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araby setting essay Sample Essays Analyzing James Joyce's Short Story Araby The content consists of brief but condensations of the Scenario Essay action of the story. The content tells your reader what happens. Remember that you cannot relate all the soliloquy i action. Bury Essay. Your outline willhelp you select only those points necessary to your reader's understanding of Mercy by Dower, your interpretation of the work. Study the summary essay below to discover its organization. Note the proportion given in each paragraph to Will Bury Scenario Essay, summary and to interpretation. Theintroduction identifies the work and the author. Then, following back-ground information about the story, the writer states his thesis. In the bodyof the latin for plagiarism essay, each topic sentence points to a specific block of action or adevelopment in the story. The content of each paragraph is devoted to asummary of a selected block of action, and the last sentence of each para-graph evaluates and Essay interprets the action described.
This process-summary followed by interpretation-continues through each paragraph tothe conclusion of the Model Comarisons essay. It is the interpretation that gives meaning andsignificance both to the story and to the essay. In the essay that follows, note the use of quotations and how each aids understanding and imparts asense of the Will Essay style and manner of the work. James Joyce's Araby: Summary of an Epiphany. Each of the the father and the grandfather described in the poem fifteen stories in James Joyce's Dubliners presents aflat, rather spatial portrait. The visual and symbolic details embeddedin each story, however, are highly concentrated, and each story culmi-nates in an epiphany.
In Joycean terms, an epiphany is a momentwhen the essence of a character is revealed , when all the forces thatbear on his life converge, and we can, in Will Bury Scenario, that instant, understand him.Each story in the collection is centered in an epiphany, and eachstory is concerned with some failure or deception, which results in War Without Mercy Essay, re-alization and disillusionment. Araby follows this pattern. Themeaning is revealed in a young boy's psychic journey from first love to Scenario, despair and sample cited disappointment, and the theme is found in Will Bury, the boy'sdiscovery of the mla works cited discrepancy between the Scenario real and define limited the ideal in life. Will Scenario. The story opens with a description of North Richmond Street, ablind, cold . .. silent street where the Mercy by Dower Essay houses gazed at one an-other with brown imperturbable faces. It is a street of fixed, decaying conformity and false piety. The boy's house contains the samesense of a dead present and Scenario a lost past. The former tenant, a priest,died in the back room of the house, and his legacy-several old yel-lowed books, which the boy enjoys leafing through because they areold, and a bicycle pump rusting in soliloquy i, the back yard-become symbolsof the intellectual and religious vitality of the past. The boy, in themidst of such decay and spiritual paralysis, experiences the Scenario confusedidealism and the father and the in the poem dreams of first love and his awakening becomes incom-patible with and in ironic contrast to the staid world about him.
Every morning before school the boy lies on the floor in thefront parlor peeking out through a crack in the blind of the door,watching and waiting for the girl next door to emerge from Bury Essay, her houseand walk to school. He is shy and still boyish. He follows her, walkssilently past, not daring to speak, overcome with a confused sense ofsensual desire and religious adoration. In his mind she is both a saintto be worshipped and a woman to be desired. His eyes are often fullof tears, and latin word one evening he goes to the back room where the priesthad died. Clasping the palms of his hands together, he murmurs, 0love! 0 love! in a prayer not to God, but to the concept of love andperhaps even to the girl, his love.
Walking with his aunt to shop onSaturday evenings he imagines that the girl's image accompanies him,and that he protects her in places the most hostile to romance. Inthe mixed symbolism of the Christian and the Romantic or Orientalmyths Joyce reveals the epiphany in the story: These noises con-verged in a single sensation of life for me: I imagined that I bore mychalice safely through a throng of foes. He is unable to talk to Will Bury Scenario, thegirl. Drifting away from his schoolmates' boyish games, the boy hasfantasies in his isolation, in the ecstasy and pain of first love. Finally the girl speaks to the boy. She asks him if he is going toAraby.
He replies that if he does he will bring her a gift, and fromthat moment, his thoughts upon the mixed imagery of the saintly lightupon her hair and the potential sensuality of the white border of apetticoat, the boy cannot sleep or study. The word Araby cast anEastern enchantment over him, and then on the night he is to go tothe bazaar his uncle neglects to return home. Neither the aunt noruncle understands the boy's need and latin word anguish, and thus his isolationis deepened. Bury Scenario Essay. We begin to see that the story is not so much a story oflove as it is a rendition of the world in which the boy lives. The second part of the story depicts the boy's inevitable disap-pointment and realization. In such an limited war atmosphere of blindness-the aunt and uncle unaware of the boy's anguish, the girl not con-scious of the Scenario boy's love, and the boy himself blind to the true natureof his love-the words hostile to romance take on ironic overtones.These overtones deepen when the boy arrives too late at the bazaar.It is closing and the hall is in latin, darkness. Will Scenario. He recognizes a silencelike that which prevades a church after a service but the bazaar isdirty and disappointing. Two men are counting money on a salverand he listens to the fall of the coins. A young lady, bored withhim and interested in two men who are flirting with her, cheapensand destroys the boy's sense of an and the grandfather in the are Eastern enchantment. His love,like his quest for a gift to draw the Will Scenario girl to him in an unfriendly world,ends with his realizing that his love existed only in his mind. Thus. the theme of the story-the discrepancy between the real and theideal-is made final in the bazaar, a place of soliloquy i, tawdry make-believe.The epiphany in which the boy lives a dream in spite of the ugly andthe worldly is brought to its inevitable conclusion: the Will Bury Scenario single sensa-tion of life disintegrates.
The boy senses the Model Comarisons Essay falsity of Will Scenario, his dreams andhis eyes burn with anguish and word anger. Essay #2 Using Setting and Atmosphere. Remember that setting is usually a part of atmosphere and Bury Scenario that atmo-sphere consists of the prevailing tone of the work and its resultant meaningor effect. Some works will not warrant an essay devoted to setting and at-mosphere; others, like Joyce's Araby, will be so profoundly dependentupon a particular setting that to ignore its importance will be to miss muchof the meaning of the Mercy by Dower work. Dream Versus Reality: Setting and Atmosphere in James Joyce's Araby Convinced that the Dublin of the 1900's was a center of Bury Essay, spiri-tual paralysis, James Joyce loosely but thematically tied together hisstories in Dubliners by Comarisons Essay, means of their common setting. Each of thestories consists of a portrait in which Dublin contributes in some wayto the dehumanizing experience of modem life. The boy in the storyAraby is intensely subject to the city's dark, hopeless conformity,and his tragic yearning toward the exotic in the face of drab, uglyreality forms the center of the story. Will Bury Scenario. On its simplest level, Araby is a story about a boy's first love.On a deeper level, however, it is a story about the world in which helives-a world inimical to ideals and sample dreams. This deeper level is in-troduced and developed in several scenes: the opening description ofthe boy's street, his house, his relationship to his aunt and Bury Essay uncle, theinformation about the priest and Mercy by Dower Essay his belongings, the boy's two trips-his walks through Dublin shopping and his subsequent ride toAraby. North Richmond Street is described metaphorically and presentsthe reader with his first view of the boy's world.
The street is blind; it is a dead end, yet its inhabitants are smugly complacent; the Will Bury Scenario housesreflect the attitudes of their inhabitants. The houses are imperturba-ble in the quiet, the cold, the dark muddy lanes and darkdripping gardens. The first use of situational irony is introducedhere, because anyone who is aware, who is not spiritually blinded orasleep, would feel oppressed and endangered by North RichmondStreet. The people who live there (represented by Mercy Essay, the boy's aunt anduncle) are not threatened, however, but are falsely pious and dis-creetly but deeply self-satisfied. Their prejudice is dramatized by theaunt's hopes that Araby, the bazaar the boy wants to visit, is not14some Freemason affair, and by old Mrs. Mercer's gossiping overtea while collecting stamps for some pious purpose. The background or world of blindness extends from a generalview of the Bury Scenario Essay street and its inhabitants to Model Essay, the boy's personal relation-ships.
It is not a generation gap but a'gap in the spirit, in Bury Essay, empathy and soliloquy i conscious caring, that results in the uncle's failure to arrive homein time for Bury Scenario the boy to go to the bazaar while it is still open. And The Grandfather Described Poem Are. Theuncle has no doubt been to Bury Scenario Essay, the local pub, negligent and indifferent tothe boy's anguish and impatience. War Without Essay. The boy waits well into the eveningin the Bury Essay imperturbable house with its musty smell and old, uselessobjects that fill the rooms. The house, like the aunt and uncle, andlike the entire neighborhood, reflects people who are well-intentionedbut narrow in Mercy Essay, their views and blind to higher values (even the street lamps lift a feeble light to the sky). The total effect of such settingis an atmosphere permeated with stagnation and isolation. The second use of symbolic description-that of the dead priest and his belongings-suggests remnants of a more vital past.
The bi-cycle pump rusting in the rain in the back yard and the old yellowedbooks in Will Essay, the back room indicate that the priest once actively engaged in real service to God and man, and further, from the titles of thebooks, that he was a person given to define, both piety and Will Essay flights of imagi-nation. But the Comarisons Essay priest is dead; his pump rusts; his books yellow. The effect is to deepen, through a sense of a dead past, the spiritual and intellectual stagnation of the present.Into this atmosphere of spiritual paralysis the boy bears, withblind hopes and romantic dreams, his encounter with first love. In theface of ugly, drab reality-amid the curses of laborers, jostled bydrunken men and Will Bury Scenario bargaining women-he carries his aunt's parcelsas she shops in the market place, imagining that he bears, not parcels,but a chalice through a throng of foes. The noises converged in asingle sensation of life and in a blending of Romantic and define limited war Christiansymbols he transforms in his mind a perfectly ordinary girl into anenchanted princess: untouchable, promising, saintly. Setting in thisscene depicts the harsh, dirty reality of life which the boy blindly ig-nores. Will Bury Scenario Essay. The contrast between the real and the boy's dreams is ironi-cally drawn and clearly foreshadows the define war boy's inability to keep thedream, to remain blind. The boy's final disappointment occurs as a result of his awaken-ing to the world around him. The tawdry superficiality of the bazaar,which in his mind had been an Oriental enchantment, strips awayhis blindness and leaves him alone with the realization that life andlove differ from the dream. Araby, the symbolic temple of love, isprofane.
The bazaar is dark and empty; it thrives on the same profitmotive as the market place (two men were counting money on asalver); love is represented as an empty, passing flirtation. Araby is a story of first love; even more, it is a portrait of aworld that defies the Will Bury Essay ideal and the dream. Thus setting in this storybecomes the Model Comarisons true subject, embodying an atmosphere of spiritual pa-ralysis against which a young boy's idealistic dreams are no match.Realizing this, the boy takes his first step into adulthood. INSTRUCTIONS. It is possible in an essay to write about an isolated symbol-onewhich seems unusual, or appealing, or particularly apt. Will Essay. More often,though, you will deal with a central or recurrent symbol (like water inThe Great Good Place).
If you write about an isolated symbol, your thesis should be a strong statement of the existence of the symbol in the work,and, the for plagiarism body of your essay should be composed of Bury, statements that actuallyconstitute evidence of the Model Comarisons existence of the symbol. As you develop paragraphs in Will Bury Scenario Essay, the body of the essay, make clear your reasons for ascribing the symbolic significance you do, show the function of the symbol in the work, and sample cited above all, prove that awareness of the symbol enriches understanding or appreciation of the Will Bury work. The Central Symbol of the Church in Joyce's Araby Joyce's short story Araby is filled with symbolic images of a church. It opens and closes with strong symbols, and in War Without Mercy by Dower Essay, the body ofthe story, the images are shaped by the young), Irish narrator's impres-sions of the effect the Church of Ireland has upon Will Scenario the people of Ire-land. Sample Cited. The boy is fiercely determined to invest in someone within thisChurch the Will Bury Scenario holiness he feels should be the natural state of all withinit, but a succession of experiences forces him to see that his determi-nation is in vain.
At the climax of the story, when he realizes that hisdreams of holiness and love are inconsistent with the actual world,his anger and sample mla works cited anguish are directed, not toward the Church, but to-ward himself as a creature driven by Bury Scenario Essay, vanity. In addition to Essay, the im-ages in the story that are symbolic of the Church and Will its effect uponthe people who belong to it, there are descriptive words and phrasesthat add to this representational meaning. The story opens with a description of the Dublin neighborhoodwhere the boy lives. Strikingly suggestive of a church, the image shows the ineffectuality of the Church as a vital force in sample cited, the lives ofthe inhabitants of the neighborhood-the faithful within the Church.North Richmond Street is Will Bury Essay composed of two rows of houses withbrown imperturbable faces (the pews) leading down to the tall un-inhabited house (the empty altar). The boy's own home is set in agarden the natural state of which would be like Paradise, since it contains a central apple tree; however, those who should have caredfor it have allowed it to become desolate, and the central tree stands alone amid a few straggling bushes. At dusk when the boy and hiscompanions play in the street the lamps of the street lift their feeblelanterns to the sky of ever-changing violet (timid suppliants to thefar-away heavens).
Since the boy is the narrator, the inclusion ofthese symbolic images in the description of the setting shows that theboy is sensitive to define, the lack of Will Essay, spiritual beauty in his surroundings.Outside the main setting are images symbolic of those who donot belong to the Church. The boy and his companions go there attimes, behind their houses, along the dark muddy lanes, to where the rough tribes (the infidel) dwell. Soliloquy I. Here odors arise from the Scenario ash pits--those images symbolic to James Joyce of the moral decay of his nation. Even the house in which the youthful main character lives addsto the sense of moral decay. The former tenant, a priest (now dead),is shown to Model Essay, have been insensitive to the spiritual needs of his people.His legacy was a collection of books that showed his confusion of Will Scenario, thesacred with the secular-and there is sample mla works cited evidence that he devoted hislife to gathering money and furniture. He left behind no evidenceof a life of spiritual influence. Despite these discouraging surroundings, the boy is determined to find some evidence of the loveliness his idealistic dreams tell himshould exist within the Church. His first love becomes the Bury focal pointof this determination. In the the father and the person of Mangan's sister, obviouslysomewhat older than the boy and his companions, his longings find anobject of worship. Scenario Essay. The boy's feelings for the girl are a confused mix-ture of sexual desire and of sacred adoration, as examination of theimages of her reveals.
He is obsessed at one and the same time withwatching her physical attractions (her white neck, her soft hair, themovement of the brown-clad figure) and with seeing her always sur-rounded by light, as if by a halo. He imagines that he can carry herimage as a chalice through a throng of foes-the cursing,brawling infidels at the market to which he goes with his aunt. Allother sensations of life fade from his consciousness and he is awareonly of his adoration of the cited blessed image. He spends his days feel-ing her summons to his foolish blood, a summons that is both astrong physical attraction and a strong pull to the holiness missing inhis life and in the lives of the people he knows. In all his watching ofher he is thankful that he can see so little, as men of his Churchhave ever been filled with holy dread to look upon the Virgin. When the girl finally speaks to him, her words are of Will, ordinary concerns: she asks if he is going to Araby, a bazaar in another part ofthe city. But the boy's imagination seizes upon the name Araby andinvests its syllables with an Eastern enchantment in which his soulluxuriates. Araby becomes a place where his soul can find the mla works cited mysti-cal beauty lacking in his own mundane Church. The girl cannot at-tend the bazaar because of a retreat her convent is Will Scenario Essay having that week.As a consequence the boy feels a summons that has symbolic over-tones of a holy crusade: he is determined to soliloquy i, go forth to the en-chanted place and Will Scenario bring back a gift worthy to lay at the feet of his adored one. The aunt and uncle with whom he lives are insensitive to hisburning need to mla works cited, fulfill his crusade. Will. They are presented as persons living decently within the confines of their Church rules, but lacking avision of concerns higher and holier than mechanical conformity torules.
They do, finally, though, provide the florin to allow him to go to Araby. Alone, he makes his way to the place of Eastern enchantment.When he arrives, he is struck by a silence like that of a church.This is followed by another image that calls up the image at the be-ginning of the story, that of the aisle leading to mla works, an altar. In this case,it is a hall leading to the booth displaying porcelain vases (chalicesfor the Will Eucharist), and flowered tea sets (the flowers on the altar).The great jars guarding the stall can be interpreted as symbols of cited, themysticism standing guard over the Church. For the boy, the girl attending the stall, like Mangan's sister, be-comes an object of faith. But when she speaks-again like Mangan'ssister-her words are trivial and worldly. In a sudden flash of insightthe boy sees that his faith and his passion have been blind. He sees inthe two men counting money on a salver a symbol of the moneylen-ders in the temple. Will Bury. He allows the soliloquy i pennies to fall in his pocket. Thelights in the hall go out; his church is in darkness.
