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c course homework C Course Homework. Homework 3 - Structured Programming: Character Processing. Things You Will Need to Learn Functions(Chapter 4) Character Processing (Chapter 5) This includes but is not limited to an understanding of how C represents and stores characters with the America's Essay, use of the ASCII code. Poem Phenomenal Woman. The book has a complete ASCII chart in Appendix E. You should also know about the built-in functions available for your use in the C library ctype.h . File Redirection. You will write a program to process a text file. Oil Problem. Your program will consist of a series a functions to perform various tasks on the text file. You program will use getchar() and putchar() to do any necessary input/output to perform these tasks. The first function will output each line of text with a line number at underlying principle of symbolic interactionism? the beginning of each line. For instance, given the input. this function would produce the output.

The function prototype for this function is. The second function will count how many times a given letter appears in the input. It will return that count as well as print the count to the output. The function has a parameter which tells the function which letter it should look for in the input. The se should be case insensitive. For example, if the letter passed to the function is y, then the function will count how many times the letter y or Y occurs in the input. Given the Oil Problem Essay, input, You may wonder why the what of symbolic interactionism?, sky is blue. Then again, maybe you. a call to America's Essay, the function with the nature, letter y as the parameter would produce the output. Oil Problem Essay. whereas a call to the function with the letter i as the what principle of symbolic, parameter would produce the output. The function prototype for America's, this function should be. The third function will be used to Alexander the Great Essay, encrypt your file.

It will use the system random number generator to perform the encryption. It will take readable text (text that is America's Oil Problem unencrypted) and transform it to encrypted text. The standard encryption would be adding the character to the random number and then using % to mod it back t alphabetic value. This will be further explained in class. You should definitely check out this sample program which uses the random number generator to do character encryption. Make sure you understand this program before attempting to incorporate this concept into homework #3. Note: You should only encrypt alphabetic characters. In other words the code given in - As Older, Hughes, the sample code is correct (although you may choose an alternative encryption formula). Your main task to get this part of the program to Oil Problem Essay, work is to create a function and generate the proper interface with the main program. This really is the way secret messages are protected. (An optional exercise is to write the corresponding decryption routine.)

The main() function will be written to test these routines. The special character $ will signal which routine is to be invoked (called). The head of the what underlying, input file will have a $ followed by either a 1, a 2, a 3, or a 4. Seeing $1 in the input means do line numbers (main hands calls the first function). Seeing $2character means count how often character appears in America's Oil Problem Essay, the input (main calls the second function). Seeing $3 means encrypt the input (main calls the why is nato important, third function). Finally, seeing $4 means do nothing (main ignores the input until the next $ is encountered). So, encountering $2b in the input means to Oil Problem Essay, count all b's (and B's) until the next $ is seen.

The main program should terminate when it encounters EOF (end-of-file) in the input so you have to Analysis Hughes, check for it in your program. If you're giving input to your program using the keyboard, you have to America's, type Ctrl-d to vs nurture definitions, signal EOF. If you're redirecting a inputfile into your program, you don't have to do anything special. For a sample input and a sample output, click here . Recall redirection occurs when you type. This uses the contents of testfile as the America's Oil Problem, input to myporg. Use the why is, editor to create a testfile which tests your program comprehensively.

Do not just rely on the sample testfile given in the example. Style -- 2 points total. proper comments 1 point Name, class, date, instruct program description, and useful in-line comments. proper indentation, use of whitespace, and overall appearance 1 point. Correctness -- 6 points total. Correct outer loop 1 point. Reads in characters one at a time until EOF is reached. C orrect usage of getchar() 1 point. The program should have no calls to scanf().

Only getchar() should be used to do input. Correct implementation of $1 function 1 point. The prototype should be: void line_num(); The function call should only Oil Problem Essay be executed when the current character is a '1' and the previous character was a '$'. The function should have some sort of counting variable which keeps track of line numbers. As soon as the function body is Poem - As Langston Hughes Essay entered, the first line number should be printed. Then the America's, function body should contain a loop which reads in characters one at vs nurture a time until EOF is reached or '$' is reached. America's Oil Problem Essay. While the loop is running, characters from the nato, input should be echoed to Oil Problem Essay, the screen, and when a 'n' is encountered, the counting variable should be incremented and the next line number printed. Correct implementation of $2 function 1 point The prototype should be: int cnt_let(char c); The function call should only be executed when the current character is a '2' and the previous character was a '$'. Definitions. Just before the function is called, the America's Essay, character following the '2' should be read in poem phenomenal, and passed to the function as an argument. The function body should contain a loop which reads in characters one at a time until EOF is reached or '$' is reached.

The function should have some sort of Essay a counting variable which is incremented every time current character is equal to the character which was passed to the function. This comparison should be case insensitive. When done, the Alexander, function should return the counting variable. The value of the counting variable can either be printed to the output from within the function or from main() after the function is called. Correct implementation of $3 function 1 point The prototype should be: void name(void); The function call should only be executed when the Oil Problem Essay, current character is a '3' and the previous character was a '$'. And Central. The function body should contain a loop which reads in characters one at a time until EOF is reached or '$' is reached. To do the Oil Problem Essay, encryption, the program should have one call to srand (either at - As Older, the beginning of main() or at the beginning of the encryption function) and calls to rand() when a character. encryption occurs. A character should only be encrypted if it is alphabetic. A uppercase character should be encrypted to another uppercase character, and a lowercase character should be. encrypted to another lowercase character. See the sample program on the web for America's, the format. Correct implementation of $4 1 point This may or may not be a function depending on the student's preference.

Either way, the code which implements $4 should only execute when the current character is nature a'4' and the previous character was a '$'. The code should consist of a loop which reads in characters (and does nothing with them) one at America's Oil Problem a time until EOF is reached or '$' is reached. Poem - As Langston Essay. Program execution -- 2 points total. Running % a.out HW3.input1 should produce output similar to that listed in HW3.output1. This tests $1. America's Essay. Exact output is not important, except that after $1 is encountered the line numbers begin at powers 1, and for every 'n' the line number is incremented and printed out. Running % a.out HW3.input2 should produce output like in Oil Problem, HW3.output2. The numbers (letter counts) in the output should be exact. This tests $2.

Running % a.out HW3.input3 should produce output similar to that listed in HW3.output3. This tests $3. Exact output is not important, except that uppercase letters in nato important, the input should be encrypted to uppercase letters in the output, lowercase letters should be encrypted to lowercase letters, and any non-alphabetic characters are not encrypted (left as is). Running % a.out HW3.input4 should produce no output. This tests $4.

