay services review, narrator provides the history of Oroonoko himself and Symbolic Explanations in A Worn the intrigues of both his grandfather and the slave captain, the essay services review, captivity of Imoinda, and Freud’s Mechanisms: Essay his own betrayal. The next section is in the narrator#8217;s present; Oroonoko and Imoinda are reunited, and Oroonoko and Imoinda meet the essay, narrator and Trefry. The third section contains Oroonoko#8217;s rebellion and its aftermath. Biographical and historical background. Oroonoko is now the most studied of Aphra Behn#8217;s novels, but it was not immediately successful in her own lifetime. It sold well, but the adaptation for the stage by Thomas Southerne (see below) made the how was parks raised a little different, story as popular as it became. Soon after her death, the novel began to be read again, and from that time onward the factual claims made by the novel#8217;s narrator, and the factuality of the essay services, whole plot of the novel, have been accepted and questioned with greater and lesser credulity.

Because Mrs. Behn was not available to correct or confirm any information, early biographers assumed the first-person narrator was Aphra Behn speaking for herself and incorporated the novel#8217;s claims into their accounts of her life. It is why english, important, however, to recognize thatOroonoko is a work of fiction and that its first-person narrator—the protagonist—need be no more factual than Jonathan Swift#8217;s first-person narrator, ostensibly Gulliver, in Gulliver#8217;s Travels, Daniel Defoe#8217;s shipwrecked narrator in Robinson Crusoe, or the first-person narrator of A Tale of a Tub. Fact and services review fiction in the narrator. Rosa Parks A Little? Researchers today cannot say whether or not the narrator of Oroonoko represents Aphra Behn and, if so, tells the truth. Scholars have argued for over a century about whether or not Behn even visited Surinam and, if so, when. On the one hand, the narrator reports that she #8220;saw#8221; sheep in the colony, when the services review, settlement had to import meat from Virginia, as sheep, in particular, could not survive there. Also, as Ernest Bernbaum argues in #8220;Mrs. Behn#8217;s #8216;Oroonoko'#8221;, everything substantive in Oroonoko could have come from Us from Essay, accounts by William Byam and George Warren that were circulating in London in the 1660s. However, as J.A. Review? Ramsaran and Bernard Dhuiq catalog, Behn provides a great deal of precise local color and physical description of the Essay on Soren Kierkegaard's Fear And Trembling, colony.

Topographical and culturalverisimilitude were not a criterion for readers of novels and plays in Behn#8217;s day any more than in Thomas Kyd#8217;s, and Behn generally did not bother with attempting to be accurate in her locations in other stories. Her plays have quite indistinct settings, and she rarely spends time with topographical description in her stories.[2] Secondly, all the Europeans mentioned in Oroonoko were really present in Surinam in the 1660s. It is interesting, if the entire account is essay review, fictional and how was parks raised a little based on reportage, that Behn takes no liberties of invention to create European settlers she might need. Finally, the characterization of the essay services, real-life people in the novel does follow Behn#8217;s own politics. Behn was a lifelong and militant royalist, and her fictions are quite consistent in portraying virtuous royalists and put-upon nobles who are opposed by petty and parks a little evil republicans/Parliamentarians. Had Behn not known the individuals she fictionalizes in Oroonoko, it is extremely unlikely that any of the real royalists would have become fictional villains or any of the real republicans fictional heroes, and review yet Byam and James Bannister, both actual royalists in the Interregnum, are malicious, licentious, and sadistic, while George Marten, a Cromwellian republican, is reasonable, open-minded, and fair.[2] On balance, it appears that Behn truly did travel to Surinam. Parks Raised A Little Different? The fictional narrator, however, cannot be the real Aphra Behn.

For one thing, the narrator says that her father was set to become the deputy governor of the review, colony and how was a little died at sea en route. Essay Services Review? This did not happen to Bartholomew Johnson (Behn#8217;s father), although he did die between 1660 and 1664.[3] There is no indication at all of anyone except William Byam being Deputy Governor of the settlement, and the only Symbolic Explanations Worn Essay, major figure to die en route at sea was Francis, Lord Willoughby, the colonial patent holder for services, Barbados and #8220;Suriname.#8221; Further, the narrator#8217;s father#8217;s death explains her antipathy toward Byam, for he is her father#8217;s usurper as Deputy Governor of Surinam. This fictionalized father thereby gives the narrator a motive for her unflattering portrait of Byam, a motive that might cover for Stem Cells Essay, the real Aphra Behn#8217;s motive in going to services review Surinam and for the real Behn#8217;s antipathy toward the real Byam. In A Worn Welty? It is also unlikely that Behn went to Surinam with her husband, although she may have met and married in Surinam or on the journey back to essay services review England. A socially creditable single woman in good standing would not have gone unaccompanied to Surinam. Therefore, it is Symbolic Explanations Path, most likely that Behn and her family went to essay review the colony in the company of alady.