Tears fill hiseyes as he sees himself a creature driven and derided by vanity,whose foolish blood made him see secular desires as symbols oftrue faith. In this moment of disillusionment he feels that he himselfis at fault for being so bemused by his ideals that he failed completelyto see the world as it is. He has discovered in Bury, his Church and in love(both traditional symbols of ineffably sacred loveliness) only a shoddyimitation of true beauty. Understandably his disillusionment causes him anguish and anger. Using Myth and Archetype. Model Comarisons. The heart of Will Scenario Essay, myth is rooted in religion, in attempts to explain creation, thesoul, and limited war man's place in the world. Bury. A discussion of myth, therefore, mustbe preceded by your discovery of its presence in a work; and for your dis-cussion to be meaningful, you must understand the origin or source of theideas you decide to ascribe to myth. (In Araby, we perceive the clearpresence of Comarisons, a reference to Christianity.) Remember that archetype can be generously applied to a num-ber of Will Bury, man's values, dreams, and beliefs, but that myth comprises only apart of soliloquy i, archetype. Archetype is a much larger term, and if you perceivesome universal experience in a literary work, it can quite logically form apart of our racial past. Family, marriage, war, peace, the need to be lovedand to live forever: these are patterns, emotions, and Scenario drives we share withour ancestors.
They change little with time, and each generation respondsto them with deep emotions. The presence of archetype in a work givesthat work added importance and an essay defining the sample cited archetype, its effectand resultant added meaning will be of value to readers who may have re-sponded but have not discerned why. To write an essay using myth and archetype, determine how theirpresence influences and reveals the Scenario Essay meaning of the work. If myth or arche-type becomes the Model Comarisons basis of a work (as they do in Araby), an Will Bury Essay essay point-ing out their meaning will provide you with a ready-made thesis. Orderingthe development of your essay will become relatively simple, for the stagesof the reenactment of the archetypal pattern will direct your presentation.If, on the other hand, the use of myth does not form the basis of the entirework, but is only an enrichment of another pattern, your order of develop-ment will be somewhat more complex. Limited War. In this case you will need to deter-mine the precise function the single use of the mythic element serves andthen center your thesis on this function. The Lonely Quest of James Joyce's Araby Probably no other twentieth century short story has called forthmore attention than Joyce's Araby. Some universality of experiencemakes the story interesting to readers of all ages, for they respond in-stinctively to an experience that could have been their own.
It is Scenario apart of the instinctual nature of man to long for soliloquy i what he feels is thelost spirituality of his world. In all ages man has believed that it ispossible to search for and find a talisman, which, if brought back, willreturn this lost spirituality. The development of theme in Araby re-sembles the archetypal myth of the quest for a holy talisman. In Araby, Joyce works from a visionary mode of artisticcreation-a phrase used by psychiatrist Carl Jung to describe the,'visionary kind of literary creation that derives its material fromthe hinterland of Bury Scenario Essay, man's mind-that suggests the abyss of Mercy by Dower Essay, time sepa-rating us from Will Scenario Essay, prehuman ages, or evokes a superhuman world of con-trasting light and darkness. It is a primordial experience, which sur-passes man's understanding and to which he is therefore in mla works, danger ofsuccumbing. 1 Assuredly this describes Joyce's handling of the Will Bury Essay mate-rial of Araby. Limited War. The quest itself and its consequences surpass the un-derstanding of the young protagonist of the story. He can only feelthat he undergoes the experience of the quest and naturally is con-fused, and at the story's conclusion, when he fails, he is Scenario anguishedand angered. His contrasting world of light and word for plagiarism darkness containsboth the lost spirituality and the dream of restoring it. Essay. Because ourown worlds contain these contrasts we also feel, even though theprimordial experience surpasses our understanding, too. It is true, as a writer reminds us, that no matter the work,Joyce always views the order and disorder of the world in terms ofthe Catholic faith in which he was reared.
2 In Araby, however,there is, in addition, an overlay of Eastern mysticism. This diversity of background materials intensifies the universality of the experience.We can turn to the language and the images of the story to see howthe boy's world is shown in terms of these diverse backgounds. There is define little that is Will Bury Scenario light in the comer of Dublin that formsthe world of the story, little that retains its capability to evoke spiri-tuality. North Richmond Street is blind; the houses stare at one an-other with brown imperturbable faces. The time is winter, with itsshort days and its early dusk. Only the boy and his laughing, shoutingcompanions glow; they are still too young to soliloquy i, have succumbed tothe spiritual decay of the adult inhabitants of Will Bury Scenario Essay, Dublin.
But the boysmust play in dark muddy lanes, in dark dripping gardens, neardark odorous stables and ashpits. Joyce had said of Dubliners,the collection of stories from which Araby comes, that he intendedto write a chapter in the moral history of my country and I choseDublin for the scene because that city seemed to me the centre ofparalysis. Word. 3 The images of the story show us that the spiritual envi-ronment of the boy is paralyzed; it is musty, dark. Everywhere in his dark surroundings the boy seeks the light. He looks for it in the central apple tree-symbol of religiousenlightenment-in the dark garden behind his home. The gardenshould be like Eden, but the tree is overshadowed by the desolationof the garden, and thus has become the tree of spiritual death. Helooks for light in the room of Will Essay, his home where the former tenant, apriest, had died, but the only objects left by the priest were books,yellowed and grandfather described poem damp. Here, too, the quest has failed. Scenario Essay. No evidence ofspiritual life remains. Decay and rust have taken over all the treasures the priest had laid up on earth for himself. Into this world of darkness appears a girl, Mangan's sister.
Be-cause of her the Essay boy feels a surge of hope that now in her love he willfind light. Even though he has never spoken to her, except for a fewcasual words, her name is Essay like a summons to all his foolish blood.His youthful imagination sees her always surrounded with light; sheis the contrast to grandfather described, his dark world. Will Bury Essay. She becomes an image to him of allthat he seeks. That image accompanies him even in places the mosthostile to romance: the market and the streets, among the drunkenmen and bargaining women, amid the curses of the father poem are, labourers, the shrilllitanies of Will Scenario, shop-boys. Latin For Plagiarism. In this unlikely place occurs what Joyce calls an epiphany, which to him means a sudden spiritual manifesta-tion, when objects or moments of inconsequential vulgarity can betransfigured to something spiritual.4 The boys says, I imagined that Ibore my chalice safely through a throng of foes. Plainly he has feltthe summons to cherish the holy, the light, in Bury Scenario, this dark world ofthose who are hostile to the sacred. However, what he feels is beyond his understanding. His lovefor the girl is part sexual desire, part sacred adoration. He is, he says,confused. He loses interest in his school and in everything about him; hethinks of nothing but the soliloquy i girl. He can see her dark house, herbrown-clad figure touched by lamp-light.
He feels that he has foundone image of holiness in his world of lost spirituality. If he can gainthe girl, he feels, the Will Essay light will be restored to his dark existence. In his one conversation with her she reveals that she cannot goto Araby, a bazaar she would like to attend. She suggests that itwould be well for him to go. He speaks impulsively: If I go I willbring you something.
His opportunity has come. Limited. He can go toAraby-his soul luxuriates in the very syllables of the mysticallymagic name-and he can bring back a talisman to secure his favorwith her. The lost light of his world will be restored. Will Essay. Undoubtedly, as a writer suggests, Araby is and the grandfather in the poem Arabia, which is associated with thePhoenix, symbol of the Scenario Essay renewal of life. 5. Over half the story is concerned with the delays and frustrationsin his plans for his quest, and with his final journey to define limited war, the en-chanted place, where the Will Scenario Essay talisman will be procured. Significantly, he must go to Comarisons Essay, Araby alone.
The train is deserted; when throngs of Scenario Essay, buy-ers try to press their way onto War Without Mercy by Dower, the train the porters move them back,saying this is a special train for the bazaar. Essay. All who go on a questfor the high and the holy must go alone. Arriving, he finds the War Without bazaar nearly empty. He recognizes a si-lence like that which pervades a church after a service. The churchis empty; it is not attended by the faithful. Two men count money ona silver salver. The young lady who should attend him ignores himto exchange inane vulgarities with two young gentlemen.
Suddenly from the trivialities here the boy experiences anotherepiphany, a sudden showing forth in which his mind is floodedwith light, with truth. He can see the parallel that exists between thegirl here and his girl; he can see his feeling for her for what it is-physical attraction. Her brown-clad figure is one with the drabworld of North Richmond Street. Here, instead of Eastern enchant-ment, are flimsy stalls for buying and selling flimsy wares. His grailhas turned out to be only flimsy tea sets covered with artificial flow-ers. As the upper hall becomes completely dark, the boy realizes thathis quest has ended. Gazing upward, he sees the vanity of imagininghe can carry a chalice through a dark throng of Essay, foes. 1 Carl G. Sample Cited. Jung, Modern Man in Search of a Soid. trans. W. S. Dell and CaryF.
Baynes (New York, 1933), pp. 156-157. 2 William Bysshe Stein, Joyce's 'Araby': Paradise Lost, Perspective, X11,No. 4 (Spring 1962), 215. 3 From Letters of James Joyce, Vol. II, ed. Richard Ellmarm (New York,1966), p. 134. 4 James Joyce, Stephen Hero (New York, 1944), pp. 210-211.
5 Marvin Magalaner, Time of Apprenticeship: The Fiction of Young JamesJoyce (London, 1959), p. 87. USING POINT OF VIEW. If we draw an analogy of Will, a multistoried house withwindows on all sides, we can understand that a person's view of the worldcan vary greatly, depending on which window he views it from; whether heis outside looking in; or whether, distantly, he looks at the house and latin the surrounding countryside simultaneously. Certainly our view of a characterwill depend upon our position in Will Scenario, relation to the scene, just as his view islimited by the author. Henry James considered the Mercy by Dower Essay positioning of both characters and narrator crucial to fiction, and in recent years (in fact since his detailed studiesof point of view) critics have considered the artist's use of point of view the central focus for interpretation. Look at the questions point of view provokes.
Does the viewpoint allow for irony? Does it limit sympathy or does it evoke greater sympathy? Does it causeattitudes to be formed? What are they? Does choice of this particular nar-rator or persona influence the reader's view of the situation? How? Does itcontrol imagery and symbolism? In your conclusion, reaffirm your thesis by showing the overall effec-tiveness of the point of view on the work. Did the work gain much or littlefrom its use? Study the following essay to better understand how point ofview in Araby frees language, achieves psychic distance, and intensifiesthe experience portrayed. Scenario. THE IRONIC NARRATOR OF JAMES JOYCE'S ARABY Although James Joyce's story Araby is told from the first per-son viewpoint of its young protagonist, we do not receive the impres-sion that a boy tells the story.
Instead, the War Without Mercy narrator seems to be a manmatured well beyond the experience of the story. The mature man re-minisces about his youthful hopes, desires, and frustrations. Morethan if a boy's mind had reconstructed the Will Scenario Essay events of the story for us,this particular way of telling the story enables us to perceive clearlythe torment youth experiences when ideals, concerning both sacredand earthly love, are destroyed by a suddenly unclouded view of sample mla works cited, theactual world. Because the man, rather than the boy, recounts the experi-ence, an ironic view can be presented of the institutions and personssurrounding the boy. This ironic view would be impossible for theimmature, emotionally involved mind of the boy himself. Will Essay. Only an adult looking back at the high hopes of foolish blood and its resul-tant destruction could account for the ironic viewpoint.
Throughoutthe story, however, the narrator consistently maintains a full sensitiv-ity to his youthful anguish. From first to last we sense the reality tohim of his earlier idealistic dream of beauty. The opening paragraph, setting the Essay scene, prepares us for theview we receive of the conflict between the loveliness of the ideal andthe drabness of the actual. Descriptive words show the narrator's con-sciousness of the Bury boy's response to beauty and the response of the father in the poem are, theneighborhood people, who are blind to beauty: North RichmondStreet is blind; its houses, inhabited by decent people, stare un-seeingly at one another-and all this is under a sky of ever-changingviolet, in a setting of gardens marred by the odours of ash-pitsand dark odorous stables. The boy's own house, which had form-erly been inhabited by a priest, is placed in Bury, a garden like that ofEden. It is a place of potential holiness, shown to us in the irony ofthe garden's barrenness and the priest's worldliness: the garden hasnow only a central apple tree and a few straggling bushes; thepriest had died and left behind him evidence of his preoccupationwith secular literature and soliloquy i with collecting money and furniture.
Into this setting appears a figure representative of all that isideal, the girl. The narrator shows us in a subtly ironic manner thatin his youthful adoration of Mangan's sister she is, confusedly, theembodiment of all his boyish dreams of the beauty of physical desireand, at the same time, the embodiment of his adoration of all that isholy. In his dark environment Mangan's sister stands out, a figure al-ways shown outlined by light, with the power to set aflame in Will Scenario, him azeal to conquer the uncaring and the unholy. Her image, constantlywith him, makes him feel as though he bears a holy chalice througha throng of foes-the Saturday evening throng of drunken men,bargaining women, cursing laborers, and all the others who have noconception of the mystical beauty his young mind has created in Model Comarisons, thisworld of material ugliness. He is alone as a boy, the man narrator shows us, with his viewof the possible loveliness of the world.
Even the aunt and Will Bury Scenario Essay uncle withwhom he lives are callous to his burning need to go to the bazaar,which looms in define limited, his imagination as a place of mystical Eastern en-chantment, to Will Essay, purchase a gift worthy of his loved one. Looking back,the narrator can see that his uncle had been concerned with his daily,worldly tasks, his aunt with maintaining a decent observance ofthis day of our Lord, although she does not want him to be disap-pointed in described, his wish to go to the bazaar. From the vantage point ofmaturity the Will Bury Scenario Essay narrator can realize that the word aunt and the uncle perhaps once possessed an Bury awareness of the in the are romantic, an awareness that hassince been clouded by Essay, the drabness of Comarisons, North Richmond Street. Like Stephen Dedalus of Joyce's Portrait of the Artist as aYoung Man, the boy, then, must seek for the high, the inviolate, byhimself. And, also like Stephen, he finds instead the world. When heenters Araby the boy sees its resemblance to an emptied church, andthat is the irony so far as maturity can view it: Araby is not a holyplace because it is not attended by the faithful. He has come alone on a deserted train; the bazaar, full of spu-rious wares, is tended by uncaring people who leave him even morealone than he had been before; the young lady who should havewaited on him ignores him to joke with two young men. The younglady's inane remarks to the young men have a ring in Bury Essay, the memory ofthe mature narrator reminiscent of his adored one's remarks. Both areconcerned with the material, the cited crass. The narrator can, with his backward look, supply us with twoapprehensions: one, the fully remembered, and thus fully felt, anguishof a too sudden realization of the disparity between a youthful dreamof the mystic beauty of the Essay world and his actual world; and two, theirony implicit in a view that can see the dream itself as a vanity. In his brief but complex story, Araby, James Joyce concen-trates on character rather than on plot to Comarisons Essay, reveal the ironies inherentin self-deception.
On one level Araby is a story of initiation, of aboy's quest for the ideal. The quest ends in failure but results in aninner awareness and a first step into manhood. On another level thestory consists of a grown man's remembered experience, for the storyis told in retrospect by a man who looks back to a particular momentof intense meaning and Will Bury insight. As such, the boy's experience is notrestricted to youth's encounter with first love. War Without By Dower Essay. Rather, it is a portrayalof a continuing problem all through life: the incompatibility of theideal, of the dream as one wishes it to Bury Scenario, be, with the bleakness of real-ity. This double focus-the boy who first experiences, and the manwho has not forgotten-provides for the dramatic rendering of astory of War Without Mercy by Dower, first love told by a narrator who, with his wider, adult vision,can employ the sophisticated use of irony and symbolic imagery nec-essary to reveal the story's meaning. The boy's character is indirectly suggested in the opening scenesof the Will story. Mercy Essay. He has grown up in the backwash of a dying city.
Sym-bolic images show him to be an individual who is sensitive to the factthat his city's vitality has ebbed and left a residue of empty piety, thefaintest echoes of romance, and Bury Scenario only symbolic memories of an activeconcern for God and fellow men. Sample Cited. Although the young boy cannot ap-prehend it intellectually, he feels that the street, the town, and Irelanditself have become ingrown, self-satisfied, and unimaginative. It is a. Will Scenario Essay. world of spiritual stagnation, and as a result, the boy's outlook is se-verely limited. He is ignorant and therefore innocent. Lonely, imagin-ative, and isolated, he lacks the understanding necessary for evalua-tion and perspective.
He is at first as blind as his world, but Joyceprepares us for his eventual perceptive awakening by tempering hisblindness with an unconscious rejection of the spiritual stagnation ofhis world. The boy's manner of Essay, thought is also made clear in the openingscenes. Religion controls the lives of the inhabitants of North Richmond Street, but it is a dying religion and receives only lip service.The boy, however, entering the new experience of Will Bury Essay, first love, finds hisvocabulary within the experiences of his religious training and the ro-mantic novels he has read. Model Essay. The result is an idealistic and confused in-terpretation of love based on quasireligious terms and the imagery ofromance. This convergence of two great myths, the Christian with itssymbols of hope and Will Scenario sacrifice and the Oriental or romantic with itsfragile symbols of heroism and escape, merge to form in his mind anillusory world of mystical and ideal beauty. This convergence, whichcreates an epiphany for the boy as he accompanies his aunt throughthe market place, lets us experience with sudden illumination the tex-ture and content of his mind. We see the futility and stubbornness ofhis quest.
But despite all the evidence of the dead house on a deadstreet in a dying city the boy determines to cited, bear his chalice safelythrough a throng of foes. He is blindly interpreting the world in theimages of his dreams: shop boys selling pigs' cheeks cry out in shrilllitanies; Mangan's sister is Will Essay saintly; her name evokes in him strangeprayers and the father grandfather praises. The boy is extraordinarily lovesick, and fromhis innocent idealism and stubbornness, we realized that he cannotkeep the dream. He must wake to the demands of the world aroundhim and react. Thus the first half of the story foreshadows (as the Will Scenario manlater realizes) the boy's awakening and disillusionment. The account of the boy's futile quest emphasizes both his lonelyidealism and his ability to achieve the perspectives he now has.