Running % a.out HW3.input5 should produce output similar to that listed in HW3.output5 with the same constraints as listed above for each specific case. This test the combination of the directives above ($1, $2, $3, and $4). Deduct 3 points if the program does not compile. Use the C library ctype.h . It contains functions which will make some of the character processing easier. Oil Problem Essay. Make sure you have an idea of how the program should flow. What Is The Underlying. Take a look at the example Then try to write your program from the top down: Write pseudocode.

Write main(). Test it. Add function 1 to the program. Test it. America's. Add function 2 to Alexander the Great Essay, the program. Test it. Add function 3 to the program. Test it. In other words, start with the easier stuff, and make sure you test your program in increments, so that you can catch any errors in logic before they might become lost among all the code.

For help with using rand() and character encryption, check out this mini-program . You can copy this program to your account, compile it, and America's Oil Problem Essay, run it, to see how it works. Think of your input file as a stream of characters starting off with a file pointer to the first character in the file. (In this program you may assume the first character is a '$'.) Every time your program does a getchar(), the character pointed to by the file pointer is Analysis I Grew returned, and then the file pointer is advanced to the next character in Oil Problem Essay, the input stream. Note that getchar() reads every character in the file one at a time (including newline characters, 'n'). Let's suppose our input file contains: You can think of what is the principle of symbolic this file as a stream of characters with the file pointer starting ot the first character ('$'): where the carat (^) represents the Oil Problem Essay, file pointer. Now, suppose we have a program which simply reads a file one character at Analysis - As I Grew Older, Langston Hughes a time using getchar(): When getchar() gets called the Oil Problem, first time, c is assigned the value '$', and the file pointer is advanced to the '1'.

The first getchar() call in what underlying of symbolic, the while loop assigns c the value '1' and advances the file pointer to America's Essay, 'H'. Here are some of the allied powers, iterations and the corresponding values of c after getchar() is called:

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America's Oil Problem Essay

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LEARN HOW TO WRITE A SONG: a step-by-step guide. This easy-to-use guide will show you how to write a song, from finding a great title to writing your melody. America's! Hands-on songwriting exercises will jump start your creativity, while ‘how-to’ video tutorials are a fun way to find out Analysis - As Older, Langston Hughes, more. What comes first, melody or lyrics? How does an idea become a whole song? How do you know if your song is any good? Well, I’ll answer the first two questions in this article.

The third question – How do you know if your song is good? – is answered like this: If a song genuinely expresses your feelings, then it’s a good song. It doesn’t matter what anyone else thinks. If a song expresses your feelings AND touches other people, moves them emotionally, or gets them on America's Oil Problem Essay the dance floor – that’s a good song with the potential to why is become a HIT. So, how do you write a song that moves other people and makes them want to listen?

Well, that’s where song craft comes in. ? What is America's song craft and why do I need it. Good songwriters use song craft to give their songs emotional impact and allied and central powers, create a memorable experience for listeners. America's! The tools and techniques of our craft are not arbitrary; they weren’t invented just to drive us crazy or make us write copy-cat songs without depth or originality. Phenomenal! They exist because, over hundreds of years, songwriters have found that they help listeners to understand, experience, and remember the message at the heart of a song. The simple, time-tested ideas on this page will help you create a song that expresses your feelings and moves listeners, keeping them involved and interested in what you have to say. Like any skill, though, song craft takes a little practice, so be sure to try the “Go Ahead and Do It!” exercises that follow each step. ? How does a song get started? (Good question!) Getting started can be one of the hardest tasks in songwriting. And it’s also one of the Oil Problem most important because if you start well, you’ll have a lot less trouble later on. You’ll know where you’re going and allied powers and central, you’ll have plenty of things to say.

There’s always the temptation to jump right in and begin with the America's Essay first thing that occurs to you. You know you want to write a song – lyrics with a melody and some chords – but you may only have a vague idea or a feeling about what you want to express. When that happens you could end up with a song that listeners can’t understand or relate to. So which comes first – lyrics, melody, or chords? My answer is: None of the above. There are a lot of ways to start a song and what is the principle, you could start with one of those, but I’m going to America's suggest that you start with THE TITLE. The title is going to Alexander the Great be the America's Oil Problem line that everyone remembers. More important, it’s going to define the message of the song. It will be your guide, keeping your song on track and keeping listeners interested.

Think of allied and central your title as the Essay peak of a pyramid. The rest of the song is made up of the building blocks that support it. Start your song with a title that appeals to Alexander the Great Essay you. Make sure it’s a phrase that rings true in Essay, your ears. Something that makes you say, “I’ve got to know more about that!” Because if YOU want to know, others will want to know. TIP: Short phrases make good titles because they grab attention and they’re easy to remember. The ideal length for a title is one to nature vs nurture definitions five words. Where to find good titles. Keep your eyes and ears open for good titles that have energy for you. Action words, images, or short phrases make good titles. Attention-grabbing newspaper headlines are full of America's Oil Problem good titles.

Here are a few examples of titles I picked up by reading through a popular magazine: “A Dream On The Edge,” “Hiding in the Shadows,” “What You Can’t Change,” “Slipping Away.” When you watch television always keep a little corner of your mind alert for dialogue lines that capture your attention. Poem Woman! Listen to your friends and Oil Problem, family to see if you can pick out interesting phrases. Or turn inside and listen to yourself by doing some stream-of-consciousness writing. Vs Nurture! Write or type as fast as you can, trying not to America's think or make judgments, then go back and nature, look for good phrases. Start keeping a list of these potential titles. GO AHEAD DO IT – Start your title list right now. Pick up a book or magazine, or scan for interesting short phrases. Write down at least three phrases. Mix and match words between phrases, substitute your own words, play around with ideas. Try to come up with at least one phrase that makes you want to write a song.

Keep looking for more phrases until you have something you like. Draw a big circle around that phrase. Then keep reading. ? Turn a title into a lyric. America's Oil Problem! Here’s how. Now, let’s begin to turn your title into a great lyric by nature, simply asking a few questions – the America's Oil Problem questions suggested by your title. Is The Of Symbolic! If you use these questions as a guide when writing your lyric, you’ll be able to… Finish every song you start Keep listeners with you Make your song say what you want. Ask the questions hidden in your title. Every title suggests questions that need to be answered. Some of the questions will be ones that you want to explore, others will be questions that listeners have.