As for Symbolic Explanations in A Worn Path Welty, her purpose in going, Janet Todd presents a strong case for essay review, its being spying. At the time of the events of the novel, the deputy governor Byam had taken absolute control of the settlement and was being opposed not only by the formerly republican Colonel George Marten, but also by royalists within the settlement. Byam#8217;s abilities were suspect, and it is possible that either Lord Willoughby or Charles II would be interested in an investigation of the administration there. Beyond these facts, there is little known. The earliest biographers of Aphra Behn not only accepted the novel#8217;s narrator#8217;s claims as true, but Charles Gildon even invented a romantic liaison between the author and the title character, while the anonymous Memoirs of Aphra Behn, Written by Essay, One of the Fair Sex (both 1698) insisted that the author was too young to be romantically available at the time of the novel#8217;s events. Later biographers have contended with these claims, either to prove or deny them.

However, it is profitable to look at the novel#8217;s events as part of the observations of an investigator, as illustrations of government, rather than autobiography. Models for Oroonoko. There were numerous slave revolts in services review English colonies led by Coromantin slaves. Oroonoko was described as being from #8220;Coromantien#8221; and was likely modeled after Coromantin slaves who were known for causing several rebellions in the Caribbean. One figure who matches aspects of Oroonoko is the white John Allin, a settler in Surinam. Allin was disillusioned and miserable in Surinam, and he was taken to alcoholism and wild, lavish blasphemies so shocking that Governor Byam believed that the repetition of them at Allin#8217;s trial cracked the foundation of the courthouse.[4] In the in the, novel, Oroonoko plans to kill Byam and then himself, and this matches a plot that Allin had to kill Lord Willoughby and then commit suicide, for, he said, it was impossible to #8220;possess my own life, when I cannot enjoy it with freedom and essay services honour#8221;.[5] He wounded Willoughby and was taken to Symbolic by Eudora Welty prison, where he killed himself with an services review, overdose.

His body was taken to a pillory, #8220;where a Barbicue was erected; his Members cut off, and flung in 1930's his face, they had his Bowels burnt under the Barbicue… his Head to be cut off, and his Body to be quartered, and when dry-barbicued or dry roasted… his Head to be stuck on a pole at Parham (Willoughby#8217;s residence in Surinam), and his Quarters to review be put up at the most eminent places of the Colony.#8221;[5] Allin, it must be stressed, was a planter, and neither an indentured nor enslaved worker, and is important the #8220;freedom and honour#8221; he sought was independence rather than manumission. Services? Neither was Allin of noble blood, nor was his cause against Willoughby based on love. Therefore, the extent to which he provides a model for Oroonoko is limited more to his crime and punishment than to his plight. However, if Behn left Surinam in Embryonic Stem Cells and Adult Stem Cells 1663, then she could have kept up with matters in the colony by reading the Exact Relation that Willoughby had printed in London in 1666, and seen in the extraordinary execution a barbarity to graft onto her villain, Byam, from the man who might have been her real employer, Willoughby. While Behn was in Surinam (1663), she would have seen a slave ship arrive with 130 #8220;freight,#8221; 54 having been #8220;lost#8221; in transit. Although the African slaves were not treated differently from the indentured servants coming from essay services, England (and were, in fact, more highly valued), their cases were hopeless, and both slaves, indentured servants, and local inhabitants attacked the settlement. There was no single rebellion, however, that matched what is related in Oroonoko. Further, the character of Oroonoko is physically different from the other slaves by being blacker skinned, having a Roman nose, and having straight hair. The lack of historical record of a mass rebellion, the unlikeliness of the physical description of the is important, character (when Europeans at the time had no clear idea of race or an inheritable set of #8220;racial#8221; characteristics), and the European courtliness of the character suggests that he is most likely invented wholesale.

Additionally, the character#8217;s name is artificial. There are names in the Yoruba language that are similar, but the African slaves of Surinam were from Ghana. Instead of from life, the character seems to come from literature, for his name is reminiscent of Oroondates, a character in La Calprenede#8217;s Cassandra,which Behn had read.[6] Oroondates is essay services review, a prince of Scythia whose desired bride is snatched away by an elder king. Previous to this, there is an Oroondates who is the satrap of Freud’s Mechanisms: Us from Memphis in the?thiopica, a novel from late antiquity by Heliodorus of services review Emesa. Rosa Parks Raised A Little Different? Many of the plot elements in Behn#8217;s novel are reminiscent of those in the ?thiopica and other Greek romances of the period. There is a particular similarity to the story of Juba in La Calprenede#8217;s romance Cleopatre, who becomes a slave in services Rome and is given a Roman name—Coriolanus—by his captors, as Oroonoko is given the Symbolic Explanations in A Worn Welty Essay, Roman name of Caesar.[7] Alternatively, it could be argued that #8220;Oroonoko#8221; is essay services, a homophone for the Orinoco River, along which the Symbolic Explanations in A by Eudora Welty, English settled, and it is possible to see the services, character as an Fear, allegorical figure for the mismanaged territory itself. Essay Review? Oroonoko, and the crisis of values of aristocracy, slavery, and worth he represents to the colonists, is parks raised different, emblematic of the new world and colonization itself: a person like Oroonoko is symptomatic of a place like the Orinoco. University/College: University of Chicago.

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Definition , Educational psychology , Edward Thorndike 2387 Words | 7 Pages. Personality Socrates Garcia PSYCH/645 November 3, 2014 Dr. A Little. Morera Personality Introduction The . personality of an individual is perceived as the characteristics that shape and distinguishes one person from another, at essay least from a general perspective. For instance, John may be described as quiet and decisive in the way he handles different situations. Why English. On another hand, we would have Peter who is very irrational. These two distinctive characters would describe the personalities of essay review those.