Thequest ends when he arrives at the bazaar and realizes with slow, tor-tured clarity that Araby is not at soliloquy i, all what he imagined. It is tawdryand dark and thrives on the profit motive and the eternal lure itsname evokes in men. The boy realizes that he has placed all his loveand hope in a world that does not exist except in his imagination. Hefeels angry and betrayed and realizes his self-deception. He feels he isa creature driven and derided by vanity and Will Bury Essay the vanity is his own. The man, remembering this startling experience from his boy-hood, recalls the moment he realized that living the define dream was lost asa possibility. That sense of loss is intensified, for Will Essay its dimension growsas we realize that the desire to, live the dream will continue throughadulthood.
At no other point in the story is characterization as brilliant asat the end. Joyce draws his protagonist with strokes designed to let usrecognize in the creature driven and derided by vanity both a boywho is initiated into mla works, knowledge through a loss of innocence and aman who fully realizes the incompatibility between the beautiful andinnocent world of the imagination and the very real world of fact. InAraby, Joyce uses character to embody the theme of his story.
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How to Write a Bibliography Examples in MLA Style. Please note, all entries should be typed double-spaced. Will Scenario Essay. In order to keep this Web page short,single rather than double space is used here. See Bibliography Sample Page for a properly double-spaced Bibliography or Works Cited sample page. Sample Mla Works Cited. Examples cited on this page are based on the authoritative publication from Will Scenario, MLA. Model Comarisons. If the example you want is not included here, please consult the Will Scenario Essay MLA Handbook, or ask the writer to look it up for you. Format for war, entries: A single space is used after any punctuation mark.
When dividing a long word or URL onto two lines, put hyphen, slash, or period at the end of the line. Do not add a hyphen to Bury, a URL that was not originally there. Never begin a new line with a punctuation mark. Double-space all lines in a bibliography entry. Do not indent the first line of a bibliography entry, indent second and subsequent lines 5 spaces, or 1/2? (1.25 cm) from the left margin. Please see Chapter 11. Guidelines on How to Write a Bibliography for details. When writing a bibliography, remember that the purpose is to sample, communicate to the reader, in a standardized manner, the sources that you have used in sufficient detail to be identified. If you are unable to find all the necessary information, just cite what you can find.
Click here to see a selection of Common Abbreviations used in documentation. For a complete list of Common Scholarly Abbreviations used in parentheses, tables, and documentation, please go to Section 7.4 of the 6th edition of the MLA Handbook. Bell, Stewart. The Martyrs Oath: The Apprenticeship of a Homegrown Terrorist . Mississauga, ON: Wiley, 2005. Biale, David, ed. Cultures of the Jews: A New History . New York: Schocken, 2002. Bowker, Michael.
Fatal Deception: The Untold Story of Asbestos: Why It Is Still Legal. and Still Killing Us . N.p.: Rodale, 2003. N.p. = No place of publication indicated. Capodiferro, Alessandra, ed. Bury. Wonders of the World: Masterpieces of Architecture from. 4000 BC to the Present . Vercelli: White Star, 2004. Cross, Charles R. Room Full of Mirrors: A Biography of Jimi Hendrix . New York: Maltin, Leonard, ed.
Movie Video Guide 2002 Edition . New York: New American, 2001. Meidenbauer, Jorg, ed. Discoveries and Inventions: From Prehistoric to Modern Times . Lisse: Rebo, 2004. Puzo, Mario. The Family: A Novel . Completed by Carol Gino. New York: Harper, 2001. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets . New York: Scholastic, 1999.
. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . Word For Plagiarism. Thorndike, ME: Thorndike, 2000. Suskind, Ron. The Price of Loyalty: George W. Bush, the White House, and the Education of. Paul ONeill . Scenario Essay. New York: Simon, 2004. If your citation is from one volume of a multivolume work and word for plagiarism, each volume has its own title, you need cite only the actual volume you have used without reference to other volumes in the work. Example: The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud comes in 5 volumes, written by Peter Gay.
(Title of Will Scenario Essay, Vol. 1: Education of the Senses ) Gay, Peter. Education of the Senses . New York: Norton, 1999. (Title of Vol. 2: The Tender Passion) Gay, Peter. The Tender Passion . New York: Oxford UP, 1986. (Title of Vol.
3: The Cultivation of Hatred ) Gay, Peter. The Cultivation of Hatred . London: Harper, 1994. (Title of Vol. 4: The Naked Heart ) Gay, Peter. The Naked Heart . The Father And The Described. New York: Norton, 1995. (Title of Vol.
5: Pleasure Wars ) Gay, Peter. Pleasure Wars . New York: Norton, 1998. 2. Book with two authors or editors: Bohlman, Herbert M., and Mary Jane Dundas. The Legal, Ethical and International. Environment of Business . 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH: West, 2002.
Bolman, Lee G., and Terrence E. Deal. Scenario Essay. Leading with Soul: An Uncommon Journey. of Spirit . Rev. Latin. ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001. Calvesi, Maurizio, and Lorenzo Canova, eds. Rejoice! 700 Years of Will, Art for the Papal.
Jubilee . And The Grandfather. New York: Rizzoli, 1999. Cohen, Andrew, and J.L. Granatstein, eds. Trudeaus Shadow: The Life and Legacy. of Pierre Elliott Trudeau . Toronto: Random, 1998.
Heath, Joseph, and Andrew Potter. The Rebel Sell: Why the Will Culture Cant Be Jammed . 2nd ed. Toronto: Harper, 2005. Llewellyn, Marc, and Lee Mylne. Sample Cited. Frommers Australia 2005 . Bury Scenario. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005. Summers, Anthony, and Robbyn Swan. Sinatra: The Life . New York: Knopf, 2005. Book prepared for soliloquy i, publication by two editors: Shakespeare, William.
The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Will Scenario Essay, Denmark . Ed. Barbara A. Mowat and Paul Werstine. New York: Washington. 3. Book with three authors or editors: Clancy, Tom, Carl Stiner, and Tony Koltz. Shadow Warriors: Inside the Special. Forces . New York: Putnam, 2002.
Hewitt, Les, Andrew Hewitt, and Luc dAbadie. The Power of Focus for College. Students . Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, 2005. Larsson, Mans O., Alexander Z. Define Limited War. Speier, and Jennifer R. Weiss, eds. Lets Go: Germany 1998 . New York: St. Martins, 1998. Palmer, R.R., Joel Colton, and Lloyd Kramer. A History of the Modern World: To 1815 . 9th ed. New York: Knopf, 2002.
Suzuki, David, Amanda McConnell, and Bury Scenario, Maria DeCambra. The Sacred Balance: A Visual Celebration of Our Place in soliloquy i Nature . Vancouver: Greystone, 2002. 4. Book with more than three authors or editors: You have a choice of Scenario, listing all of the authors or editors in the order as they appear on the title page of the book, or use et al. from the Latin et alii, or et aliae , meaning and others after the first author or editor named. Nelson, Miriam E., Kristin R. Soliloquy I. Baker, Ronenn Roubenoff, and Lawrence Lindner. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis . New York: Perigee, 2003. Nelson, Miriam E., et al. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis . New York: Hogan, David J., et al., eds. The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words and Will Scenario, Pictures . Lincolnwood, IL: International, 2000.
Pound, Richard W., Richard Dionne, Jay Myers, and James Musson, eds. Canadian. Facts and cited, Dates . 3rd ed. Markham, ON: Fitzhenry, 2005. Pound, Richard W., et al., eds. Canadian Facts and Dates . 3rd ed. Markham, ON:
Rogerson, Holly Deemer, et al. Words for Students of Will Bury Essay, English: A Vocabulary. Series for ESL . Vol. 6. Advanced Level ESL. Pittsburgh, PA: U of Pittsburgh P, 1989.
5. Book with compilers, or compilers and editors: McClay, John B., and Wendy L. Matthews, comps. and eds. Corpus Juris Humorous: A Compilation of Outrageous, Unusual, Infamous and Witty Judicial Opinions. from 1256 A.D. to the Present . New York: Barnes, 1994. OReilly, James, Larry Habegger, and Sean OReilly, comps. and eds. Danger: True Stories of soliloquy i, Trouble and Survival . San Francisco: Travellers Tales, 1999. Teresa, Mother. The Joy in Loving: A Guide to Daily Living with Mother Teresa . Comp.
Jaya Chaliha and Edward Le Joly. New York: Viking, 1997. Note abbreviation: comp. Bury Essay. = compiler or compiled by. 6. Book with no author or editor stated: Macleans Canadas Century: An Illustrated History of the People and Events. That Shaped Our Identity . Sample Mla Works Cited. Toronto: Key, 1999.
Microsoft PowerPoint Version 2002 Step by Scenario, Step . Redmond, WA: Perspection, 2001. The Movie Book . Sample Mla Works. London: Phaidon, 1999. With Scott to the Pole: The Terra Nova Expedition 1910-1913 . Photographs of. Herbert Ponting. New York: BCL, 2004. 7. Book with one author, translated by Bury Scenario Essay, another: Muller, Melissa. Anne Frank: The Biography . Trans. Comarisons Essay. Rita and Robert Kimber. New York: Metropolitan, 1998.
8. Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers: Fox, Charles James. Liberty Is Order, Liberty Is Strength. What Is a Man? 3,000 Years of Wisdom on the Art of Manly Virtue. Ed. Waller R. Scenario. Newell.
New York: Harper, 2001. 306-7. Wilcox, Robert K. Flying Blind. Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival . Comp. and ed. James OReilly, Larry Habegger, and Sean OReilly. San Francisco: Travellers Tales, 1999.
211-22. 9. Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated: Nazi Party. New Encyclopaedia Britannica . 1997 ed. Tajikistan. World Book Encyclopedia of People and Places . 2000 ed. 10. Article in an encyclopedia with an the father and the grandfather poem author: If the Will Bury Scenario encyclopedia is by Dower Essay well known and articles are arranged alphabetically, it is not necessary to indicate the Will Scenario Essay volume and page numbers. If the encyclopedia is not well known, you must give full publication information including author, title of article, title of encyclopedia, name of editor or edition, number of volumes in the set, place of publication, publisher and year of publication. Kibby, Michael W. Word. Dyslexia. World Book Encyclopedia . 2000 ed.
Midge, T. Powwows. Encyclopedia of North American Indians . Ed. D.L. Birchfield. 11 vols. New York: Cavendish, 1997. 11. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: 100 Years of Dust and Glory. Popular Mechanics Sept. 2001: 70-75. Celestica to Repair Palm Handhelds. Globe and Mail [Toronto] 29 Oct.
2002: B6. E-Money Slips Quietly into Oblivion. Nikkei Weekly [Tokyo] 22 Jan. 2001: 4. McDonalds Declines to Fund Obesity Education on Danger of Eating Its Food. National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: FP18. Pot Use Doubled in Will Bury Essay Decade, Study Says: 14% Smoked Up in the Past Year. Toronto Star.
25 Nov. 2004: A18. Secondhand Smoke Reduces Kids IQs. Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I6. 12. Limited. Article in Bury Scenario Essay a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors: Use + for pages that are not consecutive. Example: When numbering pages, use 38-45 if page numbers are consecutive. Define Limited War. Use A1+ if article begins on page A1, contains more than one page, but paging is not consecutive. For page numbers consisting of more than 3 digits, use short version if it is clear to the reader, e.g.
220-268 may be written as 220-68, but 349-560 must be written in full. Note also that there is no period after the month. The period in Mar. is for Will Essay, the abbreviation of March. If there are 4 or less letters in the month, e.g. Model Comarisons. May, June, and July, the months are not abbreviated. If the publication date is July 18, 2005, citation will be 18 July 2005. Where a journal or magazine is a weekly publication, date, month, year are required.
Where a journal or magazine is a monthly publication, only month, year are needed. Where a newspaper title does not indicate the location of Bury Scenario, publication, add the city of the father and the grandfather in the poem, publication between square brackets, e.g. Daily Telegraph [London]. Square brackets are used to enclose a word (or words) not found in the original but has been added by you. An article in a scholarly journal is treated somewhat differently:
Nielsen, Laura Beth. Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Essay, Sexist Remarks in. Public as Hate Speech. Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002): 265. The above citation shows: Authors name, Article title, Name of scholarly journal (underlined), Volume number, Issue number, Year of publication (in parentheses), and Page number. If the latin word for plagiarism article is Will Bury accessed online, add Access date and URL at the end, see 23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources (e). Bogomolny, Laura. Boss Your Career. Canadian Business 13-16 Mar. The Father Grandfather. 2006: 47-49. Cave, Andrew. Microsoft and Sun Settle Java Battle. Daily Telegraph [London]
Cohen, Stephen S., and J. Bradford DeLong. Shaken and Stirred. Atlantic Monthly. Jan.-Feb. 2005: 112+. Coleman, Isobel. Women, Islam, and the New Iraq. Foreign Affairs Jan.-Feb. 2006: 24+. Daly, Rita. Bird Flu Targeting the Young. Toronto Star 11 Mar. 2006: A1+. Dareini, Ali Akbar. Iranian President Defends Countrys Nuclear Ambitions. Buffalo News.
Hewitt, Ben. Quick Fixes for Bury Scenario, Everyday Disasters. Popular Mechanics Nov. 2004: 83-88. Johnson, Linda A. Fight Flu with Good, Old Advice from Mom. Buffalo News. 10 Oct. 2004: A1-2. Mather, Victoria. In Tiger Country. Photos by James Merrell. Town Country Travel. Fall 2004: 102-111. Mohanty, Subhanjoy, and Ray Jayawardhana. The Mystery of mla works cited, Brown Dwarf Origins. Scientific American Jan.
2006: 38-45. Petroski, Henry. Framing Hypothesis: A Cautionary Tale. American Scientist Jan.-Feb. Plungis, Jeff, Ed Garsten, and Mark Truby. Caremakers Challenge: Green, Mean. Machines. Detroit News and Free Press Metro ed. 12 Jan.
2003: 1A+. Sachs, Jeffrey D. A Practical Plan to End Extreme Poverty. Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I2. Saletan, William. Junk-Food Jihad. National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: A18. Thomas, Cathy Booth, and Tim Padgett. Life Among the Ruins. Time 19 Sept. 2005: 28+. Wolanski, Eric, Robert Richmond, Laurence McCook, and Hugh Sweatman. Mud,
Marine Snow and Coral Reefs. American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51. Wolanski, Eric, et al. Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs. American Scientist. Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51. 13. Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series): Suggested citation example from SIRS: Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite. Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40.
Reprinted in WORK . (Boca Raton, FL: Social Issues Resource Series, 1992), Article No. 20. Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. Workers (and Managers) of the Scenario Essay World Unite. Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Work . Ed. Eleanor Goldstein. Vol. 5.
Boca Raton: SIRS, 1992. Art. 20. Put in square brackets [ ] important information you have added that is not found in the source cited. Build-a-Bear. Advertisement. Comarisons. 7 Feb. 2005 http://www.buildabear.com/shop/default.aspx.
GEICO. Advertisement. Newsweek 16 Jan. 2006: 92. IBM. Advertisement. Globe and Mail [Toronto] . 29 Oct. 2002: B7. Toyota. Advertisement. Atlantic Monthly . Jan.-Feb. 2005: 27-30. 15.
Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated: Diabetes Care: Blood Glucose Monitoring . Burnaby, BC: LifeScan Canada, 1997. 16. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an author: Zimmer, Henry B. Will Scenario. Canplan: Your Canadian Financial Planning Software . Calgary, AB: May use short forms: Rev. (Review), Ed. (Edition, Editor, or Edited), Comp. (Compiled, Compiler).
Creager, Angela N.H. Crystallizing a Life in Science. Rev. of Rosalind Franklin: The. Dark Lady of DNA , by Brenda Maddox. The Father Grandfather Described Poem. American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 64-66. Dillon, Brenda. Hanas Suitcase. Rev. of Hanas Suitcase , by Will Bury, Karen Levine. Professionally Speaking June 2003: 36. Foley, Margaret. And The Grandfather Poem. Measured Deception. Rev. of Will Bury Essay, The Measure of All Things: The. Seven-Year Odyssey and Hidden Error That Transformed the World, by by Dower, Ken Alder. Discover Nov. 2002: 77.
Groskop, Viv. Chinese Torture at Five. Rev. of Bury Scenario Essay, The Binding Chair, by latin word for plagiarism, Kathryn. Harrison. International Express 6 June 2000, Canadian ed.: 37. Hoffman, Michael J. Hucks Ironic Circle. Rev. of The Adventures of Huckleberry. Finn , by Mark Twain. Modern Critical Interpretations of Mark Twains. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, ed.
Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea, Iragui, Vicente. Rev. of Injured Brains of Medical Minds: Views from Within , comp. and ed. Narinder Kapur. New England Journal of Medicine 26 Feb. 1998: Neier, Aryeh. Hero. Rev. of Defending Human Rights in Russia: Sergei Kovalyov,
Dissident and Human Rights Commissioner, 1969-2003 , by Will Scenario Essay, Emma Gilligan. New York Review of Books 13 Jan. Model Essay. 2005: 30-33. Onstad, Katrina. A Life of Pain and Paint. Rev. of Frida , dir. Julie Taymor. National.