You’ll need to Oil Problem answer both. Let me give you a few examples… Take a classic song title like “Heartbreak Hotel.” Some of the questions this title suggests are: What is Older, Hughes Essay a ‘heartbreak hotel’? What happens there? Where is Essay it? Sure enough, these questions are all answered in of symbolic interactionism?, this great Rock standard. What is America's Oil Problem a ‘heartbreak hotel’? A place to go when your baby leaves you. What happens there? Brokenhearted lovers cry.

Where is it? Down at the end of Lonely Street. A title like Taylor Swift’s “I Knew You Were Trouble” suggests questions like “Who was trouble?” “What kind of poem woman trouble?” and ‘How did things turn out?” If these questions aren’t answered in the song, listeners will go away disappointed. Here’s the lyric. Take a look to see how these questions were answered. In a big Country hit like “You’re Gonna Miss This” recorded by Trace Adkins, listeners will be asking “What is Essay it we’re going to miss?” and “Why will we miss it?” Check out the lyric. You might be surprised by Analysis - As Older, Langston Hughes, the answer! That’s the Oil Problem Essay sign of Older, Langston Hughes Essay a great song.

It draws the listener in with questions, then answers them in a fresh way. Of course, you’ll also have questions you want to America's Essay write about. Exploring our own feelings and experiences is a big part of powers powers what drives us to Oil Problem write songs. So, here are a few questions you might want to answer. What does your title mean? How do you feel about that? Why do you think that happened? What do you hope or fear will happen next?

If you’d like to hear a lyric example, listen to “Be With You,” a song I wrote with singer-songwriter Ed Patrick. The lyric answers questions suggested by the title, questions like: Why is the singer saying this? What’s happening? Who is involved? What is the singer feeling? Why is it important to what of symbolic him? A simple title like this one can suggest a lot of Oil Problem different emotions and situations. Ed and I wrote about the nature definitions feelings we wanted to express, but another songwriter could go in an entirely different direction with the same title. You can choose the questions you want to answer and the way you want to answer them. GO AHEAD DO IT – Go back and look at the title you circled in the previous exercise. What questions does it suggest to Essay you?

What would you like to say about it? Make a list of questions you’d like to phenomenal answer. Then add any questions you think listeners might have. Answer your questions in short phrases, eight to ten words will convert easily into lyric lines. Write more than you think you’ll need; you won’t use all of it. Remember, it’s just raw material. Explore the possibilities.

Don’t worry about America's Oil Problem rhyming, just say what you want to say. That’s the the Great Essay best place to start. ? Add images related words to bring your song to life. Just like a potter has clay and a painter has tubes of America's Oil Problem paint, the songwriter has images, action words, and fresh ideas. These are your raw materials.

You’re going to powers create that raw material yourself by America's Oil Problem Essay, using the words, phrases, and images suggested by your song title. Make a list of words and images the title suggests. Let’s say your song title is “You Make Me Smile.” To create raw material based on nato important this title, think of words and images associated with smiling. We can start with obvious ones like “happy,” “sunny,” “bright,” and “fun.” These are words you can use in your lyric, but they’re a little bit abstract. Let’s see if we can come up with words that will actually create an upbeat feeling for listeners and really make them feel like smiling. Take the words “happy” and “fun,” for instance.

What are a few things that are fun, things that make people smile? Parties, dancing, weekends, and Essay, vacations. The sound of laughter and music. Why Is Important! Favorite foods and a day at the park with friends. America's! A trip to what is the underlying principle the beach, a night on the town. Bright lights and crowds and carnival rides. These are just rough ideas. Oil Problem Essay! Try not to judge whether they’re good or not at this stage.

Just write down everything that comes to you. You won’t use all of it, but you never know what might end up in definitions, your song. Now, let’s try the word “sunny.” Obviously that word makes me think of America's Oil Problem Essay sunshine, which makes me think of summer and being outdoors, which makes me think of grass, trees, and why is nato important, flowers. America's Essay! Flowers make me think of colors – gold, red, purple – and bees buzzing around. So now we have a whole bunch of words that evoke mental images – bees, flowers, sunshine, parties, dancing, colors! They all have to do with smiling and feeling good. And they all came from starting with one or two words, and then letting them suggest more.

To hear how these words are used in a hit song, here’s part of the chorus lyric of “Smile” by Poem - As Older, Hughes Essay, Uncle Kracker. Notice how many words are similar to the ones we came up with. You make me dance like fool. Forget how to breathe. Just the thought of you can drive me wild. Oh, you make me smile. Now the listener is able to picture how the Oil Problem Essay singer is feeling instead of just having to take his word for it. This is one of the most important tools a songwriter has.

Check out “Smile” by Uncle Kracker on Spotify, read the lyrics online, or watch the video to hear even more fun images and ideas based on smiling. BONUS TIP: After you have a list of related words, make a list of woman contrasting words and America's Oil Problem, images, ones that suggest the the Great Essay opposite. For example, I wrote a song called “California Girl.” Obviously the related words will include summer, sun, warm, waves, water, sand, feeling free – a kind of or paradise. Oil Problem! Contrasting words will be winter, moon, cold, fire (contrasting with water), and feeling caught or trapped (the opposite of feeling free). If you’d like to hear how I turned these lists of related and contrasting words into a lyric, watch the allied and central powers video of my song “California Girl” or listen and read the lyrics here.

GO AHEAD DO IT – Make a list of words, images, and Oil Problem, phrases related to your title. Write down single words or short phrases. Don’t think about rhyming or making sense of things at this point. And try not to be critical of your ideas – just write down what comes to you. Then, make a list of allied powers contrasting words, images, and phrases. Write as many words as you can think of in each column.

Let one idea suggest another and America's Oil Problem Essay, follow the trail wherever it takes you. This is allied and central powers a great exercise for stretching your creativity. ? Why is song structure such a big deal? Now is a good time to get familiar with one very important aspect of songwriting: Song Structure. An easy-to-follow structure acts like a path leading your listener through your song from beginning to end. The most common contemporary hit song structure looks something like this: VERSE / CHORUS / VERSE / CHORUS / BRIDGE / CHORUS . Listeners like this song form because it provides enough repetition to feel familiar and Oil Problem Essay, enough variety to keep them interested. It also gives you, the Alexander the Great Essay songwriter, the America's Oil Problem Essay chance to add emotional dynamics to your song. Many of today’s hit songs feature a conversational, low-key verse followed by Alexander, a big, powerhouse chorus with plenty of emotional punch. Once you get familiar with this basic song structure, there are plenty of Essay add-ons and variations to woman play with. Some songs have a pre-chorus or extra post-chorus hook.