Case study , Design of experiments , Evaluation methods 1198 Words | 7 Pages. The composition of human personality is the subject of innumerable theories. Fear And Trembling. Each focuses on services one or several particular aspects or dimensions of . 1930's. personality , but none appear to services, consider it in its full scope, depth and integrity. Some theories focus more on why english differences in type, others on the relative development of specific characteristics and services competencies and still others on the dynamics of in the interaction between several psychological constructs such as Freud's ego, super ego and id. Essay Review. A typological. Big Five personality traits , Elizabeth Bennet , Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 1200 Words | 5 Pages. shape our personality all our life. If we knew ourselves perfectly, we should die.” Personality is Essay a pattern of behavior . thought, and services review emotion unique to Fear, an individual, and essay the ways they interact to help or hinder the adjustment of how was a little a person to other people and situations (Wright, 1998). It has always been a cliche saying that our personality defines us, but it is essay services true then. These are the things which could describe the Embryonic Stem Stem Essay, kind of person we are.

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Personality can also be described as the psychological characteristics that both determine and reflect how a person responds to his or her environment. Radio Essay. Although. Big Five personality traits , Neuroticism , Personality psychology 1048 Words | 5 Pages. Personality Robert White University of Phoenix PSY 405 Instructor: Dr. Rockel Etienne 22 July 2013 Personality We know . what we are but not what we may be. Ophelia in Hamlet According to Guralnik (1987), personality is defined as, the quality or fact of being a person or a particular person.

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1. Review. What does it mean . to say that a perspective on personality is Essay on Soren Kierkegaard's inherently deterministic? Give an essay, example of a perspective we discussed in class that has, at its core, a deterministic worldview. Support your assertion by giving examples of how this perspective is deterministic. When a personality is inherently deterministic, it means that personality is pre-determined from. Humanistic psychology , People , Person 2472 Words | 5 Pages. Many psychologists whom deal with personalities feel that there are five basic dimensions of Radio Essay personality , which most people call . the essay review, “Big Five Personality Traits”.

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According to Kendra Cherry, writer. Big Five personality traits , Neuroticism , Openness to on Soren Kierkegaard's Fear, experience 792 Words | 3 Pages. ? Personality psychology is a branch of psychology that studies personality and individual differences. Its areas of focus . include: Constructing a coherent picture of a person and his or her major psychological processes [1] Investigating individual differences, that is, how people can differ from one another. Investigating human nature, that is, how all people's behaviour is services review similar. Personality can be defined as a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely. Big Five personality traits , Carl Jung , Consciousness 2080 Words | 6 Pages. the potential outcomes of these stress levels may be. Kierkegaard's. What are the major sources of workplace stress and what effect can stress have on employees and . organisations? Personality What evidence is essay services there that personality traits can predict performance at work? With reference to the published literature consider whether personality traits are useful for predicting work performance.

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Pre- Employment Personality Tests A Look In To an Employers Options Composition II 8/10/08 In today’s fast paced society employers are . trying all they can to ensure they hire the right person for the job. After all “time is money” and turnover consumes a lot of services time. Essay Kierkegaard's Fear And Trembling. One method some employers use to attempt to find the essay, right employee is Stem using the review, pre-employment personality test. Why English. These tests use a series of essay review questions to determine what a prospective hire’s personality is like; which in turn. David Keirsey , Employment , Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 1436 Words | 4 Pages. Personality Lab report – Notes: Definition of the Big 5 traits and Stem Cells the 3 uses of music – introduction In the abstract, be as specific as . Essay. you can about the hypotheses. You might like to list the ones supported and the ones not supported.

The relationship between x and y, and a and b, but not between c and d, were significant The procedure is very straightforward. 2 questionnaires (different classes probably did these in different orders) and rosa parks raised data entered online Provide brief overview. Anxiety , Big Five personality traits , Correlation and dependence 999 Words | 5 Pages. ? PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT, TRAINING FOR ME . Essay Services. BUT DO I NEED IT? Personality Development quint essentially means enhancing . and Symbolic in A Path Welty grooming one’s outer and inner self to bring about a positive change to your life. Each individual has a distinct persona that can be developed, polished and essay refined. This process includes boosting one’s confidence, improving communication and language speaking abilities, widening ones scope of knowledge, developing certain hobbies or skills, learning fine etiquettes. Facial hair , Hair , Human hair color 1482 Words | 7 Pages. human being possesses a personality which makes the Essay Fear And Trembling, difference from other individuals, and it develops at every stage of life. To understanding . the people’s personal qualities, their self-development, helping others, and how they behave to other people; leads to essay review, the understanding and unlocking of human personalities . Why English. In this world everyone has it own personality and some of review them are the dual personality . Physical gestures also present the people’s personality , but the personality other aspects are a.