Post [Toronto] 1 Nov. Will Essay. 2002: PM1+. Redekop, Magdalene. The Importance of Being Mennonite. Rev. of A Complicated. Kindness, by Miriam Toews. Literary Review of Canada Oct. 2004: 19-20. Simic, Charles. Limited. The Image Hunter. Rev. of Joseph Cornell: Master of Dreams , by. Diane Waldman. New York Review 24 Oct. 2002: 14+. 18.
CD-ROM, DVD: See also 35. Will Bury Scenario Essay. Tape Recording: Cassette, Movie/Film on VHS or DVD (Digital Videodisc), Videocassette, Filmstrip. A Place in the Sun . Dir. George Stevens. 1951. DVD. Paramount, 2001 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library . CD-ROM. Microsoft, 2003 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library Win32 . Educ. ed.
DVD. Microsoft, 2003. LeBlanc, Susan, and Cameron MacKeen. Racism and the Landfill. Chronicle-Herald. 7 Mar. 1992: B1. CD-ROM. SIRS 1993 Ethnic Groups. Vol. 4. Art. 42. Links 2003: Championship Courses . CD-ROM.
Microsoft Game Studios, 2002. YellowPages.city: Toronto-Central West Edition , 1998. CD-ROM. Montreal: 19. Computer service e.g. BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.: Landler, Mark. Can U.S. Companies Even Get a Bonjour? New York Times , Late Ed. Final Ed., 1. 2 Oct. War Without Essay. 1995. DIALOG File 472, item 03072065.
When citing a definition from a dictionary, add the abbreviation Def. after the Will Bury Scenario Essay word. If the and the grandfather described in the word has several different definitions, state the number and/or letter as indicated in the dictionary. Mug. Def. 2. Will Bury Essay. The New Lexicon Websters Encyclopedic Dictionary of the. English Language . Canadian ed.
1988. Short forms may be used, e.g. dir. (directed by), narr. (narrated by), perf. Latin For Plagiarism. (performers), prod. (produced by), writ. (written by). A minimal entry should include title, director, distributor, and year of Bury Essay, release. May add other information as deemed pertinent between the title and the distributor. Soliloquy I. If citing a particular person involved in the film or movie, begin with name of that person.
Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Dir. Tim Burton. Based on book by Roald Dahl. Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005. Depp, Johnny, perf. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Dir. Tim Burton.
Based on book. by Roald Dahl. Warner, 2005. Burton, Tim, dir. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Based on book by Roald Dahl. Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005. Monster-in-Law . Dir.
Robert Luketic. Writ. Anya Kochoff. Prod. Paula Weinstein, Chris Bender, and J.C. Bury Scenario. Spink. Perf. By Dower Essay. Jennifer Lopez and Jane Fonda. New Line, 2005. Nanny McPhee . Dir. Will Scenario Essay. Kirk Jones. Based on Nurse Matilda Books Writ.
Christianna. Brand. Prod. Lindsay Doran, Tim Bevan, and Eric Fellner. Perf. Emma Thompson, Colin Firth, and Angela Lansbury. Universal, 2005. One Hour Photo . Writ. and soliloquy i, dir. Mark Romanek. Prod.
Christine Vachon, Pam Koffler, and Stan Wlodkowski. Perf. Robin Williams. Fox Searchlight, 2002. Titanic . Dir., writ., prod., ed. James Cameron. Prod. Jon Landau. Bury. Twentieth.
Century Fox and Paramount, 1997. The Tuxedo . Dir. Kevin Donovan. Prod. Latin Word For Plagiarism. John H. Williams, and Adam Schroeder. Perf. Will Essay. Jackie Chan and Jennifer Love Hewitt. DreamWorks, 2002. Cite government document in the following order if no author is stated: 1) Government, 2) Agency, 3) Title of publication , underlined, 4) Place of publication, 5) Publisher, 6) Date. Canada. Minister of Indian Affairs and Model Comarisons, Northern Development.
Gathering Strength: Canadas Aboriginal Action Plan . Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and. Government Services Canada, 2000. United States. Will Bury Essay. National Council on Disability. Carrying on the Good Fight Summary Paper from Think Tank 2000 Advancing the Civil and Human. Rights of People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures . Washington: Note: GPO = Government Printing Office in Washington, DC which publishes most of the limited war U.S. federal government documents. In citing a Congressional Record, abbreviate and underline the term, skip all the details and indicate only the date and page numbers. Example for the following record: United States.
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 . PL 104-193. Will Bury Scenario. Congressional Record. Washington: GPO, July 31, 1996. Cong. Rec . 31 July 1996: 104-193. For examples on how to Comarisons Essay, cite more complicated government documents, please see Section 5.6.21 in MLA Handbook for Writers of Essay, Research Papers, 6th ed. 23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources: Basic components of an Internet citation:
2) Title of Article, Web page or site in quotation marks. 3) Title of limited, Magazine, Journal, Newspaper, Newsletter, Book, Encyclopedia, or Project , underlined. 5) Indicate type of material, e.g. advertisement, cartoon, clipart, electronic card, interview, map, online posting, photograph, working paper, etc. if not obvious. 6) Date of article, of Web page or site creation, revision, posting, last update, or date last modified. 7) Group, association, name of forum, sponsor responsible for Web page or Web site. 8) Access date (the date you accessed the Web page or site). 9) Complete Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or network address in angle brackets. Note: An exception is made in referencing a personal e-mail message where an individuals e-mail address is omitted for privacy reasons. Skip any information that you cannot find anywhere on the Web page or in the Web site, and carry on, e.g. Will Bury Essay. if your Internet reference has no author stated, leave out the author and begin your citation with the title.
Always put your access date just before the URL which is placed between angle brackets or less than and greater than signs at the end of the citation. Generally, a minimum of three items are required for an Internet citation: Title, Access Date, and URL. If the URL is too long for a line, divide the the father grandfather described in the are address where it creates the least ambiguity and confusion, e.g. do not divide a domain name and end with a period such as geocities . Do not divide a term in the URL that is made up of combined words e.g. SchoolHouseRock . Never add a hyphen at the end of the line to indicate syllabical word division unless the hyphen is actually found in the original URL. Copy capital letters exactly as they appear, do not change them to lower case letters as they may be case sensitive and be treated differently by some browsers. Remember that the purpose of indicating the URL is for readers to be able to access the Bury Scenario Essay Web page. Accuracy and clarity are essential. a. Internet citation for an advertisement: IBM.
Advertisement. 23 Mar. 2003 http://www.bharatiyahockey.org/2000Olympics/ TheraTears. Advertisement. 2003. 8 May 2004 http://www.theratears.com/dryeye.htm. b. Grandfather In The Are. Internet citation for an article from an online database (e.g. SIRS, eLibrary), study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in PDF with one or more authors stated:
Bezlova, Antoaneta. China to Formalize One-Child Policy. Asia Times Online . 24 May 2001. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.atimes.com/china/CE24Ad02.html. Clifford, Erin. Review of Neuropsychology. SparkNotes . 10 Oct. 2005.
Machado, Victoria, and George Kourakos. IT Offshore Outsourcing Practices in Will Essay Canada . Sample Cited. Ottawa: Public Policy Forum, 2004. Will Scenario Essay. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.ppforum.com/ow/it_outsourcing.pdf. Marshall, Leon. Mandela in Retirement: Peacemaker without Rest. 9 Feb. 2001. National Geographic 10 Oct.
2005 http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/ Thomason, Larisa. Soliloquy I. HTML Tip: Why Valid Code Matters. Webmaster Tips. Newsletter . Dec. 2003. NetMechanic. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.netmechanic.com/ If using an online library subscription database service, add the name of the service, the name of the library or library system, plus the location of the library where the Will Scenario database is accessed, e.g.: Gearan, Anne. Justice Dept: Gun Rights Protected. Washington Post . 8 May 2002.
SIRS. Iona Catholic Secondary School, Mississauga, ON. Soliloquy I. 23 Apr. 2004. Note: 8 May 2002 = date of publication, 23 Apr. Scenario. 2004 = date of access. Indicate page numbers after publication date if available, e.g. 8 May 2002: 12-14. Leave out page numbers if not indicated in source. Pahl, Greg. Define Limited War. Heat Your Home with Biodiesel.
Mother Earth News . 12 Jan. 2003. eLibrary Canada. Twin Lakes Secondary School, Orillia, ON. 10 Apr. 2006. Note: If citing the above source but information is obtained from accessing eLibrary at home, leave out the location of the school. Pahl, Greg. Heat Your Home with Biodiesel. Mother Earth News . 12 Jan. 2003. eLibrary Canada.
10 Apr. 2006. http://www.proquestk12.com. c. Will Bury. Internet citation for Model Comarisons Essay, an article from an online encyclopedia: Duiker, William J. Ho Chi Minh. Encarta Online Encyclopedia . 2005. Scenario. Microsoft. 10 Oct. 2005. Ho Chi Minh. Encyclop?dia Britannica . 2005. Encyclop?dia Britannica Premium Service.
9 Oct. 2005 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9040629. Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC). Britannica Concise Encyclopedia . 2005. Encyclop?dia Britannica. 8 Oct. 2005 http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article?eu=402567. d. Word. Internet citation for an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: Childcare Industry Should Welcome Men. BBC News Online: Education .7 June 2003. 10 Oct.
2005 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/education/2971310.stm. Taiwan: A Dragon Economy and the Abacus. BrookesNews.Com . 8 Dec. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.brookesnews.com/030812taiwan.html. e. Internet citation for an article in a scholarly journal: Nielsen, Laura Beth. Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in. Public as Hate Speech. Journal of Will Bury Scenario, Social Issues 58.2 (2002), 265-280. 7 June 2003. f. Internet citation for a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.: Islamic State of Afghanistan: Political Map. Map. Atlapedia Online . 1993-2003.
Latimer Clarke. 7 June 2003 http://www.atlapedia.com/online/maps/ Kersten, Rick, and Pete Kersten. Congratulations! Electronic card. Blue Mountain Arts . 2000. Word. 7 June 2003 http://www.bluemountain.com/
Lee , Lawrence. Interview. JournalismJobs.com . Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005. Schulz, Charles. Peanuts Collection Snoopy Cuddling Woodstock. Cartoon. Art.com . 25 Apr. 2004 http://www.art.com/asp/sp.asp?PD=10037710RFID=814547. Woodhull, Victoria C. American History 102 Photo Gallery.
1997. State. Historical Society of Wisconsin. 10 Oct. 2005 http://us.history.wisc.edu/ g. Internet citation for Bury Scenario, an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserve, an organization, or citation for an article forwarded from an online database by e-mail: Barr, Susan I. Define War. The Creatine Quandry. Bicycling Nov. 1998. EBSCOhost Mailer.
E-mail to E. Interior. 11 May 2003. Kenrick, John. Re: Link to Musicals101.com. E-mail to I. Lee. 10 May 2003. NEW THIS WEEK for Bury Essay, September 8, 2005. E-mail to author. Define War. 8 Sept. 2005.
PicoSearch. Your PicoSearch Account is Reindexed. E-mail to John Smith. h. Internet citation for Will Bury, an online government publication: Canada. Soliloquy I. Office of the Auditor General of Canada and the Treasury Board. Secretariat. Modernizing Accountability Practices in the Public Sector . 6 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct.
2005 http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/rma/account/ United States. National Archives and Records Administration. The Bill of Will Bury, Rights . 29 Jan. 1998. Mla Works Cited. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/ i. Essay. Internet citation for an online posting, forum, letter to the editor: Kao, Ivy. Soliloquy I. Keep Spreading the Word. Online posting. 4 June 2003. Reader Responses, Opinion Journal, Wall Street Journal Editorial Page . Scenario Essay. 10 Oct.
2005. Seaside Harry . My Friend Drove My Car with the Parking Brake On! Online. posting. 10 Oct. 2005. PriusOnline.com Forum Index Prius Technical . 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.priusonline.com/viewtopic.php?t=6298highlight=.
j. Internet citation for an online project, an information database, a personal or professional Web site: The MAD Scientist Network . 1995-2001 or 30 Feb. 1906. Washington U. School of Medicine. 10 Oct. 2005. http://www.madsci.org.
OConnor, J.J., and E.F. Define Limited War. Robertson. John Wilkins. Feb. Will. 2002. U of St. Grandfather Described In The Are. Andrews, Scotland. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/ Officer, Lawrence H. Exchange Rate between the United States Dollar and Forty. Other Countries, 1913 -1999. Economic History Services, EH.Net, 2002.
13 Apr. 2006 http://www.eh.net/hmit/exchangerates/. Savill, R. Will Bury. Richard. Jazz Age Biographies. The Jazz Age Page . 23 Oct. 2000. 12 Apr. Comarisons. 2006 http://www.btinternet.com/ Sullivan, Danny. Search Engine Math. 26 Oct. 2001.
Search Engine Watch . 10 Apr. 2006 http://www.searchenginewatch.com/facts/math.html. Wurmser, Meyrav, and Yotam Feldner. Is Israel Negotiating with the Hamas? Inquiry and Analysis No. 16. 23 Mar. 1999. The Middle East Media and.
Research Institute. 10 Oct. 2005 http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi? k. Will Bury Essay. Internet citation for a software download: It is not essential to include the mla works file size.
Do so if preferred by Scenario, your instructor. RAMeSize . The Father And The Grandfather In The Poem. Vers. 1.04. 15K. 24 Sept. 2000. Will Bury Scenario Essay. Blue Dice Software. 12 Oct. 2004. l. Internet citation for a speech taken from a published work with an editor: Lincoln, Abraham. And The In The Poem Are. The Gettysburg Address. 19 Nov.
1863. Will Essay. The Collected Works of. Abraham Lincoln . The Father Described Are. Ed. Roy P. Basler. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1955. Abraham Lincoln Online. 10 Oct.
2005 http://showcase.netins.net/ m. Internet citation for a work translated and edited by Will Bury, another: Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Mercy by Dower, Hippo. Confessions Enchiridion . Trans. and ed. Albert C. Outler. 1955. Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist U. Digitized 1993. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.ccel.org/a/augustine/confessions/ Blair, Tony. Interview. Prime Ministers Office.
31 May 2003. 13 Apr. 2006. Chirac, Jacques. Interview. Time 16 Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005. Longin, Hellmut. Telephone interview. Will Scenario. 3 May 2006. Neilsen, Jerry. E-mail interview. 28 Apr. 2006. Wyse, Randall. Personal interview. 24 July 2005.
State name of speaker, title of lecture in latin for plagiarism quotes, conference, convention or sponsoring organization if known, location, date. Bradley, Vicki. Marriage. Agnes Arnold Hall, U of Houston. 15 Mar. 2003. Wilson-Smith, Anthony. Hello, He Must Be Going. Editorial.
Macleans 26 Aug. 2002: 4. Lange, Rick. U.N. Has Become Ineffective and Will, Ought to Be Disbanded. Letter. Buffalo. News 23 Jan. 2005: I5. Woods, Brede M. Letter. Newsweek 23 Sept. 2002: 16. Kolbert, Elizabeth. Six Billion Short: How Will the Mayor Make Ends Meet? Letter.
New Yorker 13 Jan. 2003: 33-37. Geens, Jennifer. Reply to letter of Bill Clark. Toronto Star 29 Sept. Described Poem. 2002: A1. A letter you received from John Smith: Smith, John. Letter to the author. 15 June 2005.
Twain, Mark. Banned in Will Bury Concord. Letter to Charles L. Webster. 18 Mar. 1885. Letter 850318 of Mark Twain . Ed. Jim Zwick. 2005. 10 Oct. 2005.
Treat citation as if it is a book with no author stated. Indicate if the citation is for a chart or a map. 2004 Andex Chart . Chart. Windsor, ON: Andex, 2004. Canada . Cited. Map. Ottawa: Canadian Geographic, 2003. Dallas TX. Map.
2005 Road Atlas: USA, Canada, Mexico . Will Bury Scenario. Greenville, SC: Michelin, 2005. Components: 1) Name of composer. 2) Title of ballet, music or opera, underlined, 3) Form, number and key not underlined. Beethoven, Ludwig van. Define. Fur Elise.
Strauss, Richard. Traumerei , op. 9, no. 4. Components for a published score, similar to Bury Scenario Essay, a book citation: 1) Name of composer. 2) Underline title of ballet, music, opera, as well as no. and op., important words capitalized, prepositions and conjunctions in lower case.
3) Date composition written. War Without By Dower. 4) Place of publication: 5) Publisher, 6) Date of publication. Chopin, Frederic. Mazurka Op. 7, No. Scenario Essay. 1 . New York: Fischer, 1918. Ledbetter, Huddie, and John Lomax.
Goodnight, Irene . 1936. New York: Spencer, 1950. Stier, Walter C. Latin. Sweet Bye and Bye . London: Paxton, 1953. Weber, Carl Maria von. Invitation to the Dance Op. Will Scenario. 65 . Soliloquy I. 1819. London: Harris, 1933. 29.
Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form. Components for citing original artwork: 1) Name of artist. 2) Title of artwork, underlined. 3) Date artwork created. 4) Museum, gallery, or collection where artwork is housed; indicate name of owner if private collection, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located.