But try using this one to get started. It’s been the foundation of America's many huge hits and many more to come. Here are some useful definitions for understanding song structure: – Verse: The verses in a song all have the same melody but different lyrics. Analysis I Grew Hughes! The verse lyrics give us information about the situation, emotions, or people in the song. – Chorus: We may hear the chorus of a song three, four or more times. America's Oil Problem Essay! The lyric and nature, melody remain the same each time it recurs.The chorus lyric sums up the heart of the song. The title of the Oil Problem song almost always appears in the chorus section and may be repeated two or more times. – Bridge: The bridge has a different melody, lyrics, and chord progression from the woman verse or chorus. It provides a break from the Essay repetition of verse and why is nato important, chorus. The lyric often provides an insight or revealing moment.

GO AHEAD DO IT. Use the song form VERSE / CHORUS / VERSE / CHORUS / BRIDGE / CHORUS . Go back to the list of questions you made earlier and choose a question to answer in each section. The chorus will be repeated several times so pick the most important question to America's answer there. Often, that question is “What does this feel like?” Be sure to use your title in your chorus! Fill in the lines around your title using some of the images from your list. Make sure your listeners understand your song by having the singer come right out and say what he or she really feels at poem woman, least once in the chorus. When you have a rough idea of your chorus lyric, move on to a verse. Verse lyrics tend to be more conversational, so keep it simple and just answer the Essay question you picked in an open, honest way. ? Look for the melody that lives in your lyrics.

Every time you open your mouth to speak, you start singing! Don’t believe me? Just try speaking without using any changes in pitch, without speaking faster or slower, louder or softer. You can’t do it! You end up sounding like a robot. Although we usually think of poem singing as something quite different from talking, we actually use a lot of Essay melody when we talk. When we talk we use pitch, volume, phrasing, and rhythm – all the elements of a song melody. Why Is! The only difference is in a song these elements are exaggerated and there’s more repetition. So if you have a few lyric lines, all you need to do is speak them to get a raw melody started.

It’s the America's Essay melody part of speech that communicates emotion. In fact, just by changing the melody you can give the I Grew Older, Hughes same words an entirely different emotional meaning. Try this: say the phrase “Oh, no?” as if you are asking a simple question. Now, say the Oil Problem same phrase — “Oh no!” — as if you are anxious and frightened. Why Is! Notice the difference in the melody? In the question, the melody goes up at the end. In the frightened version, the America's Oil Problem pitch starts higher and then the Alexander Essay melody moves downward. Exaggerate the emotion in the second phrase and America's Oil Problem, you’ll really hear it. Now try saying “Oh no” with a sarcastic, disbelieving, ‘you’ve got to be kidding’ tone.

It’s an Alexander the Great, entirely different melody from the other two. You can use this melodic element of speech to give your songs added emotional impact. If you’ve got a lyric that asks a question, try a rising motion on the end of the melody , just as if you were really asking a question. Or, if your lyric questions are the kind that don’t really want an answer, try a descending melody on the end of the phrase. You’ll make the meaning clear and sound natural and America's Oil Problem, believable to your listeners. GO AHEAD DO IT – To achieve the conversational tone of many of today’s verses, try speaking your verse lyric in a casual, conversational style, then exaggerate it a little to begin creating your verse melody. Keep the pauses that occur naturally and exaggerate the little ups and downs in your speaking voice. You’ll want to make changes later but, for - As Essay now, this will give you a good place to start. Oil Problem! Remember, this is your raw material, not the finished melody. Choruses often have more energy and urgency, conveying more of the song’s emotional heart.

As we saw with the “Oh, no!” phrase, the more emotion there is, the higher the voice tends to be. That’s why very emotional Pop and Rock choruses work well in a higher note range. Is The Principle Of Symbolic Interactionism?! Speak the chorus lyric with as much emotion as you can put into it. Now, exaggerate the pitches, keeping the rhythm of the words and any pauses that occur naturally. America's Essay! This will get you started on why is nato your chorus. Once you’ve found the America's Oil Problem melody your lyric naturally suggests, then sit down with your guitar or keyboard and why is important, start roughing out the chords. America's! I like to record my vocal ideas before I even start to underlying principle of symbolic interactionism? add chords, that way I can recall the original “spoken word” melody in case I want to America's Oil Problem go back to it.

Of course, there are other ways to write a song melody but this one will give you a great place to allied powers start. Writing both lyrics and melody. If you play guitar or keyboard and you’re going to be writing your own melody and chords. Skip down to America's the next section for some ideas on how to find and nato important, use chord progressions that work well for today’s songs. Work on Oil Problem Essay the melody and chords using the verse and chorus lyric you have, gradually smoothing and changing until you have something you like. Then write the rest of the lyric to the final melody.

If you’re going to be looking for a collaborator to Poem Analysis - As Essay put music to your lyrics, then you should go ahead and finish the lyric now. Filling in the rest of the America's Oil Problem lyric while sustaining the emotional tone of what you’ve done is a tough job but if you’ve gotten this far, you can do the rest. IMPORTANT TIP ON RHYMING: Don’t twist words out of order or write a line just to vs nurture make something rhyme! A ‘vowel rhyme’ — rhymes like love/enough or mine/time/sigh with the same vowel sound but different final consonants — will work just fine for popular songs. (Songs for America's Oil Problem musical theater are different – they usually do require perfect rhymes.) Check out a web site like or to what is the underlying principle of symbolic find lists of interesting, closely rhyming words to use. Know when to Oil Problem Essay take a break. Work on your lyric for the Great Essay short periods of time. America's Oil Problem! If you’re not getting anything usable, walk away… literally. Take a walk and let things settle for awhile. Keep the lyrics you’ve written on a desk or table where you can easily add a word or thought when it strikes you. Allied Powers Powers! Keep the hit song melody in your head.

The most important thing (and the most difficult) is to keep the emotional integrity of the song intact. Don’t settle for anything less. There are times when you’ll lose your way. Stop working! Go away and come back when you’re fresh. You’ll be able to see what needs to be fixed. Keep working on the lyric until you are genuinely moved and excited by it.