Carl Jung , Four Temperaments , Personality 1445 Words | 5 Pages. Personality Paper Tabitha Martin PSY/211 April 25, 2013 Alicia M. Pearson Abstract The study of personality has a . broad and varied history in psychology with an in A Welty, abundance of theoretical traditions. The major theories include dispositional trait perspective, psychodynamic, humanistic, biological, behaviorist, and review social learning perspective. However, many researchers and psychologists do not explicitly identify themselves with a certain perspective and instead take an eclectic approach. Behaviorism , Clinical psychology , Forer effect 1330 Words | 5 Pages. but overall should be 700- to 1,050-words in how was parks a little length. 1. How would you define personality ? I would define personality as . the as the services review, general trend of how a person thinks and on Soren Kierkegaard's Fear And Trembling behaves.

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My results indicated I am more extraverted than introverted, more sensing than intuitive, more thinking than feeling, and more judging than perceiving. According to the results, ESTJ’s are “the Guardian type most driven to show some type. David Keirsey , ESTJ , Keirsey Temperament Sorter 828 Words | 3 Pages. Psychoanalytic and Trait Approaches to Personality. Psychoanalytic and Trait Approaches to Personality Michael Mousaw University of Phoenix PSY/250 Sarah Jenkins . February 25, 2010 Psychoanalytic and Trait Approaches to Personality The authors’ first question is, “What is a psychoanalytic approach to essay, personality ?” Sigmund Freud describes it as (1) a theory of the mind or personality , (2) a method of investigation of unconscious process, and (3) a method of treatment (Westen, 1999 pg57). With this. Human , Mind , Personality psychology 1163 Words | 4 Pages. Brand as a Person: You now have to decide what 'image' you want for your brand. Image means personality . Products, like people, have . personalities , and they can make or break them in the market place. - David Ogilvy A brand can very well be compared to a person.

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Although the questions asked seem . very random at times, they cover a wide range of Essay And Trembling topics to better evaluate the individual. Along with evaluating someone’s personality , the essay review, tests are also used to give suggestions of possible career fields that would best suit the individual. After taking a few of these tests myself, I hope to have a better idea of my personality and apply the results to my. Answer , David Keirsey , Personality 1021 Words | 3 Pages. Introduction to Personality Paper Katie McMichael Axia College of University of Phoenix November 26, 2012 Introduction Who am I? What . are my good qualities? What are my bad qualities?

Why do I behave like that sometimes? Why can’t I stop doing this? How do I see myself? How do others see me? How did my personality come to be what it is today? How has it changed? When thinking about our personality , these are questions that we ask ourselves. The only way to answer these questions is to. Big Five personality traits , Personality , Personality psychology 1094 Words | 4 Pages. Gordon Allport’s Personality Trait Theory Counseling and Psychological Therapy Alcorn State University December 5, 2012 Abstract . The aim of Freud’s Defense Protect Reality! this research is to explore Gordan Allport’s Personality Trait Theory and to discuss how his theory closely mirrors my personal beliefs as it relates to me becoming a professional School Counselor.

As we sit and services review look around us, we observe the great variety of Explanations in A Worn Welty personality traits among people. For instances, there are a lot of people who are very. Big Five personality traits , Neuroticism , Person 1716 Words | 5 Pages. Personality development theory This paper will serve as a fact sheet and will answer questions pertaining to the gene environment and . interaction influence personalities , personality expressions in cultures, twin studies, temperament, and the characteristics of constancy over essay services a period of time. The term personality was originated from Embryonic Stem Cells and Adult Stem Essay, a specific place and services is exponentially more complex although there are some assumptions when developing theories on personality alone. Why English Is Important. Any type of essay behaviors that. Big Five personality traits , Biology , Genetics 1430 Words | 4 Pages. In this essay I will be looking at two aspects of personality and is important the effect that personality traits have on behaviour within . organisations. “ Personality is the overall profile or combination of traits that characterize the unique nature of a person” (Ray French). This is just one of services review many definitions for personality , however all definitions linked to trait theory share the same key aspects, that personality consists of internal traits and characteristics that have an effect upon Defense Protect Essay, a person’s behaviour. Big Five personality traits , Extraversion and introversion , Neuroticism 1511 Words | 5 Pages. Determinants of Personality Development;

Theory of personality development Introduction: Personality . refers to services, the unique and distinctive characteristics which differentiate one person from Embryonic Cells and Adult Stem, another. Services Review. There is presently, no generally agreed upon definition of personality , nevertheless, most people who have written on the subject view personality as an individual difference concept and Defense Us from Essay a lifelong development process; Larry A. Essay Review. Hjelle and Daniel Ziegler J. C. ( personality theories. Emotion , Individual , Life 805 Words | 3 Pages. Review of Personalities and Problems. Review of Personalities and Problems Ken Wolfe's Personalities and Problems is Embryonic Stem and Adult a good book that goes into depth about essay services review many . important figures in history. Each personality that is Stem Cells Stem discussed has played a vital role in how the world has come to be and how it is run; politically, religiously, and even as far as explorations and trade is concerned. Wolfe depicts each personality very well and gives great examples of essay review what each personality has accomplished in his/her lifetime. Symbolic Worn Path By Eudora. Each chapter is broken. Leadership , Person , Personality 1564 Words | 4 Pages.

Researchers have studied personality test for a long history. At one time, personality tests were not perceived as a valid . selection method. However, personality tests are widely used and essay get generally positive conclusions today. On Soren Kierkegaard's Fear. (1) Reliability and essay validity In recent years, there are many researches focusing on the illumination of the value of personality tests as predictors of how was parks performance. In 2007, Morgeson, Campion, Dipboye, Hollenbeck, Murphy, and Schmitt cautioned that personality tests have very low. 16PF Questionnaire , Clinical psychology , Criterion validity 1735 Words | 6 Pages. Personality Reflection 1. How would you define personality ? Personality is review qualities and/or . characteristics a person or individual possesses.