Ashoona, Kiawak. Smiling Family . 1966. McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Brancusi, Constantin. The Kiss . 1909. Tomb of Will Bury Scenario Essay, T. Rachevskaia, Montparnasse. The Great Sphinx . Sample Cited. [c. 2500 BC]. Giza. Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique.
Odalisque . 1814. Louvre Museum, Paris. Raphael. The School of Athens . 1510-11. Bury Scenario Essay. Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rude, Francois. La Marseillaise . 1833-36. Sample Mla Works. Arc de Triomphe, Paris. Components for artwork cited from a book: 1) Name of artist.
2) Underline title of artwork. 3) Date artwork created (if date is uncertain use [c. 1503] meaning [circa 1503] or around the year 1503). 4) Museum, art gallery, or collection where artwork is house, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. 6) Title of book used. Will Bury Essay. 7) Author or editor of book. 8) Place of publication: 9) Publisher, 10) Date of publication. 11) Other relevant information, e.g. Cited. figure, page, plate, or slide number. Abell, Sam. Japan . 1984.
National Geographic Photographs: The Milestones . By Leah Bendavid-Val, et al. Will. Washington, DC: National Geographic, 1999. Carr, Emily. Soliloquy I. A Haida Village . [c. Will Bury Scenario. 1929].
McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Kleinburg, ON. The McMichael Canadian Art Collection . By Jean Blodgett, et al. Toronto: McGraw, 1989. 134. Kasebier, Gertrude. War. The Magic Crystal . [c. 1904]. Royal Photographic Society, Bath. A Basic History of Art . By H.W.
Janson and Will Bury Essay, Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 1991. Soliloquy I. 412. Leonardo, da Vinci. Will Scenario Essay. Mona Lisa (La Gioconda) . [c. 1503-5]. Louvre Museum, Paris.
Favorite Old Master Paintings from the and the grandfather poem are Louvre Museum . Scenario Essay. New York: Abbeville, 1979. 31. Michelangelo. David . 1501-04. Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence. The Great. Masters . By Giorgio Vasari. Trans. Gaston Du C. de Vere.
New York: Park Lane, 1986. 226. Sullivan, Louis. Latin For Plagiarism. Wainright Building . Will Bury Essay. 1890-91. St. Louis, MO. A Basic History of Art . By H.W. Model Essay. Janson and Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, Tohaku, Deme.
Ko-omote Female Mask . Will Scenario Essay. Edo period [1603-1867], Japan. Naprstek. Museum, Prague. The World of Model Comarisons Essay, Masks . By Erich Herold, et al. Trans. Dusan. Zbavitel. London: Hamlyn, 1992. 207. Vanvitelli, Luigi, and Nicola Salvi.
Chapel of St. John the Baptist . 1742-51. Sao Roque, Lisbon. By Rolf Toman, ed. Baroque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting . Cologne: Konemann, 1998. 118. Components for a personal photograph: 1) Subject (not underlined or put in quotes). 2) Name of person who took the photograph.
3) Date photograph taken. War in Iraq: Operation Iraq Freedom on CNN. Personal photograph by author. Great Wall of China, Beijing, China. Personal photograph by Cassy Wyse. 28 July 2005. Components: 1) Patent inventor(s) or owner(s). 2) Title of patent. 3) Issuing country and patent number. 4) Date patent was issued. Arbter, Klaus, and Guo-Qing Wei. Scenario Essay. Verfahren zur Nachfuhrung eines Stereo-Laparoskope.
in der minimal invasiven Chirurgie. German Patent 3943917. July 1996. Conversion of Calcium Compounds into Solid and Gaseous Compounds. US Patent 5078813. Kamen, Dean L., et al. Transportation Vehicles and Methods. US Patent 5971091. 31. Performance: (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance) Disneys The Lion King . By Roger Allers and Irene Mecchi. Dir. Julie Taymor. Music and Model Essay, lyrics by Elton John and Tim Rice.
Princess of Wales Theatre, Toronto. Bury Scenario Essay. 9 June 2002. The Hobbit . By J.R.R. Tolkien. Dir. Kim Selody. Perf. Herbie Barnes, Michael. Simpson, and Mercy by Dower, Chris Heyerdahl. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON.
The Nutcracker . By Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Chor. and Libretto by James. Kudelka. Cond. Scenario. Ormsby Wilkins and Uri Mayer. National Ballet of. Canada. Hummingbird Centre, Toronto. 30 Dec. 1999.
Phantom of the soliloquy i Opera . By Andrew Lloyd Webber. Will. Lyrics by Charles Hart. Dir. Limited. Harold Prince. Based on novel by Gaston Leroux. Pantages Theatre, Toronto. Will Bury Scenario Essay. 20 Sept. 1998. The Shanghai Acrobats . By Incredible! Acrobats of China.
Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON. 4 Mar. 2005. Components: 1) Title of latin for plagiarism, episode, underlined; or in Scenario Essay quotes if appropriate. 2) Title of program, underlined. 3) Title of series. 4) Name of network.
5) Radio station or TV channel call letters, 6) City of local station or channel. 6) Broadcast date. The CFRB Morning Show . By Ted Woloshyn. CFRB Radio, Toronto. Comarisons Essay. 12 Sept. 2003. Law and Order . Will Bury Scenario. Prod. Wolf Film, Universal Television. NBC Television Network. WHEC, Rochester, NY. 16 Oct.
2002. New Threat from soliloquy i, Osama? By Jim Stewart. CBS News . WBEN, Buffalo. New York Museum Celebrates Life of Einstein. By Martha Graybow. Scenario Essay. Reuters, New York. WBFO, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002. The Nightmare Drug. By Bob McKeown, Linden MacIntyre, and Hana Gartner. The Fifth Estate . CBC, Toronto.
16 Oct. 2002. U.S.: Tape Sounds Like Bin Laden. AP, Washington, DC. On Your Side . WGRZ-TV, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002. 33. Recording Music CD, LP, magnetic tape: 1) Name of author, composer, singer, or editor. 2) Title of song (in quotation marks). 3) Title of War Without Essay, recording (underlined).
4) Publication medium (LP, CD, magnetic tape, etc.). Will Scenario. 5) Edition, release, or version. Sample Cited. 6) Place of Will Bury, publication: Publisher, Date of Mercy Essay, publication. If citing from Internet, see Item 23. Backstreet Boys. Larger than Life . Millennium. CD. Exclusive Management by.
The Firm, Los Angeles, CA. Will. Mastered by Tom Coyne, Sterling Sound, NYC. Burch, Marilyn Reesor. By Dower. Mosaic . CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor. Burch. Will Bury. Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson.
Barrie, ON: Power. Plant Recording Studio, n.d. Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic . CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor. Burch. Choirs dir. Described In The. Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power. Plant Recording Studio, [c.
1997]. Note: n.d. means no date available. [c. 1997] means circa 1997. McDonald, Michael. No Lookin Back . LP. Prod. Michael McDonald and. Ted Templeman. Bury. Engineered and mixed by R. ThinkPad ACP Patch for ThinkPad 600, 770, and define limited war, 770E . Diskette.
Vers. Scenario. 1.0. Tape Recording: Cassette, DVD (Digital Videodisc), Filmstrip, Videocassette. Covey, Stephen R. Living the Model 7 Habits: Applications and Insights . Cassette. tape recording read by author. New York: Simon, Audio Div., 1995. Ginger . Solid Ground. Cassette tape recording from Scenario Essay, album Far Out . Vancouver:
Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . Dir. Alfonso Cuar o n. Based on novel. by J.K. Rowling. Perf. Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint, and Emma Watson. DVD. Warner, 2004. Jane Austens Emma . Videocassette. Meridian Broadcasting. New York:
New Video Group, 1996. Kicking Screaming . Dir. Jesse Dylan. Writ. Leo Benvenuti and Steve Rudnick. Perf. Will Ferrell and Robert Duvall. Sample. DVD. Universal, 2005.
The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants . Dir. Ken Kwapis. Based on novel by. Ann Brashares.Perf. Amber Tamblyn, America Ferrera, Blake Lively, and Alexis Bledel. Will Essay. DVD. Warner, Dungaree, 2005.
Super Searching the Web . Videocassette. Lancaster, PA: Classroom Connect, The Wizard of Oz . Dir. Victor Fleming. Mla Works. Based on book by Lyman Frank Baum. Perf. Judy Garland, Frank Morgan, Ray Bolger, Bert Lahr, Jack Haley, Billie Burke, Margaret Hamilton, Charley Grapewin, and the Munchkins. MGM, 1939. VHS.
Warner, 1999. State author, title of unpublished dissertation or thesis in Will Essay quotes, label Diss. The Father And The Grandfather Described In The Poem Are. or MA thesis, name of university, and Scenario Essay, year. Elmendorf, James. The Military and define limited war, the Mall: Society and Culture in Long Beach, California. BA. thesis. Hampshire College, 1995.
Jackson, Marjorie. The Oboe: A Study of Its Development and Use. Diss. Columbia U, 1962.
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95 theses full text The indulgence being marketed by Tetzel distressed Luther because he saw it as misinforming lay people (i.e., non-clerics) about crucial aspects of Bury Scenario Essay God's plan for in the poem are redeeming fallen humanity - about, in other words, the whole purpose of history, and Will Scenario Essay about the nature (specifically, the Will) of soliloquy i God. To be misinformed in essentials about the nature of God means that what one ends up obeying is a false image of God. This constitutes a mortal sin (see the Bury Scenario Essay note to Thesis 2), and leads (if not corrected) to damnation. Specifically, Albert's indulgence (as represented by Tetzel) encroached on the sacrament of penance. The numbers to the left (in red) refer to the respective theses that comprise the document as a whole. In the note to Thesis 6, you will find some suggestions about how to think of the organizational strategy Luther follows in listing his first 52 theses.
[References to WH are to Matthews and Platt, editors, The Western Humanities , 3rd Ed. Mountain View, California: Mayfield Publishing Co., 1993. These need updating, since this text is now in at soliloquy i, least its 5th edition.] 1. Poenitentiam agite: Do penance. Penitence here means sincerely repenting (detesting, deploring) one's sins, and resolving not to return to them in Will Bury Scenario Essay the future. 2. This word: refers to the Christ's word in the saying quoted in War Without by Dower the previous thesis, and in Will Scenario Essay particular to the term penitence ( poenitintia ). Sacramental penance : the sacrament of penance consisted of four elements: confession of one's sins before a priest, sincere contrition (regret) for them, satisfaction imposed by the priest, and absolution (remission of the sins in question, or pardon). Luther confines himself to citing here the Essay two elements of Scenario Essay action (confession and satisfaction) that were to be carried out by the penitent (the person undergoing or receiving the sacrament). The term satisfaction refers to penalties imposed by soliloquy i the priest to discharge the debt of punishment owed for the sins in question. (When carried out, these satisfy or fulfill the justice of God. Will Bury. [Compare the language of the honor code regulating duels among the European aristocracy: an insult to one's honor requires satisfaction, and the insultee acquires the right to choose what that shall be, within the for plagiarism limits of the prevailing code.]) See WH 217218 for a capsule description of the medieval sacrament of penance. Scenario. (For a far more detailed discussion, covering medieval doctrines as well as the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church in the wake of its response [in the Council of Trent] to the Protestant Reformation, consult the article on The Sacrament of Penance in The Catholic Encyclopedia .) Two categories of sin are recognized. Mortal sins involve turning away from the eternal good, or God. (The breach of Faith committed by soliloquy i Adam and Will Bury Scenario Eve in the Garden constituted mortal sin. So did what Cain did to Abel.) The punishment due for turning away from the eternal good is eternal punishment, or damnation.
Venial sins occur when a person turns inordinately to a mutable good a good subject to change, because, being created, it exists in time. (Such goods are thus also called temporal or earthly goods.) Orthodox teaching holds that every created being as such is and the poem are, good, inasmuch as it is the creature of God. But aside from the Will Scenario fact that some created beings (angels and human beings) can sin, any created being, not being God Himself, requires to be loved just in the way i.e., in the degree and circumstances that God ordains. A love of any temporal being that goes beyond the War Without Mercy by Dower intensity or occasions willed by God is thus said to be inordinate. Will Bury. Such sin incurs a debt of soliloquy i temporal punishment (a term that you will see often in the theses to follow). The priest (via his ordination by a bishop appointed in turn by the pope) is a designated representative of the pope. (We meet here the general concept of vicars and vicarage, which will become a focus of even more fundamental dispute when Luther a few years later comes to attack the Scenario even more fundamental notion that the pope is Christ's own designated vicar.) Hence when a priest administering the sacrament of penance imposes satisfaction on the penitent, he is acting on and the grandfather described in the, behalf of the pope. This explains why Luther speaks interchangeably of Will Bury Essay penalties. imposed by [the pope's] own authority (Thesis 5), or of those imposed by himself (Thesis 20), or of define war penalties of sacramental satisfaction, which are of human appointment (Thesis 34). 3. Can you see the connection with asceticism here, and in Thesis 4? (Of course there are ascetics and ascetics! Remember, Pelagius was an ascetic, too. In what points of doctrine would Luther and Bury Scenario Essay Pelagius part company?) 5. Remittance - like satisfaction - is a term that comes from the world of the balance sheet, of debits and credits.
Both guilt and Mercy by Dower Essay punishment due are conceived as debts that must be paid. When a debt is either paid off (by the Bury Scenario Essay debtor or someone who does surety for him) or forgiven, it is no longer due. When the creditor or injured party signifies (directly or through his authorized agent) that the debt is by Dower, no longer due, he is said to remit the sin. Bury. (The term remit comes from the Latin word meaning to send back. The custom persists in banking today: when you pay off your house mortgage, the bank will give back to you the loan certificate, now marked paid, along with the deed to the property, both of which it kept in War Without Essay its physical possession until you paid off your debt.) The canons here (and in Thesis 23) are rules established in Canon Law (the law governing the administration of Church affairs) for Will Scenario guiding priests in assigning satisfaction in administering penance. They amount to a schedule of penalties for different offenses, according to the seriousness of the sin, as determined by various factors they specify. (As such, they are somewhat analogous to the sentencing guidelines for judges, under criminal law in the US today.) 6. Orthodox teaching makes a distinction not only between sins of various degree (mortal and venial) but between the guilt attaching to a sin (sometimes referred to simply as the sin itself) and War Without by Dower the penalties attaching to it (the punishments due because of it). The damned, it is held (for example), repent the punishment they suffer for their sins but, being confirmed in sin, are not displeased by their sin itself (since their wills eternally now reaffirm and assert it). Debts consisting of punishment due for sin are understood as payable by Will Bury Essay the sinner who incurred them. War Without Mercy By Dower Essay. The debt of guilt (the debt of sin per Will Scenario, se ) is War Without Mercy, not. It can be discharged only when one of two things occurs: either it is either forgiven (by God the Scenario Father) or it is taken on and paid off by soliloquy i another (the Son) whose wealth is sufficiently great to Bury Scenario do so. (Can you see the connection to what is referred to in Thesis 33). Theses 5 and define 6 together turn on this distinction. (So does Thesis 76, later on.) When the Will Bury Scenario pope (represented in the priest) dispenses absolution -- remission of sin (more precisely, of the guilt attaching to soliloquy i sin) -- as part of the Bury sacrament of penance, he does not (according to Theses 6 76) actually effect it himself. Rather he discloses to the penitent what God has done (remitting of the father and the grandfather described poem guilt).
It is, then, only penalties attaching to sin that the pope himself (whether directly or through his representatives, i.e., priests) can remit. Any indulgences purporting to remit the guilt attaching to sin (the sin itself, so-called) are simply fraudulent. Moreover, within the category of penalties, it is only those that have been prescribed by canon law or that he had the authority to impose in the first place and did indeed go on to impose (again, whether directly or through the priesthood) that he can remit. Bury. All other penalties are remittable only by and the described poem God. And among these other penalties are those referred to by Christ in the quotation in Thesis 1, and described again in Thesis 4. Will Bury. Since this true inward repentance that consists in latin hatred of self for Bury having committed the sin continues until our entrance into the kingdom of heaven, it continues to be suffered by souls in purgatory. Conclusion: these penalties of sin -- the remorse suffered by souls in purgatory on their way to heaven -- are outside the power of the pope to remit. Any indulgences purporting to remit the suffering of souls in purgatory (penalties for sin being experienced by them, namely, their remorse for latin for plagiarism having committed them) are likewise fraudulent. Scenario Essay. But even among the cited living, this sort of penalty for sin cannot be remitted by the pope -- for Christ has commanded us to undergo it as long as we live (Thesis 1). Any indulgence that purports to relieve us of being heartily sorrow for our wrongs is likewise fraudulent. Bury. Worse, it encourages us to violate Christ's express command. (And, since the Comarisons Essay pope, as the Bury Essay Vicar of Christ on earth, enjoins us to for plagiarism obey Christ's commands, remission of these penalties for Will Bury Essay sin is outside his power as pope.) What remains are those penalties imposed by the pope or the canon law, in the context of the sacrament of limited penance, as administered by priests. [This is the language of Theses 5 and 20.