Many songwriters begin their songs by America's, strumming a chord or playing two or three chords to inspire a mood, a melody idea, or a lyric theme. Today’s hit songs often use simple, repetitive chord progressions, relying on definitions the melody to keep things interesting, melodies with a lot of forward momentum and unexpected twists. America's! To hear this style, check out hit songs by artists like Ed Sheeran, OneRepublic, or Kelly Clarkson. You don’t have to reinvent the allied powers powers wheel. There are loads of useful chord progressions that depend on America's Essay just three to four basic chords. While song melodies and lyrics are copyrighted, in general, these familiar chord progressions are not. C-Am-F-G belongs to everyone! You can use this type of generic chord progression in your own songs.

I’m going to suggest that, for now, you do just that. These progressions aren’t hard to pick up. Listen to allied a recent hit song and learn to play along on either guitar or keyboards. There are many YouTube videos that will show you how to America's Oil Problem play recent hits. There are also “fake books” with chords and websites with the phenomenal woman chord progressions for America's Oil Problem hundreds of hit songs. Allied! Just do a quick web search using the song title and the word “chords.” If you decide to use one of these chord progressions to practice writing a song of your own, just be sure you don’t use any of the melody or lyric from the Oil Problem Essay hit song.

These are protected by the copyright law. If you already have an idea for your melody, you can hunt for the chords that fit. If you don’t play piano or guitar, take a few lessons. There are ‘instant’ piano and guitar courses you can buy online that will teach you to read and play chords. What Is The Principle Interactionism?! Check out my Resources page for a good one. Essay! Or you can take a few lessons from a local music teacher. Many music stores offer lessons. Your local community center or college may have classes. Or ask friends and neighbors to refer a teacher.

If you decide to take lessons, be sure to Analysis - As tell the teacher you want to Oil Problem learn to poem phenomenal woman read and play CHORDS. America's Oil Problem! You don’t need to learn note reading. In general, songwriters don’t have to be great musicians. We know chords, we know song craft, we know how to follow our emotions – none of this has anything to do with how many dazzling riffs and licks you can play. Just strum or chord along with your voice and keep the emotional feel front and center. Here’s a resource for those of you who don’t play an instrument – and even those who do! Karaoke tracks offer an instant backing track that can inspire ideas and get you singing your lyrics to important a contemporary beat. Go ahead and write a song for friends and family or just for songwriting practice.

The track itself is copyrighted but generally the chords are not. If you want to pitch your song commercially, you’ll need to America's Oil Problem Essay record a new instrumental track. You can keep the chords or adapt if needed. Many of today’s top TV dramas and films use songs to add mood, energy, and atmosphere to the Great Essay scenes. A lyric with a single, strong emotional focus is ideal for this use. If you’re interested in America's, this market, begin to study how songs are used in commercials, TV shows, and films. Notice how they enhance and nature, deepen the effect of the scene. As an exercise, choose a scene and Oil Problem, try writing a song that would work with it. Record your vocal and a simple guitar or piano part, then play it softly under the scene to see if it increases the woman emotional impact. For more information, read my book “Shortcuts to Songwriting for America's Film TV” available at So let’s say you have this fabulous lyric.

It’s got emotion and Alexander, good song craft but you don’t play guitar or keyboards. Maybe writing melodies just isn’t your strength. Or you’re a musician who doesn’t write lyrics. Time to look for a co-writer! Before you show your lyric or melody to a co-writer, before you enter it in a contest, or otherwise spread it around, it’s a good idea to copyright it with the U.S.

Library of Congress. You’ll find online registration forms, printable forms, FAQ, and Oil Problem, instructions at the Copyright Office web site. There’s a fee for each form you file, but you can register groups of poem phenomenal woman lyrics or songs on a single form to Essay save money. Back to the hunt for collaborators… Idea #1: Check out the Collaboration Corner at You don’t have to be a TAXI member to join in the forum discussions and meet collaborators. Not only are these folks serious about poem phenomenal writing songs, most of them are actively pitching to TAXI’s opportunities – a BIG plus! Idea #2: Universities and community colleges in your area will have a music department. Essay! Talk to nature vs nurture definitions one of the teachers or post a sign on a bulletin board letting people know you’re looking for co-writers and what style you write in. Also, check to see if there is America's Oil Problem Essay a campus club or group interested in and central, music or songwriting. Idea #3: Check out clubs in your area that feature local artists.

When you find an artist or band playing the kind of music you’re interested in, ask if they’re willing to co-write. When they tell you they write all their own songs, tell them you’d like to collaborate on Oil Problem Essay songs to pitch to publishers for other artists. Nato Important! They’ll be interested. Idea #4: Check out Essay, local music stores. They usually have a guitar or piano teacher or they can put you in what of symbolic interactionism?, touch with one. The teacher might be interested in writing with you or may know a student who is America's looking for a collaborator. Once you’ve written a strong song with a memorable melody, emotionally evocative lyric, and phenomenal, good structure that keeps the listener’s attention, you’ll want to make a demo to show it off. Advances in recording technology have revolutionized home recording. It’s now relatively easy and affordable to put together a home demo studio. America's Oil Problem Essay! Although a course in home recording is allied and central beyond the America's Oil Problem Essay scope of this article, here are a couple of ways to nato get started… HOME MIDI STUDIOS: There are many inexpensive software programs that include both MIDI sequencers (for use with MIDI keyboards) and audio recording capability (to record vocals and Oil Problem, guitar).

Acid Music Studio is an inexpensive sequencer and poem phenomenal woman, it comes with a huge library of loops that make assembling a track a breeze. For Mac users there’s Garageband for America's Oil Problem MAC . It’s included in the iLife software package. You’ll need a MIDI keyboard for use with both of Poem Analysis Older, Langston Hughes these programs. America's Oil Problem! Apple has one for Alexander the Great Essay under $100. Yamaha makes a good inexpensive keyboard. SONGWRITING SOFTWARE: There’s a unique software program called Band-In-A-Box that I like a lot!

BIAB is like having a song collaborator who never tells you your ideas are lousy. It will create a chord progression or you can type one in or play one on a MIDI keyboard. Essay! It will create a drum, bass, piano, guitar, and string arrangement based on your chords. BIAB will even create a melody and a title! It’s inexpensive, fun, creative, and vs nurture, a great place to Essay start a song from scratch! To find out more, visit my Resources page. There are versions for and central powers both PC (BIAB for Windows) and Mac (BIAB for Mac) . DEMO SERVICES: There are many good recording studios and Oil Problem, demo services that can produce all or part of your demo. They can record the instrumental tracks so you can do your vocal at home, or they can give provide just the guitar or drums. Powers And Central! You’ll have a chance to give input or talk with the Oil Problem Essay producer ahead of time. I suggest giving the service an idea of what you want by woman, playing existing songs with a similar style, sound, or feel. Here’s a list of Essay services and vs nurture definitions, online musicians I’ve used.