Personality in people is usually traits a person has or obtains in in the 1930's Essay time to become someone. Your personality defines who you are as a person, sometimes your personality can show others where you stand in the world, where you are in the class system even. 2. Services Review. What are some key personality features that define you? Some of the Explanations Worn Path by Eudora Essay, key features that. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory , Personality , Personality psychology 844 Words | 3 Pages. My Personality and Learning Styleessay. My personality and learning style Even though personality types are usually referred to by their dominant traits, it is . Essay Services. important to bear in mind that these categories simply reflect a personal preference or the condition of being predisposed, not a categorical absolute.

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He is 27 years old about 5'7 and weighs about 148 pounds. He is white non-Hispanic. David Keirsey , Mind , Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 1730 Words | 4 Pages. ? Team Personality Traits Dawn Borden , Gracie Reed Johanna Guedea, Megan Miller PSY/250 December 02, 2013 Anney Snyder . Team Personality Traits Team Personality Traits can be easily captured by five dimensions. These dimensions are called the Big Five. The Big Five consists of Extroversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Instability, and Openness.

A combination of questions and answers provides information that determines which characteristics are associated with. Big Five personality traits , Conscientiousness , Neuroticism 1184 Words | 4 Pages. Character: Personality Psychology and Radio in the Essay School. Character is the summation of qualities, actions and tendencies which distinguish people from another. Eventually, our character is what we . do when no one is looking. Human personality should always be praised and essay services review no one should ever put anyone down for having a different kinds of personality . It is truly just allowing people to 1930's Essay, be who they are unless they are in violation of other human’s rights. A part from that, our character actually change based on the environment and it is services review different. 2002 albums , A Double Life , Boarding school 1411 Words | 4 Pages. Carl Rogers’ Theory of Personality.

Running head: PERSONALITY THEORY PAPER Personality Theory Paper Personality Theory Paper From the theories . of Sigmund Freud to humanistic theories of Freud’s Defense Protect Us from personality , how one views others greatly influences how one sees the world and vice versa. Because the theories are so different—some suggesting that human nature is ill, evil, or bad, while others believe it is intrinsically good—it is easy to see why people’s views of others and the world are so different. However, each person has a single. Carl Jung , Human , Humanistic psychology 1364 Words | 4 Pages. Personality Analysis Melissa Ledom Psychology 405 May 31, 2010 Instructor Sarah Lind Personality Analysis . Introduction Psychologist in essay review addition to is important, Philosophers have researched, studied, tested, and analyzed theories dealing with behavior and services personality . Theories of why english is important personality give understand of important factors, influences of essay personality development, plus underlying assumptions of traits, factors, influences, and Stem Cells and Adult Cells many other affects. This paper will examine two theoretical. Emotion , Human behavior , Individual 890 Words | 3 Pages. ? Personality Analysis Personality Analysis The role personality plays in services review affecting situational . behavior in Mechanisms: Protect Reality! Essay an individual is what makes him or her exclusive between others. That same exclusivity is essay services review what makes each person remarkable to study and watch.

The same position of the same two children like twins may have all the Defense Mechanisms: Us from Essay, same inherent structure, but he or she will still have an individual personality to identify his or her own. The learning of personality is somewhat difficult and. Abraham Maslow , Human , Humanistic psychology 1392 Words | 5 Pages. ? Personality Dorentai Robinson PSY/211 11/16/2014 Pamela Lemons Personality is the combination of a person’s ways of services review thinking, . feeling and behaving that makes them different from everyone else. Granted there are some people who may seem to have the same personality , but rest assured that they are similar and have differences that make them unique from Embryonic Stem Essay, others. Personality has four perspectives that describes the essay, different patterns in personality which allows an Kierkegaard's And Trembling, individual to seem different from. Jacques Lacan , Personality psychology , Psychoanalysis 740 Words | 5 Pages.

UTILIZING THE TEAM CHARTER WITH PERSONALITY DIFFERENCES Utilizing the Team Charter with Personality Differences Marquita . Johnson University of Phoenix Utilizing the Team Charter with Personality Differences The personality portion of the Jungian 16 assessment revealed that I shared the essay, same personality score with another team member which is ISTP. According to Jungian 16-Type Personality Assessment (2007), the ISTP personality defines an individual, as observant, cool, unpretentious. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator , Neuroticism , Personality psychology 740 Words | 3 Pages. Running head: Personality Paper Personality Paper Shacena Dunn Psy/405 – Theories of Personality November 29, . 2010 Linda O’Connor Personality Paper The term personality has been heard throughout history. On Soren Kierkegaard's. Each individual can give a description of their personality as well as her friends. What people fail to services, understand is personality is the most theorized and Cells researched aspect of services review psychology.

Throughout the and Adult, report the reader will be able to define personality , explain the theoretical approach. Behavior , Natural environment , Person 1044 Words | 3 Pages.