Thesis 34 uses the formula appointed by man (since the pope and Will Bury Scenario Essay the priests are not God) to describe sacramental satisfaction -- i.e., penalties of the sort the by Dower Essay priest declares the penitant to owe).] Coming at this category from still another point of Will Scenario Essay view, authorities described them as temporal punishment. (See the note to Thesis 2.) Referentially, these terms are all synonyms: that is, they identify the word same class of individual things. Their difference lies only in the fact that they pick up these things by different handles, approaching them from different angles, i.e., via different relationships they have with other things. Bury Scenario Essay. Theses 7-8 focus on Tetzel's claim that the indulgence he was selling was issued by latin word for plagiarism the pope and had the power to Will remit guilt for sins. Luther circles back to this theme later on, in Theses 75-76. Theses 8-29 focus on Tetzel's claim that that indulgence was issued by the pope and had the power to remit the penalties owed by souls in purgatory.
Theses 30-52 focus on the risks, in Tetzel's behavior, for the people who are induced to buy his indulgences -- i.e., the misunderstandings about justification that are perpetrated among the living. (In passing -- Theses 35-37 -- his remarks touch again on the absurdity of Tetzel's claims about the purgatory.) The emphasis is upon the peril these misunderstandings pose for the soul of the naive clientele. In Theses 30-40, the chief emphasis here is the necessity, for sinners, of a proper understanding of the requirement for and the in the are genuine contrition , and the way in which indiscriminate peddling of indulgences implicitly preaches the contrary. In Theses 41-46, the emphasis shifts the risks that lie in presenting purchase of Bury pardons as instances of good works, when, in their effect on the soul, or what they signify about the condition of the soul, is far inferior to what is accomplished by works of charity. Latin For Plagiarism. Thesis 52 sums up this line of attack. [??Thesis 47: does it fit in this organizational scheme? Or does it belong with Theses 48-51??] From this point on, Luther's organizational strategy loosens even further. For one thing, it is clear that he likes to return to certain themes within new contexts. Moreover, as we have already seen, he sometimes takes the opportunity to tuck in theses (for example, Theses 50-51) that are marginal to the logical categorization that defines the main line of development at the moment (Theses 30-49 + 52). Sometime the stimulus for doing this seems to be that Luther has entered upon a certain rhetorical device (e.g., the repetition of an opening formula, like Christians are to be taught that . Essay. ) which carries its own power of suggestion for what could be usefully included at a given moment. Soliloquy I. After Thesis 52 , there does not seem to be a definite overall pattern of organization at work, although there are clearly stretches within which Luther is Will, focusing on a particular theme (e.g., what are the true Treasures of the Church? [ Theses 56-68 ]) or a rhetorical turn (e.g., Theses 81-91 , where the move is to point out how the pardons being sold by Tetzel bring the pope into disrepute with the laity by stimulating them to sarcastic impieties that nevertheless seem plausible on the false assumption that the Essay pope supports the sale of such pardons). 7. The priest is God's vicar insofar as the pope is the Vicar of Christ and the priest is a vicar of the pope. See note 5 above.
Thesis 7 says, then, that remission of guilt, though it is done only by God, is something God has for his own reasons chosen to do only for those who submit themselves to the Church, and, as part of doing this, participate in the sacraments (here, specifically, the sacrament of penance, though communion is also a part of what is comprehended here). In other words, there is no salvation outside the Church. (Cf. Thesis 38.) Later, Luther doesn't abolish the priesthood. Rather, he declares the doctrine of the priesthood of all believers. (He will, however, declare that penance is not, properly considered, a sacrament.) 20. Plenary remission means full remission. (In Thesis 23 the synonymous formula entire remission is used.) Luther concedes the power of the Pope to Will Scenario remit all penalties of soliloquy i only the restricted class of temporal penalties imposed in the sacrament of penance or due under the canons of governing the Will Essay assignment of satisfactions in penance (in the case of sins committed but not yet dealt with by receiving the sacrament of penance). 22. Neither other penalties (for example, those actually due for Mercy by Dower Essay souls in purgatory) nor guilt attaching to sins (even venial sins Thesis 76) are within the power of the Will Bury Essay Pope to remit. But all indulgences are issued by the Pope. Therefore indulgences can be effective in remitting either the suffering of souls in purgatory or the guilt itself attaching to sin. Hence the claims Tetzel is soliloquy i, making for the indulgence he is peddling in the Pope's name is fraudulent (Thesis 24).
People are being induced to believe these claims at the peril of their soul (Thesis 32). For the doctrine of purgatory , and its connection with the medieval system of penance, see WH 218 (paragraph 3). Purgatory is the place (or state) in which souls who die in God's grace may expiate venial sins or satisfy divine justice for the temporal punishment still due for remitted mortal sin. The term comes from the past participle of the Latin verb purgare , which means to purge (to purify by getting rid of defilement). How does Luther stand with respect to Scenario Essay the bull Salvator Noster (1476)?
Note that Luther's tactic in the Ninety-five Theses is to assume that the Pope is unaware of the doctrinal errors being preached in his name by for plagiarism a mad servant, who is betraying his master. The Pope is being offered the opportunity to repudiate Tetzel's behavior. Compare the implicit characterization given of the Pope's personal dispositions in Thesis 50. 23. Note that Luther concedes here that it is possible for some rare individuals to pass directly to Bury Scenario heaven. But he does not go so far here as to claim what the Church had long insisted on, namely, that the latin saints die in a state of excess of Bury merit, which then passes into the Treasury of Merit, out of which merits can be drawn to substitute for the temporal penalties that would otherwise be due for sin. How does this re-definition of the concept of saint square with the particular theory of the limited Treasury of Merit set forth in Will Essay Pope Clement VI's bull Unigenitus (1343)? On the other hand, are we really authorized to attribute to Luther at this moment such a re-definition of the concept of saint as just described?
Consider Thesis 58. 27. One of the jingles attributed to Tetzel went like this. (The rhymes, incidentally, are basically the same in German and English.) As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, The soul from Purgatory springs. 32. Letters of pardon are the documents certifying the granting of an indulgence. (See also Thesis 52.) In this Thesis, is Luther accusing Tetzel and his customers of committing venial, or mortal, sins? 33. The inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to God is the divine grace conveyed in the blood of Christ shed in the Crucifixion. 35. By now you should be imagining for yourself what kind of sales pitch Tetzel relied on in convincing people to pay good money to get souls out of purgatory. Whose souls would he be pointing to? How would he paint them?
A confessional license would exempt the holder from the necessity for confession. Why would Luther insist that confession is an essential element in the process by which one achieves justification? 36. Compunction is a synonym for contrition, regret, repentance. (See note on penitence at the father and the grandfather described poem are, Thesis 1.) Why does Luther insist that this is an essential element in Essay the process of justification? 42.
Along what lines could a case be made that contributing to the Church (and receiving an and the described in the indulgence) is in itself a work of mercy? (What, supposedly, would the Will Bury Essay Church be using the contribution to support? [What is the divinely ordained purpose of the Church in the first place, according to traditional doctrine? What is its role in Essay history ?]) 43. Does it strike you here that Luther (writing on this particular occasion, at this particular phase in his thinking) seems to be according a positive value to at least some items in the category of works ? What do you understand to be Luther's ultimate position on the value and effect of works in the salvational scheme? Is this Thesis inconsistent with that position, or can it be construed in a fashion that can be made to square with that position? 50. Here we find a claim that must have resonated strongly with those who resented the flow of Essay capital from the German North to soliloquy i Italy. 52-56. Here Luther lays out Essay, a theory of what constitutes the Treasury of the Church.
How does it compare with the theory elaborated by Clement VI in define limited the bull Unigenitus (1343)? 62. Notice that it is not clear in the Ninety-five Theses themselves what a crucial role Thesis 62 will play in future Lutheran theology: Luther does not explicitly spell out the Will Bury Essay implications. But, retrospectively, can you see how this claim was destined to become the central bombshell in the breach between Luther and the Church of Rome? 65. What does Luther mean here by the phrase men of riches? Is he referring to people with lots of money and property? How would you explain your answer in the context, for example, of the thesis that follows this one, #66? 83. What does Luther consider mistaken about the practice of performing funeral masses and anniversary masses for the deceased (masses for the dead celebrated on the anniversaries of the death of the person in question)?
What is the latin word for plagiarism purpose of these ceremonies? (What is Will Bury Scenario, prayed for in them?) In what sense is it a confidence game to latin accept money for performing such services? (Is the issue of Bury simony also at stake here, i.e., separately and word for plagiarism distinctly?) 86. Does the tone here strike you as completely consistent with that in Thesis 50? 93. If we read this thesis carefully in the context of #92, which immediately precedes it, and which is couched in grammatically parallel form, what are we to Will Bury Scenario Essay understand as the soliloquy i sense of the included claim that there is no cross? 94.-95.
Can you see how Luther has crafted his conclusion to collaborate with Theses 1-4 at the very beginning, to form a frame for the rest? Does Luther think it is Essay, correct and spiritually healthy for a person to seek to escape just punishment? (What evidence can you give for latin word for plagiarism your answer?) What is the proper attitude to take towards the suffering that results from Will Bury Scenario, Original Sin? What elements of it are we under an obligation to resist? What elements of it are we under an obligation to accept even to affirm? The force of sample your answer will come home to you to the degree that you explicitly recall for yourself what the effects of Will Bury Scenario Original Sin are, according to sample the theology we constructed in the spirit of Augustine upon Bury the Genesis account of the Fall of mla works cited Mankind. Go to the Home Page for English 233 (Introduction to Western Humanities: Baroque Enlightenment). Scenario. Suggestions are welcome.
Please send your comments to email@example.com . Define War. Contents copyright © 1997 by Lyman A. Baker. Permission is granted for non-commercial educational use; all other rights reserved.
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Come fare un Business Plan? La Guida completa di Danea. Come fare un Business Plan, Introduzione. Per qualsiasi iniziativa dimpresa, non solo se appartenente ad un settore innovativo, il Business Plan e uno strumento di gestione fondamentale, un documento programmatico, strategico e analitico dalle molte e differenti finalita: Fornire una guida strategica , un elenco di passi che verranno calcati e di obiettivi che ci si aspetta di raggiungere. Will Scenario Essay? Navigare senza meta e senza una rotta puo essere fortemente controproducente, soprattutto in sample mla works acque economiche burrascose come quelle di questi giorni, risulta quindi fondamentale porsi obiettivi intermedi a breve e medio termine che permettano di identificare al meglio il percorso verso mete piu ambiziose. Aiutare ad identificare e valutare punti di forza e debolezza del progetto e cosi individuare le strategie alternative praticabili. Stabilire dei benchmark (un punto di riferimento per Will Bury Essay, una misurazione) sulla base del quale poter valutare le decisioni ed i risultati aziendali futuri. Model Comarisons Essay? Essenzialmente posizionare una immaginaria asticella con la quale misurarci. Fornire le informazioni di base per Will, costruire la struttura finanziaria , mettere a disposizione quindi delle informazioni dettagliate utili a quantificare il fabbisogno finanziario netto.
Inoltre, il business plan e indispensabile per define limited war, indicare la scelta delle fonti di finanziamento necessarie alla copertura del fabbisogno. Bury Essay? Tutto questo serve come base per grandfather described are, identificare le strategie finanziarie destinate ad aumentare il valore economico del capitale aziendale. Reperire finanziamenti sotto forma di credito (prestiti, mutui ecc ) o di capitale di rischio (Private Equity, IPO, altri finanziamenti). Essay? Ogni nuova impresa necessita di capitali per soliloquy i, partire e senza un Business Plan e impensabile presentarsi a potenziali finanziatori. Promuovere i rapporti con possibili partner in Will Bury Scenario Essay joint venture e con clienti, fornitori e distributori. Il Business Plan rappresenta quindi un processo ed un documento di gestione fondamentale per mla works, tutte le imprese. Bury Scenario? Vi sono pero talmente tanti possibili settori, tante possibili imprese e tante possibili variabili che non e possibile proporre un modello standard di Business Plan. Soliloquy I? Quello che si puo fare e identificare quali caratteristiche siano fondamentali per Scenario Essay, la sua redazione e quali siamo le parti imprescindibili per Model, una buona redazione del piano.
Prima di continuare ed approfondire le regole di come fare un business plan dobbiamo precisare che il Business Plan non e un documento statico il quale una volta redatto verra accantonato e mai piu guardato. Bury? Ogni impresa tendenzialmente attraversa 3 fasi nella sua vita: lavvio detto anche start-up, lo sviluppo e la maturita. Define War? In genere il passaggio ad ogni nuova fase della vita di unazienda corrisponde ad un incremento dei ricavi e del numero dei dipendenti (magari delle linee di prodotto, dei beni aziendali, dei settori di investimento ecc.) ed e richiesta una maggiore delega dei compiti di gestione. Will Bury? Questi passaggi imporranno necessariamente un aggiornamento del Business Plan , facendone un documento dinamico e un punto di riferimento essenziale per define limited, la gestione aziendale. Come fare un Business Plan, Capitolo 1. LExecutive Summary nel Business Plan. Se si vuole imparare come fare un business plan efficace si dovra assolutamente diventare cintura nera di Executive Summary. Bury Scenario? LExecutive Summary e infatti la parte piu importante di un business plan , quella sezione che introduce il documento stesso, permettendo a chi legge di farsi unidea del progetto.
Il suo valore fondamentale sta nellessere il primo elemento esaminato da un potenziale investitore. Sample? Si potrebbe paragonare, sminuendo, allesegesi o allintroduzione di un romanzo che devono essere redatti per Will Scenario Essay, saper cogliere lattenzione del lettore il quale se non soddisfatto potrebbe decidere di non completare la lettura. Word For Plagiarism? E importante quindi essere chiari, diretti ed avvincenti, arrivando subito al dunque. LExecutive Summary conterra gli elementi piu rilevanti del piano e dovra esporre in Will Scenario poche pagine la sua unicita e validita. Lexecutive summary dovra quindi: Chiarire le fondamenta del piano. Indicare in soliloquy i modo chiaro prodotti o servizi da sviluppare ed i mercati cui lazienda si rivolge. Scenario? Importante e essere chiari e mai ambigui in Comarisons queste descrizioni che definiscono chi siete, cosa fate e in Bury Scenario Essay che settore lavorerete. Grandfather Are? Inoltre, nel preparare il Business Plan non dimenticare mai di dosare con sapienza lambizione degli obiettivi posti! Il modo perfetto per Will Bury Essay, rovinare tutto e pensare di conquistare un mercato estremamente concorrenziale in sample mla works tempi record e con risorse centellinate. Spiegare le variazioni dei trends (andamenti) di crescita.
Soprattutto se lazienda in Will Essay questione proviene da mercati o periodi molto statici si deve fornire unaccurata analisi di questi andamenti. Word For Plagiarism? Fondamentale sara descrivere con chiarezza e precisione i cambiamenti del mercato o dellazienda e le ragioni di tali cambiamenti. Evitare gli slogan. Will Essay? Un Business Plan non e una campagna pubblicitaria. Se si ritiene che il prodotto presentato sara il migliore sul mercato, si dovra spiegarne il motivo nei dettagli con analisi obiettive e fattuali. La quantita non e sinonimo di qualita. Un piano ben scritto deve essere sintetico e pertinente ed avere una lunghezza compresa fra le 30 e le 50 cartelle (le cartelle sono una unita di misura editoriale, 1 cartella = 30righe di testo per define limited, un totale tra i 1800 e i 2000 caratteri spazi compresi). Per quanto riguarda lexecutive summary invece, questo deve rientrare tra 1 e 3 cartelle massimo a seconda della complessita dellimpresa che si sta descrivendo. La prima impressione e quella che conta. Spesso le persone sono influenzate dalla prima impressione, quindi attento a: non fare affermazioni non supportate da dati, usare uno stile di scrittura professionale e puntuale, controllare che i numeri presentati quadrino e non lascino dubbi, organizzare il testo in Will Essay modo chiaro consequenziale e lineare, attenzione agli errori ortografici, grammaticali o di punteggiatura.
I piani appariscenti sono controproducenti. I business plan troppo appariscenti spesso vengono percepiti come tutta forma e niente sostanza, un qualcosa di futile, uno spreco di risorse finanziarie. In ultima istanza ricorda che e consigliabile citare fonti esterne, attendibili ed indipendenti per Model Essay, sostenere quanto si afferma nel piano. Will Bury Scenario Essay? Soprattutto le dichiarazioni relative al mercato target e alla concorrenza devono essere supportate, nei limiti del possibile, da informazioni di terzi indipendenti donando maggiore credibilita alle previsioni. Evita in Essay ogni modo luso di un linguaggio ambiguo. Bury Scenario? I termini vaghi come puo darsi, probabilmente, forse negli affari non trovano posto e possono inoltre avere un effetto negativo su un potenziale investitore o partner che legge. Mercy Essay? Prediligi sempre un tono positivo e deciso. Consigliamo anche la lettura dellapprofondimento: Come scrivere un Executive Summary. Come fare un Business Plan, Capitolo 2.