Of course, all I have given you here is a doorway into songwriting. There are other ways to Oil Problem approach songwriting but they’re just other doors. Once you go through the door, that’s when you really begin to learn. Everything you need to know is right there on the radio, in your CD collection or on your iPod. Study songs by your favorite artists to learn what they’re doing.

Here’s a list of hit songs that I’ve posted with a look at what makes them tick. You’ll find tips on how to use these ideas in songs of your own. You don’t need to reinvent the wheel every time you write a song. Is The Underlying Principle! Stand on the shoulders of giants; use what others have discovered and build on it. Make it your own!

Don’t worry that you’ll end up sounding like someone else – you’ll always sound just like you . No one else has your creative ideas, your voice, your thoughts, or your talents!

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in Oil Problem Essay, a while, it can be hard to why is, know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for Oil Problem the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and Alexander Essay, tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. America's. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on - As I Grew Langston Hughes Essay it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the Oil Problem accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at - As I Grew Older, Hughes Essay, hand (even if that means you don’t include all of America's your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs.

Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in allied powers, and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on America's Oil Problem Essay your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only Essay, sometimes make sense to include. America's. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Nature Definitions. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the Oil Problem fold” refers to what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. The Great Essay. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is going to America's Oil Problem, see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. Phenomenal. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to America's Oil Problem Essay, save space and focus on making the rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to organize the information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Vs Nurture Definitions. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding.

The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the Oil Problem Essay bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to Poem Analysis - As I Grew Hughes Essay, force yourself to Essay, do this. Nature Definitions. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on America's Oil Problem Essay more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in poem, less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to America's Oil Problem, see how you can organize your resume to fit more in Alexander, less space. Can’t figure out America's Essay how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and nature definitions, then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the America's Oil Problem Essay ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in order to stand out in a minute. But the most basic principle of why is important good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple.

Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Essay. Make your resume easy on the Great Essay hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of America's Oil Problem white space on the page. You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on allied powers and central powers readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to Oil Problem Essay, the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to why is important, add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent.

You don’t need to include your address on America's Essay your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in powers, this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for America's Oil Problem prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in allied powers, as little time as possible. Essay. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the Alexander most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13.

Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. America's Essay. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. Phenomenal. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about America's your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14. Nato Important. No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. America's. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and allied and central, transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and America's Essay, then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the woman narrative of why you’re ideal for the job. America's Essay. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section.

No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to allied powers powers, the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in Essay, your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the allied and central hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to Essay, adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about the Great how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to Oil Problem, your boss or your company.

By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. Why Is. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20. Oil Problem Essay. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in underlying, a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology.

If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Essay. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Poem Analysis - As I Grew. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to America's Oil Problem, the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on allied powers powers which words to Oil Problem, include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords.

What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . Allied. We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. Oil Problem Essay. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order.

But if older coursework is more specific to Alexander the Great, the job, list that first to grab the Oil Problem Essay reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the vs nurture degree than when you earned it. Essay. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the Essay fact that you were in the honors college at your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light.

Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to Essay, get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to what is the principle of symbolic interactionism?, add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is Essay expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and and central, leadership skills—try breaking out one of America's Oil Problem Essay those sections and listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and Alexander Essay, detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on America's Oil Problem your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on nature definitions a music company?

Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about America's Oil Problem it. 32. Beware of nato Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. America's Oil Problem. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to include them or not.

Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in Essay, a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the Essay proper ways to Poem - As Hughes, include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from Oil Problem your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about principle interactionism? your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for each position.

Use years only America's Oil Problem Essay, (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the allied perfect opportunity for America's Oil Problem a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to of symbolic, include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on America's your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it).

While parenting is nature vs nurture as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in Essay, you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and nature, clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at America's Oil Problem Essay, it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of and central your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer.

To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of Oil Problem HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at vs nurture, it in Oil Problem, both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and underlying of symbolic interactionism?, send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Essay. Carve out the Great Essay some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and America's, make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is updated on why is important a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. America's. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of why is important Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is Essay a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team.

If you’re an what principle of symbolic interactionism? individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in America's Oil Problem Essay, touch at Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the nature vs nurture definitions amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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Electronic Theses Dissertations (ETD) Fall 2017: 5pm, Friday, December 1, 2017. Spring 2018: 5pm, Friday, April 27, 2018. Summer 2018: 5pm, Friday, July 27, 2018. WVU ETD documents must conform to Oil Problem Essay the standards detailed in the Submission Information Packet. Use prescribed verbiage on the title page (see Sample Title Page in the ETD Submission Information Packet) Abstract page must immediately follow the title page Abstract page must have heading including the word “Abstract”, the document title and the author’s name (see Sample Abstract Page in the ETD Submission Information Packet) Front matter (preliminary pages) must be numbered in lower case Roman numerals Suppress the page number display on the title and abstract pages Document must include a Table of Contents Body (Chapter 1 through end of document) must be numbered in Arabic numerals, starting over as page “1”, etc.) Except for Alexander the above specifications, any discipline-specific style manual may be used at the Committee Chair’s discretion. Copyright and Intellectual Property. You automatically have copyright to your work unless some other agreement has been made with a publisher or funder. Registering your copyright by filing directly through the U.S. America's! Copyright Office is optional.

If statutory copyright has been or will be claimed, a copyright notice is normally listed in the manuscript (see the sample title page). Allied And Central! You may apply for copyright registration by filing directly through the U.S. America's Essay! Copyright Office, or you may wish to use the why is nato important, copyright registration service offered by UMI . You can find information about UMI ’s service in the ETD Submission Information Packet. Students who desire the Oil Problem Essay, copyright service offered through UMI should click the item ” Requesting ProQuest/UMI to file for U.S. Copyright Registration”.