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Celibacy and Catholic Priests Essay. In today’s world, many wonder why Catholic priests can’t get married and have a family of their own. Essay Services? This issue and question can be boiled down into one word: celibacy. Being celibate is defined as being “One who abstains from sexual intercourse, especially by reason of Explanations Worn by Eudora Welty, religious vows,” according to thefreedictionary.com. This definition is essay services not understood by many because the thought of having a life without sex is unbearable, especially in today’s society. By exploring this topic in depth, one can understand why celibacy is an Embryonic Cells Cells important factor of the Catholic priesthood.

According to Father Kenneth Doyle of the Catholic News Service, priests hold this sacred vow for three particular reasons: it closely resembles Christ Who was unmarried, it shows and proves that love can be present without being physical, and it allows a man to give all of his energy to the Lord rather than to a family. In understanding how celibacy became so important, we have to look at its history, particularly at services review the third, fourth, eleventh, and sixteenth centuries, according to on Soren Fear And Trembling, John O’Malley in his article Some Basics About Celibacy (8). In the third century, within the early Church, many priests and essay services, even most of the apostles of Jesus were men with wives and Essay on Soren, families. It was a common feature among the early Church, and even some of the Holy Fathers, or Popes, were known to be married and have children. Services? It is clear that during this time period, the patristic era and early Middle Ages, celibacy was not enforced and not important within the Church. Early in this century, Constantine’s recognition of is important, Christianity brought about status change for all Christians: because they were not being oppressed and martyred they looked for new ways to follow Christ and challenge themselves to services review, give their lives for how was parks raised, Him. John W. O’Malley writes, “With St.

Jerome (345-420), as well as many others, virginity for review, those espoused to Christ began to be extolled with new fervor and Defense Mechanisms: Us from Essay, consistency.” This became the essay services review, building block for Embryonic Cells Stem Cells, legislation and more teachings on the subject of celibacy (9). O’Malley points out essay services review, that the fourth century brought about more change for Christians as they came out of hiding in the catacombs (9). The Council of Embryonic Stem Essay, Elvira was held in 305, which consisted of nineteen bishops as well as a number of priests, deacons, and laypeople. Services? O’Malley writes that Canon 33 was a product of Symbolic Worn Path by Eudora Welty, this council and review, that it was the first piece of legislation that dealt with the in the, issue of the clergy and marriage. It reads: It has seemed good absolutely to forbid the bishops, the priests, and the deacons, i.e., all the clerics in the service of the ministry, to have relations with their wives and procreate children; should anyone do so, let him be excluded from the honor of the clergy. (9) This decree changed things, because it made a tradition into a law, and any who violated it would be punished. This decree was really meant to put continence or self-restraint on married clergy, because the idea of mirroring Christ and having complete dedication to essay review, the sacraments was becoming more important, as well as trying to lead by example as clergy to Radio 1930's Essay, the laypeople. This was very important in setting up what would change in the eleventh century as more authoritative figures wanted to establish order and essay services, set things right within the Church (9).

According to O’Malley, the eleventh century sought to recover from the Dark Ages and was able to retrieve patristic era canon law collections (10). These recovered canon law collections contained laws related to the idea of celibacy and acted as maps or blueprints for a series of holy and zealous popes for thirty-five years, who were determined to set order in Cells Stem, the Church and society (10). During this time the papacy established a rule of authority and power, which far surpassed anything that preceded it, and began reforming the Church. The reformers had the main goal of essay review, trying to get the clergy’s behaviors and actions to rosa parks a little different, mirror the ancient canon laws interpreted by the reformers, and were striving to make the clergy and the Church more holy in nature. One of the greatest popes in history was Pope Gregory VII who came into office towards the end of the movement. Thanks to his efforts, the law of celibacy began to appear in the form that would most resemble today’s form, which is the prohibition of the ordained from being married before or after ordination (10).

The sixteenth century saw the beginnings of the reformation, where the idea of celibacy was challenged and questioned by Luther and others, who broke away from the Church and who were also married. The Council of Trent was the Church’s response to the Protestants; it solidified what celibacy means today for the Church and essay review, condemned three thoughts on celibacy. According to O’Malley, these were as follows: “First, that clerics in major orders and religious priests who have made a solemn vow of chastity can validly contract marriage; second, that the regulation of celibacy is a disparagement of marriage; and Symbolic Explanations in A Worn Path by Eudora, third, that those who, after making a solemn vow of celibacy, cannot observe it are free to contract marriage” (11). O’Malley points out that the law has been modified. Canon 277, which is observed and practiced today, reads: Clerics are obliged to review, observe perfect and Defense Protect Us from, perpetual continence for the sake of the kingdom of heaven and therefore are obliged to observe celibacy, which is a special gift of God, by which sacred ministers can adhere more easily to Christ with an undivided heart and can more freely dedicate themselves to the service of God and essay services review, humankind. (11) Continuing to dive deeper into the topic of celibacy, it is important to make a distinction between the Catholic teachings of dogma and discipline. According to Catholic Answers, dogmas are teachings within the Catholic Church that will never change, and Fear, a discipline can change. Services Review? As Catholic Answers points out, because of the many different variations of celibacy in the Eastern Rite Catholics, Orthodox and why english, Oriental Christians where married priests are quite common, celibacy is a disciplinary rule, not a dogma like the Trinity is.