Questa e la sezione dedicata alla descrizione piu approfondita della societa, sezione con la quale si apre il vero cuore del business plan; questa ha lo scopo di illustrare in Will Bury Essay modo puntuale la natura dellimpresa e descriverne le caratteristiche fondamentali partendo dalla mission (che non e mai semplicemente fare denaro) e passando dalla esposizione degli obiettivi di breve, medio e lungo termine, dei punti di forza e di debolezza e dei fattori di successo; fino ad arrivare, se necessarie e presenti, ad informazioni generali come: il tipo di societa e data di costituzione, i cambiamenti passati e/o previsti della forma giuridica della societa, gli investitori ed amministratori e lorganigramma. In questa sezione deve emergere, ad esempio, se limpresa e industriale, di commercializzazione al dettaglio o di servizi, qual e il suo mercato di riferimento, dove si colloca allinterno del mercato, qual e lofferta che mette in Model Comarisons Essay atto, e locale o multinazionale, quale livello di sviluppo e stato finora raggiunto. Will Bury Scenario? E in sample mla works cited questa parte del business plan che si spiegano gli obbiettivi da raggiungere, che naturalmente devono essere realistici, realizzabili e al tempo stesso in Will Bury grado di attrarre lattenzione dei potenziali finanziatori. Per semplicita elenchiamo di seguito i punti che deve soddisfare questo capitolo del business plan: In quale settore opera lazienda? Una descrizione generale introduttiva seguita dai dettagli. Word For Plagiarism? Per lesposizione e sempre consigliata una certa originalita che aiuti a trasmettere pienamente lo scenario competitivo in Will Essay cui opera limpresa. Quali sono gli obiettivi della societa? Gli obiettivi devono essere elencati nel modo piu esplicito possibile includendo gli obiettivi finanziari e tutti i dettagli disponibili come: ricavi, utili lordi e netti, ritorno sugli investimenti (ROI). Limited War? Fondamentale su questo tema e inoltre la definizione ed illustrazione dei cosidetti KPI (key performance indicators) tipici del settore o della societa. Quali sono i fattori critici di successo della societa?
I fattori cretici non sono gli obiettivi aziendali, ma sono i fattori che ne consentono il raggiungimento. Will Bury Essay? In questa sezione si dovranno indicare le caratteristiche proprie del management, della organizzazione aziendale e dei suoi prodotti che hanno contribuito, o si prevede contribuiranno, al successo della stessa. Quali sono i successi gia conseguiti ed i punti di forza della societa? Spiegare se si intende capitalizzare ed investire su cio che in the father grandfather are passato e stato un fattore di successo dellimpresa oppure se si desidera avviare nuove iniziative alternative o complementari basate su nuove competenze o su un diverso utilizzo di quelle gia maturate. Quali sono le difficolta ed i punti di debolezza? Questa e una parte molto delicata e non secondaria del documento. Will Bury? Si devono infatti stilare difficolta e punti di debolezza che minacciano il successo dellimpresa. War Without Mercy Essay? Criticita che devono essere monitorate per Will Bury, essere contenute o eliminate. Mla Works? Ovviamente non ogni punto di debolezza puo essere eliminato! Sta allimprenditore decidere le priorita, quali punti siano da affrontare e quali punti invece costituiscano un necessario compromesso strategico. Will Essay? La forma solitamente adottata per cited, questa disamina e quella operata in Will Scenario base ad un calcolo costi/benefici.
Come fare un Business Plan, Capitolo 3. La descrizione ed illustrazione dei prodotti o servizi. Questa sezione e dedicata alla descrizione dei prodotti/servizi offerti dallimpresa, alla loro illustrazione approfondita ed ai piani per mla works cited, il futuro. Will Scenario? Obbligatorio e specificare se i prodotti/servizi sono gia esistenti e commercializzati, pronti per Model Comarisons, limmissione sul mercato (indicando la data di lancio) o, nel caso in Will Bury Scenario Essay cui i prodotti siano in Essay elaborazione (indicare il time to Will Bury Essay market). Word? In questo capitolo si dovranno inoltre elencare le caratteristiche distintive del prodotto (es. Will Scenario Essay? marchio) o le possibili fonti di vantaggio competitivo che dovranno chiaramente essere dettagliatamente descritte. In sintesi , la descrizione dei singoli andra ad evidenziare: Caratteristiche fisiche del prodotto , utile includere come allegati opuscoli informativi, descrizioni dettagliate, disegni e/o fotografie;
Finalita. The Father And The Described Poem? Spiegare nel dettaglio le possibilita di impiego; Attrattive. Will Bury Scenario Essay? Descrivere cio che distingue il prodotto dellimpresa da quello degli altri; Evoluzione. Cited? Utile descrivere i passaggi evolutivi di sviluppo del prodotto e soprattutto le possibili evoluzioni future. Lesposizione dei dettagli in Scenario Essay questa sezione e pero di vitale importanza, durante la stesura e quindi importante prendere in define limited war considerazione diverse voci a seconda che il prodotto/servizio sia attuale o futuro. Per quanto riguarda i prodotti o servizi attuali: Il prodotto/servizio della societa e coperto da forme legali di difesa della proprieta intellettuale (ad es. Will Bury Scenario Essay? brevetto, marchi registrati, ecc.)?
Come si distingue da quello della concorrenza? Quali vantaggi offre al cliente? Quali sono i vantaggi competitivi, i punti di forza e di debolezza e le caratteristiche del prodotto/servizio rispetto a quelli della concorrenza? Sono ipotizzabili obsolescenze o possibili perdite di quote di mercato? Quali sono i dettagli della produzione ed il mix di vendita di ciascun prodotto/servizio della societa? Quali sono i listini e che politiche di prezzo sono previste e conseguentemente quali sono i costi ed il margine di profitto?
Come composto lattuale portafoglio clienti (sia utenti diretti che finali)? Quali sono i componenti (solo i componenti principali, non occorre entrare troppo in War Without Mercy by Dower Essay dettaglio)? Serve piu che altro far comprendere la natura del prodotto e la dipendenza, se vigente, verso soggetti o risorse terze ed eventuali problemi attuali e/o futuri relativi alla fornitura dei suddetti componenti. Spiegare la catena del valore della nostra offerta (necessario piu che altro quando si parla di realta o modelli di produzione/somministrazione particolarmente strutturati). Quali sono i trends di vendita e di marginalita degli attuali prodotti? Parlando di prodotti o servizi futuri:
Sono in Bury Scenario programma innovazioni? In caso di risposta affermativa, quali sono i tempi di sviluppo previsti? Quali sono i listini e che politiche di prezzo sono previste e conseguentemente quali sono i costi ed il margine di profitto? In che modo si prevede che cambieranno il mix di vendita e la redditivita globale? Le innovazioni previste cambieranno sostanzialmente il posizionamento strategico e la catena del valore? Come fare un Business Plan, Capitolo 4. Effettuare unanalisi di settore consente di decidere in sample cited quali settori limpresa operera e come andra a ripartire le risorse . Essay? Lanalisi di settore permette inoltre di disegnare lo scenario nel quale lazienda opera e definire i vantaggi competitivi, i fattori critici di successo e le principali minacce . Per avere una panoramica schematica di come si effettua una analisi di settore consigliamo la lettura del pdf basato su il libro di Grant Lanalisi strategica per the father grandfather described poem, le decisioni aziendali , Il Mulino, 2011, Capitolo III Lanalisi di settore . Bury Scenario? Interessante e molto utile anche lapproccio schematico allanalisi di settore detto Modello delle cinque forze competitive ideato da il celeberrimo Michael Eugene Porter professore alla Harvard Business School dove dirige lInstitute for the father grandfather described poem Strategy and Will, Competitiveness.
Come fare un Business Plan, Capitolo 5. Conseguente allanalisi del settore e lanalisi di mercato che consta nell acquisizione ed elaborazione profonda dei dati utili a disegnare lambiente in sample mla works cui limpresa andra a collocarsi con la sua offerta. Essay? Lanalisi di mercato mette sotto la lente di ingrandimento fattori chiave come i fattori decisionali chiave che veicolano la scelta dacquisto dei potenziali clienti e molti altri dettagli che cambiano a seconda del tempo e del budget a disposizione per mla works, lapprofondimento. Spesso una delle complicazioni che si presentano ad una impresa nel fare un business plan e nello specifico nellesecuzione di unanalisi di mercato e la difficolta di accesso a dati profondi di un mercato specifico o ancora la non esistenza di dati precisi e univoci . Will Bury Scenario Essay? Un punto di partenza puo essere la guida: Per avere invece una panoramica piu tecnica consigliamo la lettura di: Come fare un Business Plan, Capitolo 6. La strategia di marketing altro non e che linsieme delle linee guida lungo le quali lazienda, nel medio-lungo periodo, vuole e deve procedere per sample mla works cited, conseguire e raggiungere gli obiettivi che che ci si e posti. Quindi, come fare un business plan senza approfondire le linee guida che detteranno la rotta del nostro operato? Per definire le strategie che dovranno guidare le scelte aziendali sara necessario ovviamente prendere in Bury considerazione le analisi di settore e di mercato e andare quindi a definire le cosidette leve del Marketing Mix: Prodotto : non solo il prodotto/servizio in soliloquy i senso fisico e concreto, ma le sue qualita, la linea di appartenenza, il servizio post vendita, la garanzia, etc; Prezzo : il prezzo di vendita del prodotto/servizio deve tenere in Bury Scenario Essay considerazione i costi aziendali, i prezzi praticati dalla concorrenza, le politiche di prezzo, gli sconti, le modalita ed i tempi di pagamento; Punto vendita (distribuzione): le modalita di distribuzione del tuo prodotto.
Se vi sono punti vendita diretti, se vi sono intermediari (ad esempio un grossista), se la distribuzione avviene anche online e come; Promozione : tutte le attivita di pubblicita, comunicazione e pubbliche relazioni atte a far conoscere il tuo prodotto/servizio al mercato. Grazie alle indicazioni inserite in by Dower Essay questa sezione potrai poi definire le attivita pratiche di marketing che metterai in Will Bury Essay atto, le quali verranno raccolte nel: Come fare un Business Plan, Capitolo 7. Qualsiasi sia limpresa, indipendentemente dal settore di appartenenza o dalla sua grandezza, sono le persone che fanno la differenza . Define Limited War? La migliore idea di business puo risultare totalmente fallimentare se amministrata da manager non allaltezza. Bury Scenario? Ugualmente la presenza di un management solido e preparato e assolutamente fondamentale anche agli occhi di potenziali investitori che spesso valutano le proposte che ricevono non sullidea o sul prodotto, ma sulle qualita e capacita del team che deve svilupparle. I requisiti che deve possedere il team affinche la serie di interrelazioni che la contraddistinguono siano efficienti per sample cited, il raggiungimento degli obiettivi sono: lo scopo comune ed una visione armonica verso lobiettivo prefissato; il numero, il tipo e le caratteristiche dei singoli membri, devono essere funzionali allobiettivo, in Will Bury Scenario termini di adeguatezza; devono aver definiti precisamente compiti e competenze, essere inquadrati gerarchicamente e avere una norma chiara per Essay, il mantenimento dellinsieme dei rapporti costituiti.. Ecco perche questa sezione del business plan necessita di una certa attenzione nella sua compilazione.
Le tre fasi che portano alla composizione del capitolo dedicato alla struttura del management sono: Identificazione delle funzioni; Indicazione di caratteristiche e competenze; Presentazione delle persone. La Definizione di organizzazione e struttura sono utili ad individuare le funzioni svolte dai vari collaboratori con le rispettive responsabilita.
Rispetto a questo si dettagliera la parte riguardante la parte personale, ovvero il management con i cv relativi, individuando la persona giusta per Essay, ogni singolo ruolo. La prima fase del lavoro riguarda l identificazione delle funzioni aziendali in and the described in the base allattivita che vogliamo svolgere; ad esempio: Produzione: si occupa dellindividuazione della tecnologia piu idonea e controllare ad esempio le macchine e la struttura garante del processo di lavorazione; Approvvigionamento: garantisce la sicurezza degli acquisti delle materie prime e di tutto cio che e necessario alla produzione, defininendo scorte e tempi di acquisto; Marketing: definisce ed illustra le strategie dellimpresa e mette in Bury Scenario relazione prodotti/servizi con il mercato individuandone le opportunita, studiando e applicando le mosse necessarie a coglierle;
Vendita: non limitata alla mera questione commerciale e di distribuzione ma comprendente la parte di assistenza al cliente nella fase post-vendita; Ricerca e sviluppo: lassicuraziome del vantaggio competitivo continuo attraverso lindividuazione periodica di nuovi processi e nuovi prodotti; La seconda fase consiste nell individuare le caratteristiche e le competenze di ogni funzione , spiegandone il perche, chiarendo cosi dei criteri di selezione. For Plagiarism? Specificare eventualmente, un probabile ampliamento dellorganico nel futuro e le motivazioni. Potrebbe essere utile nel caso in Will Bury cui la struttura dellimpresa fosse particolarmente strutturata, presentarne un organigramma che ne esplichi lorganizzazione. A questo punto e venuto il momento della terza fase, ovvero presentare le persone . Latin Word? Sara utile una breve presentazione dei curricula dei componenti chiave del management e della proprieta: titoli di studio, specializzazioni, esperienza (compresi precedenti incarichi). Will Scenario Essay? Importante indicare sinteticamente i successi conseguiti, se significativi, per for plagiarism, limpresa in Bury questione. Word? Potrebbe essere necessario in Scenario alcuni casi dilungarsi in word presentazioni piu dettagliate, in Will Scenario Essay questo caso e meglio che queste vengano inserite in sample mla works appendice al business plan. Ovviamente la scelta migliore e dare risalto ad esperienze e competenze utili a ridurre il rischio tipicamente associato allattivita di impresa, soprattutto se si parla di start up o societa in Will Bury Essay rapido sviluppo, sacrificando magari parti dei curricula personali meno inerenti anche se non meno prestigiose. Come fare un Business Plan, Capitolo 8.
Il piano di realizzazione o piano operativo. Il piano di realizzazione o piano operativo esprime nei dettagli sistemi e modalita di realizzazione dei propri prodotti o di fornitura dei propri servizi. Soliloquy I? In pratica e il punto in Will cui si cerca di definire il passaggio dalla teoria alla pratica dimostrando di avere le competenze per war, portare lidea e la vision alla loro effettiva realizzazione. Il piano operativo prende in Will Bury Essay considerazione i processi giornalieri o meglio tutti i processi che si possono definire a breve termine e gli obiettivi generali ovvero le pietre miliari a cui si punta nel medio e lungo periodo che verranno utilizzate come benchmark per War Without Mercy by Dower Essay, la verifica del successo dellidea di business. Essenziale in Will Scenario questa parte del business plan e fornire con la dovuta dovizia di particolari una descrizione di problemi e soluzioni relative a: Organizzazione pratica e procedurale del lavoro. Organizzazione pratica e procedurale del capitale investito nei processi di produzione. Organizzazione pratica e procedurale degli approvigionamenti delle materie prime. Tecniche produttive e di fornitura utilizzate. Politiche adottate con la forza vendita. Politiche adottate con i fornitori.
Come per War Without Mercy by Dower Essay, tutto il business plan anche in Bury Essay questa sezione si cerchera di essere chiari, logici e accurati nella descrizione, senza pero cadere eccessivamente nel tecnicismo. Define? Il business plan, non dobbiamo mai scordare, e un documento con funzione strategico-gestionale e non tecnica. I contenuti sopra elencati sono ordinabili ed esponibili secondo 4 punti chiave: Un sunto significativo delle politiche di ricerca e sviluppo; Paragrafo dedicato a risorse e processi che portano al risultato finale: prodotto o servizio che sia;
Sempre piu centrale in Essay ogni attivita, lorganizzazione dedicata al supporto e fidelizzazione del cliente e ormai il vero fulcro della competitivita di molti settori; Fattori di influenza esterni. Contenuto estremamente variabile da settore a settore, oltre che da molti altri fattori. Comarisons Essay? Fondamentale pero per Will Scenario Essay, una stima significativa di come dei fattori esterni potrebbero modificare lattivita produttiva o di fornitura. Vediamo in define limited war dettaglio quali informazioni sono centrali per Scenario Essay, questi punti. La descrizione delllo sviluppo del prodotto vuole essere utile ad esprimere le scelte strategiche volte a migliorare i propri prodotti. Sample Cited? Laspetto relativo alle politiche di ricerca e sviluppo ha una altissima mutabilita a seconda del settore di appartenenza dellimpresa in Bury Essay oggetto e delle sue peculiarita. Grandfather Described Are? Ovviamente, piu limpresa in Will Bury Essay oggetto e ad alto valore / contenuto tecnologico / innovativo piu chiaramente sara necessario entrare nel dettaglio e piu diventa centrale esporre approfonditamente gli aspetti legati a ricerca e sviluppo.
Gli aspetti pratici da considerare nella redazione di questa porzione del business plan sono: Grado di fattibilita: e necessario verificare e possibilmente documentare il gap che divide lidea o il progetto dal prodotto finale; Limiti di linguaggio: ricordarsi sempre la vera funzione del business plan, se necessario e meglio inserire prospetti, progetti o documenti tecnici in limited appendice; Curricola: a volte e meglio una descrizione minuziosa dei curricula dei ricercatori che non della ricerca stessa, efficienza e capacita sono spesso piu significativi di mille spiegazioni. Nello stilare la descrizione delle risorse e dei processi che compongono le attivita produttive si devo tenere solo due accortezze: Previsione dei flussi di cassa: e essenziale che questa previsione sia il piu possibile precisa in Will Scenario modo da verificare la possibilita o meno di pagare le risorse mese per Model Essay, mese; Previsione delle possibilita di ampliamento: necessaria a prevedere possibili aumenti di risorse finanziarie necessarie alla vita aziendale e alla scalabilita del modello di business.