The $55 fee will be assessed and on-line payment information will be required before the Poem Analysis Langston Hughes Essay, submission is Oil Problem, completed. The student is required to powers powers obtain written permission from the author or publishers to quote extensively from copyrighted material. Such permission is usually granted on condition that acknowledgment is America's, made. If payment is required, this is the student’s responsibility. Permission for the use of all such materials must be obtained before the thesis or dissertation is submitted to the University Libraries. Reprints may be used in the body of a thesis or dissertation if the student is the primary author or has been primarily responsible for the publication. This assumes the student has had primary responsibility for the research as well as the preparation and the editing of the manuscript. Permission to use reprints may be required by Alexander Essay the publisher. All master’s and doctoral students who submit an electronic thesis or dissertation are required to Essay participate in the ProQuest / University Microfilms Inc. (UMI) Abstract publishing program (participation for Problem Reports, Project Reports or Research Projects is optional). Each participant’s abstract shall be published in I Grew Langston Hughes Essay, the Master’s Theses and Doctoral Dissertations Abstracts International database.

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Presently over 75% of WVU students use the open access option. Oil Problem Essay! Recent studies by Suber, Harnad, etc. demonstrate that scholars who deposit their works as open access increase their citation rates between 2 and 5 times more than simply relying on academic journal article publishing. The recognition factor is vital for budding scholars, hence we embrace open access to scholarship. Students may choose “Open Access” at WVU while simultaneously choosing “Traditional Publishing” option via ProQuest (included in Poem Analysis - As I Grew Langston Hughes, base ETD submission fee) at no additional cost. Makes the ETD freely available only to the WVU community (via login to the WVU eTD system) and as requested through the OCLC Interlibrary Loan (ILL) lending program. Access will be provided by interlibrary sharing of electronic or printed copies as requested. Campus only distribution will continue from Oil Problem year to Analysis - As Older, year without special notification for a period of up to five years after the submission date, after which time it will revert to ‘World Wide Distribution’. You may change the Web distribution to America's Essay “World” access at the Great Essay, any time by sending an email to This option addresses situations such as when a book or article is planned, and America's, the book or journal publisher is concerned that prior publishing through a digital library will negatively impact on sales.

Limiting distribution to “Campus Only” is generally accepted to be the equivalent to allied and central the “paper copy on the shelf”. Our best advice is for the student to contact prospective publishers to learn about their publishing policy. Many publishers have this information provided on Essay their Web sites; if not, usually a simple email query to the editor will resolve any questions. Special exception allowed for MFA Creative Writing program students. Secures the entire work for Essay patent, proprietary, data sensitivity and/or third-party funding sponsorship purposes for a period of one year. During this period the copyright owner also agrees not to exercise her/his ownership rights, including public use in future works, without prior authorization from Oil Problem Essay West Virginia University. Phenomenal Woman! At the end of the one year period, either the student or proxy may request an automatic extension for one additional year. Student or proxy may determine a post-embargo status of option 1 (open access) or option 2 (campus access) for the duration of the the 5 year restriction limit.

Students (or designated proxies) may change the Web distribution to America's Essay open access at any time by sending an allied powers powers email to Proper arrangement and construction of the parts of America's Oil Problem Essay a thesis or dissertation manuscript will likely vary according to the styles adopted by different disciplines. The following are suggestions concerning the Alexander Essay, organization of the manuscript. They should be taken as a norm from which deviations may be made under the America's Essay, guidance of your advisor or committee. Title Page Abstract Dedication (optional) Acknowledgments Table of is the underlying of symbolic Contents List of Tables List of Essay Figures List of Symbols, Abbreviations, or Nomenclature List of Multimedia Objects or Files. Introduction Review of Literature Text of Investigation Summary and Poem Analysis - As Older, Essay, Conclusions Recommendations. Since practices vary greatly in Oil Problem, different disciplines, you are expected to learn the styles of your field of study and are advised to follow the recommendations of Poem - As I Grew Older, your advisors and committee members on all matters not covered here. America's Essay! The content of the thesis or dissertation manuscript is outside the provenance of this guide. The mandatory WVU ETD format requirements are listed on the “Format Requirements” page. If you would like a Word document template for your ETD , you can start with this style sheet. Electronic copies presented must be clean, clear, and uniform, with high contrast for quality screen and print resolution.

Keep in mind that because of duplicating and microfilming needs, the print must be letter quality with dark characters that are consistently clear and Poem I Grew Older, Essay, dense. The preferred font size is 10 to 12 ( characters per horizontal inch). Oil Problem! The preferred font style is Time New Roman (traditional) or Arial (modern). Powers And Central Powers! If necessary, different typefaces (font sizes or styles) may be used within headings, tables, figures, and appendices. Non-standard typefaces, such as script, are generally not acceptable except for commonly accepted symbols. All straight text should be single, one-and-one half, or double spaced. Keep in mind that single spacing is preferable for electronic documents.

A good compromise would be 1-1/2 spacing. America's Essay! The preferred number of what underlying principle of symbolic lines is 6 (single-spaced) or 3 (double-spaced) text lines per vertical inch. Separate paragraphs by a line of horizontal space. Indent block quotes on the left and right. Essay! Single-space long tables, long quotations, footnotes, multi-line captions, computer programming, and bibliographical entries. All pages should have a minimum margin of 1 inch on all sides of the page.

This applies to why is nato important the average text, illustration or table arrangement, where a professional and consistent format should be retained. Exceptions could be, for example, artistic renderings requiring full margin bleed. A left margin of 1.5 inches (binding offset) is America's Oil Problem, also acceptable, if you and phenomenal, your committee desire. Electronic formats should normally be able to Essay be reproduced on standard paper sizes such as 8 1/2” x 11”. The placement of the is the principle of symbolic interactionism?, footnotes at the bottom of the page or at the end of the America's Oil Problem Essay, manuscript is optional but must be consistent throughout. A form acceptable for what of symbolic interactionism? publications in the discipline is recommended. All footnotes must conform to the margin requirements. All tables and figures should conform to the margin requirements.

Photographic reduction may be necessary. America's! Not more than 3 to 5% reduction is suggested to prevent indistinct print quality. A subheading at the bottom of the important, page must have at least two full lines of type below it. America's Essay! Otherwise, the subheading should begin on the next page. The last word on any page should not be hyphenated. The line should be short of the margin and the whole word typed on the following page. Each and every page in a thesis or dissertation, including all blank pages, should normally be assigned a number with no duplications in the numbering systems. The preliminaries must be numbered with lower case Roman numerals (iii, iv, v, etc.). Powers Powers! The numbers should appear in the upper right-hand corner or as indicated by your style manual, no closer than 0.75 inches from the edge of the page. The title page counts as page i, but suppress the display (the number should not appear on the page).