Of course there are rules and regulations on marriage and being ordained in those areas that have married clergy, but it is the tradition in the Western or Roman Catholic Church that their clergy take a vow of celibacy; exceptions can be made for essay services, Roman Catholic Priests who are married because they converted after being Lutheran or some other denomination. Many Fundamentalists attack celibacy as being a discipline or practice that goes against the Holy Bible and against nature itself because Genesis 1:28 says to, “Be fruitful and multiply.” As Catholic Answers points out, many also argue that celibacy itself leads to perversion or that it can cause illicit sexual behavior, which is simply not true. It is true that many people are called to Radio in the 1930's, be married in their lives, but Catholics Answers states, “…The vocation of celibacy is explicitly advocated—as well as practiced—by both Jesus and Paul”. Thus, it is essay review easy to Essay, see why celibacy is a very intricate and important part of the priesthood, because it allows the priests to be more like Jesus and have a more connected relationship with the Father and the people they minister to, just like Jesus Himself. Paul understands the importance of celibacy and services, complete dedication to the Lord by saying in First Corinthians 7:32-34 that, “I should like you to be free of anxieties. An unmarried man is anxious about the Radio in the 1930's, things of the Lord, how he may please the Lord. But a married man is essay services review anxious about the things of the world, how he may please his wife, and is important, he is divided”. Being celibate is neither unnatural nor against the Bible. Jesus and services, Paul practiced and advocated it in their times; clearly, it is not wrong. Catholic Priests are extremely important in today’s world because they provide us with the seven sacraments: Baptism, Eucharist, Reconciliation, Confirmation, Marriage, Holy Orders, and Anointing of the sick. Being celibate helps priests to perform these sacraments in Embryonic Stem Stem Cells Essay, the most holy manner and essay, with complete connection to Embryonic Cells Stem Essay, God.

Unfortunately, in today’s world the idea or discipline of celibacy is becoming something that is essay very hard for some to understand and practice, even for priests. In her article entitled On the Verge of Ideological Mutiny: Celibacy and the Roman Catholic Priesthood, Cathleen M. Falsani said that, “The debate about mandatory celibacy for priests raises ire and eyebrows, as the Roman Catholic Church experiences a daunting shortage of priests and a declining interest in religious vocations, while stories of sexual indiscretion and abuse abound” (16). It is true that today, many people blame celibacy as the main cause of shortages to the priesthood and Freud’s Defense Mechanisms: Reality! Essay, many argue that celibacy shouldn’t be forced onto someone and instead be a personal choice. This issue takes a toll on the entire Church and essay, can threaten the availability of the 1930's Essay, Mass and sacraments if shortages of priests continue (16). Many also take the Church’s view on sex as a negative thing in that sex is a bad thing and essay, that its only use is to create children, which is Defense Mechanisms: Us from why many believe that celibacy is in place for Catholic priests, according to Falsani and Bob McClory a former Catholic priest (16). Essay? As Falsani points out, the Church has responded to this view with Blessed Pope John Paul II’s papal letter which stated that, “The heart of a priest, in order that it may be available for this service, must be free. Celibacy is a sign of how was rosa raised, a freedom that exists for the sake of service…” (17).

This really is what celibacy for those in the priesthood is essay services all about: it allows them to Stem Cells and Adult Cells Essay, be focused and be married to the church and God in a way that many simply many can not comprehend nor understand. It is about complete sacrifice and giving of one’s self for the greater glory of God and heaven, which allows them to essay services review, administer and perform the seven holy sacraments in a way that reflects Jesus Christ Himself and His apostles who followed Him and gave up their lives for Christ’s glory. Yes, many of the apostles may have been married; nonetheless, they began to develop a greater love and meaning to what it means to be a servant of the Lord to others and to truly give up their lives in service to Him. Celibacy is not against Church teachings. Contrary to many people’s beliefs, it actually helps strengthen and reaffirm practices within the Catholic Church and proves that life is possible without giving in to worldly desires. In his article Why Celibacy Makes Sense, Robert Barron says that, “Celibacy…is a form of life adopted by people in love with Jesus Christ” (19). This is exactly what drives priests in their ministry and enables them to continue their work with great fervor and zeal. The Catholic priest is Stem Stem Cells Essay a person who is essay review able to prove that being in Explanations in A by Eudora, control of one’s own desires is possible, especially in a world that is filled with sex around every corner.

They are able to services review, be that bright light within the darkness that emulates Christ and His purity and love. Imagine if Roman Catholic priests were all allowed to be married in today’s world. This would not raise any eyebrows like it does now; instead, it would just be another thing that is among the Radio in the, norm in society. However, it is precisely because of this abnormal thing called celibacy that people do raise their eyebrows at these holy men living in a world that desperately needs people to stand out and be different than what society expects them to be. This is exactly what Jesus did. He was someone Who stood out like a sore thumb during His time, but this allowed Him to lead by example and essay services, show everyone who turned their heads that a life with Him and Symbolic in A Path Essay, the Father was worth living, no matter how different it was from everyone else’s in society. In The Theological Basis for Priestly Celibacy, the theologian Max Thurian writes, “Observing celibacy for the sake of the kingdom of services review, heaven does not mean being any the less a man; by renouncing a natural form of existence, the priest discovers life in all its fullness. On Soren Kierkegaard's Fear? Christ was certainly no less of a man because he did not have affections other than those for his brethren, and a bride other than the Church.” This sums it up very well: priests try to be leaders of men and are fully committed and faithful to their bride, the Church, and to the flock of people that they minister to.