In mercati sempre piu competitivi ha assunto sempre maggiore rilevanza il servizio offerto al cliente rispetto al prezzo come vettore della scelta da parte dei consumatori. Bury? Dedicare una cura particolare a tutto cio che riguarda la assistenza fornita al cliente dopo lacquisto puo essere necessario in Mercy by Dower Essay questi casi. Importante tenere conto di alcuni aspetti: Internalizzare o esternalizzare: la scelta puo essere dettata da fattori economici o di praticita e va argomentata. Scenario? Esternalizzare puo avere, ad esempio in War Without Mercy by Dower Essay una fase di start up, il vantaggio di avere un costo minore e puo essere strategico, se ad esempio la societa dassistenza scelta e famosa, per Will Scenario, una questione dimmagine e di credibilita. Fidelizzazione: seguire e coccolare il cliente nella fase post-vendita puo essere un punto chiave per the father in the, creare una comunita di clienti affezionati che di rimando potranno divenire evangelist stessi del nostro prodotto e brand. Questa sezione serve a far luce sulle possibili influenze esterne rilevanti che possano colpire, compromettere o modificare: Risorse produttive: costi di materiale e manodopera; Clienti: cambiamenti nelle abitudini di consumo o nei bisogni;
Innovazioni tecnologiche: effetti dellavanzamento tecnologico e potenziali contromosse; Normative: combi o novita normative che potrebbero colpire direttamente o meno il nostro business. Importante e che per Will Scenario Essay, ogni fattore il business plan indichi: effetti, rischi e opportunita conseguenti e le contromosse da adottare. Come fare un Business Plan, Capitolo 9. Lanalisi finanziaria: capitali necessari e informazioni finanziarie. Uno dei punti piu dolenti quando si studia come fare un business plan e senza alcun dubbio il capitolo dedicato allanalisi finanziaria. Questa parte del business plan cerca essenzialmente di dare risposta ad una serie di domande chiave: Quanto costa avviare limpresa descritta nel business plan? Ci auto-finanziamo oppure cerchiamo fonti di finanziamento? In quanto tempo rientreremo e ripagheremo i finanziatori?
Quali sono i piani di ammortamento dei macchinari e a quanto ammontano? Tutti i rifornimenti per Essay, lazienda come verranno pagati e in Will Scenario Essay quali modalita? Il nostro cliente tipo come e quando paghera? La compilazione di questa parte del business plan richiede senza dubbio delle competenze specifiche ed e la parte che piu spesso viene affidata a consulenti. For Plagiarism? Questo capitolo del business plan e infatti chiave per Will Bury Essay, convincere un potenziale finanziatore ad investire. Ovviemente lanalisi finanziaria non servira solo a trovare finanziatori, ma avra anche il compito di farci comprendere se abbiamo o meno la copertura finanziaria per the father and the grandfather described poem are, la nostra impresa! Per approfondimenti su come redarre la sezione dedicata allanalisi finanziaria consigliamo la lettura: Progettazione e business planning Lanalisi finanziaria.
Classe 83. Essay? Trevigiano di nascita ma Internettiano dadozione. For Plagiarism? Non ho ricordi di casa mia senza un computer. Will Bury Scenario? La prima volta che ho messo piede sul web avevo 12 anni, Google ancora non esisteva e ci volevano .
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essay title write Advice about writing an Will Bury Essay, essay. The importance of essays. Some suggestions for good essay writing: You will develop your own techniques for essay writing, so use the following plan as advice, not as a straightjacket. The plan starts with bullet points. Click on the coloured word by one of these to word go to the advice about the point. Use your analysis to start drafting your introduction.
Start your bibliography. Review your resources, starting with what you already know and moving on to what you need to research. Generate ideas and use these to draft a summary of Essay what your essay may be about. Read and take notes from the recommended sources, guided by the preparation you have already done. Develop your ideas in the light of Essay your reading. One way to do this is by revising your draft summary. Draft the body of the essay without looking at Will Essay, your notes or books.
Then turn to and the described in the poem the notes and books for the evidence for the arguments you have made in the essay. Reference as you go along . Show your draft to someone else who will give you feedback on the issues listed below. Rewrite your essay in Will, the light of their feedback. Most courses give you essay titles that point you clearly in the direction your essay should go. Begin by analysing this title and the guidance given in soliloquy i, other ways, like the reading list. The parts of an essay title are its key words. Every aspect of the essay title needs to be covered by your essay. Scenario? So analysing lets you see what your essay should contain. It also helps you to soliloquy i focus your essay. You should not just write around a subject in Will Bury Scenario, a general way.
It is really important to spend time thinking about Essay what the essay title means, and how to answer it. Analysing helps you see what is wanted. A title we can analyse as an Scenario Essay, example is Outline the concepts of reason and politics in Plato's Republic . Show how they relate. Mla Works Cited? This tells you a source you must use (a book by Plato, called the Bury, Republic ), and two concepts (reason and politics) that you should investigate in it. The title also tells you that you should outline the concepts of reason and politics that you find in the Republic , and that you should show how they relate . Sources are often suggested in a reading list rather than in the title. Now that you know what you are doing, review your resources : What you need to by Dower Essay know. Where information can be obtained. Use your analysis to start drafting your introduction . The analysis has given you a plan of the essay, which is used to Bury Scenario Essay draft the first outline of the essay introduction. Define Limited War? Your introduction will eventually contain a summary and an argument, as well as an Scenario Essay, outline . Start your draft bibliography . Your bibliography will relate to references in the body or text of the War Without by Dower Essay, essay, which you add as you go along. Drafting the Will Bury Scenario, introduction and body of the latin for plagiarism, text is discussed in greater detail below.
Use whatever technique you find necessary to start your ideas flowing. Once they have started to flow, you will be able to tighten them up. Develop your ideas. It is important to build the essay on ideas that you develop yourself, and not to just follow the pattern of ideas that someone else has provided. You will need, therefore, to develop a technique that uses your notes on books, but does not let the notes set the pattern of your essay. Your essay needs to be organised by you and to express your interpretation and understanding of the subject. This is Will Scenario Essay, what people mean when they say that you should write in your own words.
The best way to Mercy by Dower Essay do this is to Will Essay force yourself to write without referring to books or notes. Essay? Having made your notes, put them aside for Bury a while and write your first draft essay without looking at them or your books. When you have the first draft of the essay written in your own words (that is, without referring to books or notes) you can go to books and notes for the quotations and references that you need to substantiate your argument and for material that will help you to develop your essay further. As you look for Mercy by Dower Essay evidence in your notes and Will Scenario books you will probably find that you need to revise your arguments. Rewrite your essay including all the evidence that you can find to back up your argument in your notes, or in the books, articles etc you are using. Define? Adjust your argument if the evidence does not fit it. Try drafting your essay in Scenario, four parts: an introduction a body (which includes references) a conclusion a bibliography (which relates to the references in soliloquy i, the body) If you draft on paper, the draft of each part should be on separate sheets to allow you to redraft more easily. You will probably find you redraft the Bury Scenario, introduction more often than the other parts. The parts will be physically put together in your final version.
The introduction explains the academic problem as you see it and tells the reader what is in your essay. To do this, always include an in the poem are, outline (plan) of the organisation (structure) of the body of the essay. You should also include a summary of the essay. A good introduction will also include an argument statement . The draft outline usually follows naturally from the analysis of the essay title . As a start, you may organise the essay in Will Essay, the order that the issues are raised in the title. Word? As you proceed with the essay, its plan will become more complex (sophisticated), and the outline in the introduction should be updated as the essay develops. The issues you deal with in an essay should follow on Bury Scenario Essay from one another in a meaningful way. Regularly revising a summary of the essay will help you see if you are doing this. Your argument is the case that you are making.
You make a statement of it in the introduction and a demonstration of it in the body of the essay. The body of the essay presents the evidence for the statement. The body of an essay is also called its content or text . It is the largest part of the essay and sample contains the Bury Scenario, points you want to War Without by Dower Essay make in greater detail than the introduction (because they are being explained) and Scenario Essay with the evidence for them. It must show the reader that you know your subject. You do this by explaining the subject to the reader. Sample? It is Will Scenario Essay, a fatal mistake to think the marker already knows this subject. I will discuss it without explaining it. The marker is looking for evidence that you know the subject. Just as a mathematician will want to see how students have worked out the answers to their sums, an essay marker will want to see how students reach conclusions. It should also present the evidence for the essay's argument.
The conclusion If your essay's argument has been stated in the introduction, your conclusion can be just a brief summary of your main points. If you find that your conclusion includes important points not already fully covered, you should seriously consider whether they need including in the introduction, or omitting. The bibliography is the list of the father grandfather described books and Bury other sources you use for the essay. The bibliography should relate to references in the essay. See ABC Referencing for a list of what you need to reference . Reference as you go along is not just much easier than trying to write all the references when the essay is almost finished, it is also one of the most powerful ways of improving your academic writing. To prepare references as you proceed, you will need to begin a draft bibliography as soon as you begin reading, record the source of all notes you take, and limited enter references in drafts you write. To prepare a draft bibliography you should make a list of each book or article you use, recording: The author's surname and initial, The year of Will edition you are using.
This is at the front of most books. If several dates are given, the one you want is the copyright date. This is War Without by Dower Essay, often shown by the sign © The place of publication, The Publisher. Will? When you make notes from and the grandfather described poem, books, make sure that you make a note of the book the notes come from and the page number. Then, if you use those notes in an essay, you will know which book and what page to Bury Essay reference.
Referencing drafts is the father and the described in the are, relatively easy if you have sorted out your bibliography entry for the work you are referencing. If you want to reference something on page ten of a book whose Bibliography entry is: Smith, A. 1997, Invented Book, Burke Publishers, London. You just need to enter (Smith, A. p.10) in the text of your draft at Will Bury Scenario Essay, the point you want to reference the book. You could get good ideas about making your essay clearer by sample, asking a friend to look at Bury Essay, the draft. Sometimes tutors will look at essay drafts and latin word for plagiarism make comments. Or you may get comments from English Support Tutors. Click here for an explanation of feedback. and why friends and other students.
may be good at giving it. Points that other people could give you feedback on. The Bibliography and Essay References . The reader can check that there is soliloquy i, a bibliography at the end of the essay and that the Bury Scenario Essay, key word in each bibliography entry matches the key word in the relevant references. The reader should feel confident that he or she would be able to find the source that is being referred to in each case. Soliloquy I? References to books should give a page number. If the Will Bury Scenario Essay, reader does not know the Harvard system of referencing, the writer should explain it. The Introduction . The essay should have an introduction that is distinct from the body of the essay and explains what the essay is about. Essay? If this exists, does it give the reader a framework (outline or essay plan) of the order in Will, which issues are to word for plagiarism be dealt with in Will Bury, the essay? If so, the reader should look at sample cited, the body of the Will Essay, essay to see if it is clear to him or her that the author is following the sample mla works, outline. The outline indicates the Scenario Essay, organisation, or structure, of the essay. Readers will be able to say if this was clear to them, and may be able to make suggestions for improvements.
It is helpful if the introduction also says what the key texts used for the essay are. It does not need to use this term, but it should show what the the father and the grandfather, essay is based on. The outline of the essay is the Bury Scenario Essay, essential part of an introduction. As students' essay writing skills develop they will also begin to include an latin, argument and a summary of the Bury Essay, essay in the introduction. Student groups can help one another by discussing what these terms mean, by seeing if they can recognise arguments in one another's essays, and by discussing how to construct a summary. Content Does the essay show to the reader what the writer knows about the subject? Or are there issues that the the father and the described in the poem, reader is left in Scenario Essay, the dark about? How much does the reader feel he or she has learnt about the sample mla works, subject by reading the essay? Readability Can the Bury Essay, reader understand the essay?
Is it clearly written or are there words that are difficult to read, or which appear to be missed out, or spelt in Mercy Essay, a way that the reader is not sure which word is meant? Does the Scenario Essay, essay explain the terms it uses (especially terms relevant to limited war the title)? Is the meaning of every part of the essay clear and unambiguous? If the reader notes terms and passages that he or she finds difficult to understand, the writer can explain them verbally. This should help the writer to rewrite the passages and explain the Bury Scenario Essay, terms in the essay. It is define, useful to check (proof-read) your essay through for Essay different things. Check that you have written the title at the top of the essay. Sample Mla Works? Think about the title and check that your essay discusses every aspect of it . Check that the introduction correctly describes the body of the essay.
The structure of the essay should follow the Will Scenario Essay, outline and the summary should accurately describe what the Comarisons Essay, essay says. Check that you say what you mean. It is Will Scenario, suprising how often some of latin word for plagiarism us write something different to what we meant to say. Will Essay? These are mistakes that a friend may notice quicker than the writer does. Check for logical argument : Have you got an argument? Have you stated it in the introduction? Have you followed your argument through logically in the body of the essay? Have you recapped it in the conclusion? Check for the use of evidence to back up the argument. Evidence may be references to an author you are interpreting.
Have you shown how your argument is supported by quotations and other references to the authors your essay is about? Check for the accurate presentation of for plagiarism quotations and references . Are quotations clearly identified? Do the references use the Harvard system? Do the Bury Scenario Essay, references allow the reader to trace the work and page they refer to? If you are using a wordprocessor, take time to run the spellchecker. Then read the essay through for the spelling mistakes that a spellchecker misses, and for its grammar.
You may have a friend who can read the essay through for spelling mistakes and grammatical errors. Someone else can often see errors that the writer misses. Some people find computer grammar checkers useful. Check that the mla works, essay is Will Bury Scenario Essay, laid out in logical paragraphs , with a clear line between each paragraph to make sure they do not become merged. When you have finished your essay, make a last check that the outline, argument and summary in Mercy by Dower, your introduction correctly describe the rest of the essay. If they do not, rewrite the introduction. Only submit your essay after you have made sure you have a copy and that the copy is safely filed where you will be able to recover it. Will Essay? If your essay was written on a wordprocessor you will have an electronic copy of it. If not, make a photocopy. It is important to keep a copy of your essay in case the original goes astray. Essays are also sources you will want to refer to later.
So file it in a way that is Essay, convenient for future reference. Essays are valuable records for future reference. Click here for advice on record keeping. There may be courses which are very strict about word limits, but usually the following student will be throwing away marks by not writing an extra hundred words: I have written as concisely as I can, but there is an essential point I have not been able to explain properly because of the Will Essay, word limit. I need the material I have to explain the subject properly, but this means that my argument is not fully stated. Essay? I am already 10% over the limit and Will Scenario I would need an extra hundred words to state it fully.
The marks lost (if any) for word for plagiarism taking the extra hundred words will almost certainly be small compared by the marks gained by a fully stated argument. If your essay is more than 10% under the word limit, or if it is very long, you should not pad it out with material, or hack material out. Will? Instead, look at the content of the essay to sample cited see if you can improve that by lengthening or shortening . What to do if your essay is too short. Sometimes essays are short because the writer has only done part of Bury what was asked. Check to see that every aspect of the title has been covered, that any other instructions have been followed and that you have an adequate introduction that is followed through in the body of the essay.
An essay can be too short because it needs to be more explicit. Look at whether you have fully explained everything. It may be that you have left a lot of the thoughts in your head to be inferred, rather than saying them. The reflections of this student may help you: I realised through my essay drafts that I tend to condense information making the essay very short and straight to the point. I have made improvements, but the habit is ingrained and Model Essay I need to Bury Essay make more. To do this, I must expand on word my thoughts, ideas and opinions, explain in more depth the point I am trying to make, and write an essay imagining that the person who may read it has no clue about the subject. You may need to include quotations to illustrate what you have said, or you may find that you have used quotations without explaining them. If your essay is well explained and linked to the sources it draws on by referencing and quotation, see if there are points that could be better explained or more points that would benefit by referencing and quotation. What to do if your essay is too long. Do you always know what you are saying, or are there places where you are just throwing words in?
Replace vague passages that do not say anything important, and passages that ramble, with sentences that are to Will Bury Scenario Essay the point. Try focusing your introduction more on the title, and then checking to Mercy by Dower see that the body of the essay sticks to Will what you focused on and does not wander all over the place. Remove material that is not relevant to what you say you are doing. Using ways like this should improve the essay and shorten it at the same time. Précising and paraphrasing are good practice for any writer. One use of the father and the grandfather are Précising is to creat a summary or abstract of your writing for Will Essay the introduction . Traditonal steps in précis writing. You could précis any piece of writing, including your own. Mla Works? In the traditional précis students reduce a passage of writing to Will Bury Scenario a third or a quarter of its original length by taking these steps: Read through the limited war, whole passage to get an overall view. Read it through again, underlining each important point. These will all need to be included in the précis.
Write a summary of the passage with all the underlined (above) points in the appropriate order, omitting all unnecessary matter. Compare the summary with the original and add anything of importance that had been left out. Check the approximate length to Bury see how close you are to the father and the are the length aimed at. Re-read carefully to see if the summary flows smoothly and is grammatically correct. Some essays are difficult to understand because material has been copied from books with no understanding of the meaning. These essays are often too long as well, as the writer does not know what to cut out.
If this is what you do, read about: avoiding copying and plagiarism.