The abstract page counts as page ii, but suppress the America's Oil Problem Essay, display ( the number should not appear on the page). Underlying Of Symbolic! The remainder of the Oil Problem Essay, text (body) should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals, starting with Chapter One or the Introduction. Numbering should begin with page “1” centered at the top or bottom of the nature vs nurture definitions, page, or as indicated by your style manual, no closer than 0.75 inches from the edge of the page. Avoid the Oil Problem Essay, use of letter suffixes as 10a, 10b, etc. Electronic multimedia presentations may not always be reproducible with conventional pagination and definitions, should be used with some caution.

However, formats other than pdf are acceptable for the body, appendices, or other supplementary material. Some disciplines require the Essay, use of running headers in the document. This practice is acceptable, but its use should be avoided in the preliminary pages. Tradition suggests that you use footnotes (as opposed to end notes). Place any footnotes on the same page as the Alexander Essay, items that refer to them. Footnotes in main body text should be numbered consecutively in Oil Problem Essay, Arabic numerals, starting with 1. Supplementary files, those secondary to the main document, may be used for a variety of requirements, such as high resolution or specialized image files, data files, or other presentation materials. File formats should be accessible with public domain or commonly used platforms. The word “Table” designates tabulated numerical data used in the body of the thesis or dissertation and in the appendices. Tables consist of an arrangement of facts, figures, and why is nato important, values in an orderly sequence usually in rows or columns. The word “Figure” designates all other nonverbal material used in the body of the dissertation and in America's, the appendices, such as charts, graphs, maps, photographs, plates, drawings, diagrams, etc.

All illustrations and charts must be drawn in dark, opaque fashion and be of sufficient size to be readable. Remember that microfilming and printing are black and white photographic processes and colors will appear in varying shades of Alexander the Great gray. Thus, cross-hatching and labels are often essential. If a title or description of an America's Essay illustration or graph is too long to be placed on the same page, it should be placed on the previous page. Wide tables or figures may be placed broadside, (landscape orientation). The table should be placed so that the top of the table is nearest the binding side (left margin).

The placement of the table or figure, vertical or horizontal, does not alter the position of the page numbering requirements set forth in this guide, and should remain consistent with pagination structure adjacent in underlying of symbolic, the document. Oversize pages complicate duplicating procedures and should be avoided. Often a different layout or the use of photographic reduction will resolve the problem. Oil Problem Essay! If oversized maps or charts are used, they should capable of reproduction on standard paper size, or otherwise scalable. Masters Degree Problem / Project / Research Reports/ Undergraduate Theses/ MFA Theses. Your final thesis or dissertation document, saved as a PDF and with all changes approved by why is your committee. Completed Thesis and Dissertation Signature Form, signed by all committee members, scanned, and saved as a PDF . PhD, DNP, and EdD candidates must take the America's, Survey of Alexander Earned Doctorates and save their Certificate of Completion. The first two pages of the document must be a Title page and Abstract that are formatted like the Essay, example included in this instruction packet. These pages should not be numbered. Document must include a Table of Alexander the Great Contents. The body of the document should follow whatever discipline-specific style is preferred by your committee or department.

Your thesis/dissertation gets stored in two places: WVU Scholar Hosted by our library This is the equivalent of a print copy on the library shelves Proquest Electronic Thessis Dissertations Database A company that gathers theses and dissertations from Oil Problem Essay all over the country: Researchers can use this database to search for ETDs at several schools at nature definitions, once. Fall 2017 : 5pm, Friday, December 1, 2017 Spring 2018 : 5pm, Friday, April 27, 2018 Summer 2018 : 5pm, Friday, July 27, 2018. Go to and click the Submit button. For Ph.D, DNP, and EdD submissions, choose Submit Your Dissertation Online. (left box) For MA and America's Oil Problem Essay, MS submissions, choose Submit Your Thesis Online. (middle box) For Master's Problem/Project Reports or Undergraduate Honors Thesis submissions, choose Submit Your Report Online. (right box) Create an account on Proquest’s website. This will allow you to log into the ETD Administrator and nature, return to your submission if you need to Oil Problem revise it.

This is not your WVU account. You will need to Alexander the Great Essay create a new user name and America's, password just for the Great this process. Click on the link labeled “Submit new dissertation/thesis” and follow the step by step instructions provided to complete your ETD submission. Please see the next section, Your ETD Publishing Options, for an explanation of the Oil Problem Essay, choices you will be asked to make during the phenomenal woman, submission process. If you need to finish your submission later (for instance, if you need to update your PDF file before uploading it), you can save your information and come back to finish. America's! No information will be lost. If you have questions about how to complete your ETD upload, please contact us and we will be happy to help! Let us know if you would like to schedule a time to come in for help with your ETD submission in vs nurture, person or over the phone.

After submission of your ETD is complete, our office will review your submission, contact you about any changes you need to make, and notify you and your committee when approval is finalized, usually within five business days. The Proquest Dissertations and Theses Database is a service that university libraries subscribe to that lets people search theses and dissertations from schools all across the country in America's Oil Problem, one place. Powers! You may have even used it in your own research. If you choose the “traditional publishing” option on the PQ Publishing Options screen, your ETD will be in the Proquest database and people will be able to Oil Problem buy single copies of why is nato it from them. Each time someone does so, you will earn royalties, which Proquest will pay out to America's Oil Problem Essay you after they reach a certain amount. (A good analogy might be that Proquest is to dissertations as Cafepress is to phenomenal woman t-shirts.) You still own the copyright to your work, and Oil Problem Essay, can make contracts to what underlying principle publish it in journals or with other publishers. You are only giving Proquest limited rights to sell individual copies. The other Proquest option is their “Open Access Publishing Plus” service. What this means is America's Essay, that instead of Proquest paying you royalties if someone wants a copy of your work, you pay a certain amount in advance and Proquest allows anyone to read and is the underlying principle of symbolic, download your ETD for Oil Problem Essay free through their website. WVUScholar is our own institutional repository, hosted by the university libraries. Poem I Grew Langston Hughes Essay! When you deposit your ETD , you choose one of America's Essay two options: open access, which lets anyone on the web read your ETD , or campus access, which only lets people with a WVU login read your ETD , as well as people who request it through their library’s Interlibrary Loan.

If you have a pending patent or publication, you will be able to choose a No Access embargo for underlying principle of symbolic a period of Oil Problem Essay one year following your ETD deposit. Students in the MFA in Alexander, Creative Writing program are able to choose a permanent campus access option for America's their work.