The call to celibacy and the priesthood is a supernatural one, and one which the world sees as unnatural. Contrary to popular belief, celibacy and the call to be a priest is not for those men who have no attraction to women, because like everyone else, priests are human beings and essay review, men who still have wants. In The 1930's Essay? In his study entitled Seminarians Today, Paul Stanosz writes that sociologists Dean Hoge and essay services review, Jacqueline have reported that seminarians and young priests view themselves as, “Men set apart” (19). Many priests are men who really wanted to have a family and children but decided to heed the call to sacrifice this desire and instead be fathers within the Church. The most important tool for priests and seminarians to stay strong in their training and ministry is personal prayer, and Paul Stanosz writes that, “When asked what they looked forward to as priests, the students mentioned having time for personal prayer and for leading others in prayer” (22). The main reason that seminarians and Radio in the 1930's, priests enjoy their personal prayer so much is review that they are able to enter into a deeper prayer state because of Cells Essay, their total commitment to services, the Church and not to a wife or children. Celibacy is a practice that allows priests and seminarians to Symbolic Worn Path by Eudora, be more connected with the Lord, and thus they can enjoy prayer more and get more out of essay, it. In fact, they can draw others to it as well, because of is important, their mirroring of services, Jesus Christ’s life and their connection to their unique calling. This truly makes Catholic priests “Men set apart” and is exactly what is a little needed in essay services review, today’s world and what needs to continue within the Roman Catholic Church (19). As we have examined, celibacy is a topic that many do not understand because it is one that goes against the social norms of today’s society. Ultimately, it is a very big sacrifice and one that is necessary for Roman Catholic priests to effectively minister and be different from in the 1930's Essay every other man in society.

It is something that creates a unique bond between the celibate priest and his ministry and continues a tradition that has been handed down through history and advocated by the Church’s most prominent leaders. As mentioned at the start of essay review, this paper from Father Kenneth Doyle, celibacy allows for priests to closely resemble Jesus Christ as the Explanations Worn Essay, leader and model of the church, it allows for essay services, love to exist and be present without being physical, and Worn Welty Essay, it allows priests to focus all their energy on the Church rather than on a family or children. This commitment is very grave in nature. According to the Catholic encyclopedia at review newadvent.org, during the beginning of the priestly candidates’ ceremony, the bishop tells them just how significant this commitment is by Radio in the 1930's Essay saying the following: You ought anxiously to consider again and again what sort of a burden this is which you are taking upon you of review, your own accord. Up to this you are free. You may still, if you choose, turn to the aims and desires of the world.

But if you receive this order it will no longer be lawful to turn back from your purpose. You will be required to in the, continue in the service of God, and essay review, with His assistance to observe chastity and to be bound for ever in the ministrations of the Radio 1930's, Altar, to serve who is to reign. Essay Review? This is what it means to be celibate: to go against the grain and serve the Lord and the Church with all that one can offer as a priest and as a true man and disciple of Jesus Christ. Barron, Robert. “Why Celibacy Makes Sense.” Commonweal 132.14 (2005): 17-9. ProQuest Religion. Web. Symbolic Explanations Worn Path By Eudora? 17 Oct. 2012.

“Celibacy and the Priesthood.” Celibacy and the Priesthood. N.p., 10 Aug. 2004. Web. 15 Oct. 2012. http://www.catholic.com/tracts/celibacy-and-the-priesthood. “Celibate.” The Free Dictionary.

Farlex, n.d. Services? Web. 15 Oct. 2012. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/celibate. Doyle, Father Kenneth. “CatholicPhilly.com: News from the Archdiocese of Philadelphia, Powered by The Catholic Standard Times and Phaith Magazine.” Explaining Celibacy for Latin-rite Priests. N.p., 24 July 2012.

Web. 15 Oct. 2012. http://catholicphilly.com/2012/07/catholic-spirituality/explaining-celibacy-for-latin-rite-priests/. Is Important? Falsani, Cathi M. “On The Verge Of Ideological Mutiny : Celibacy And The Roman Catholic Priesthood.” Daughters Of Sarah 22.1 (1996): 16-19. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials. Web. 17 Oct.

2012. Griffin, Patrick. “Rites.” The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 13. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 11 Sept. 2012 http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13064b.htm.

O’Malley, John W. “Some Basics About Celibacy.” America 187.13 (2002): 7. Academic Search Premier. Web. 17 Oct. 2012. Stanosz, Paul. “Seminarians Today.” Commonweal 132.14 (2005): 19-23. Essay Services Review? ProQuest Religion. Web. 21 Oct.

2012. Thurian, Max. Worn Welty? “The Theological Basis for Priestly Celibacy.” The Theological Basis for Priestly Celibacy. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Oct. 2012. http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congregations/cclergy/documents/rc_con_cclergy_doc_01011993_theol_en.html. “The Catholic Holy Bible: New American Bible.” The Catholic Holy Bible: New American Bible. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 5 January 2017. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Celibacy and Catholic Priests. for only $16.38 $13.9/page.

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